Article (Scientific journals)
Optimizing laser power of directed energy deposition process for homogeneous AISI M4 steel microstructure
Jardin, Rúben Tome; Tuninetti, Víctor; Tchuindjang, Jérôme Tchoufack et al.
2023In Optics and Laser Technology, 163, p. 109426
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Keywords :
Additive manufacturing; Directed energy deposition; Finite element modeling; Melt pool size; Nanohardness map; Numerical optimization; Laser power; Numerical optimizations; Nanoindentation; Microstructure characterization; Tool Steels; Hardness; Thermal modeling; Aisi M4
Abstract :
[en] A finite element model of directed energy deposition (DED) process predicts the thermal history during the manufacturing of high speed steel cuboid samples. The simulation result validation relies on comparisons between measured and predicted data such as temperature histories within the substrate and the melt pool depth of the last coating layer. Integrated within an optimization loop, these DED simulations identify two variable laser power functions able to generate a constant melt pool size. These functions are expected to provide a homogeneous microstructure over layers. The computed thermal fields and the microstructure generated by three AISI M4 experiments performed with the constant laser power case and the two optimized functions at three points of interest located at different depths within the deposit are correlated. The effect of the melt superheating temperature and the thermal cyclic history on micro and nanohardness measurements is observed. As a result, the optimized laser power functions provide samples with more homogeneous microhardness than the constant laser power function, however, the homogeneity of microstructure is not fully confirmed by the nanohardness map throughout the deposited M4 steel layers.
Research center :
Sirris
CAREM - Cellule d'Appui à la Recherche et à l'Enseignement en Microscopie - ULiège [BE]
Disciplines :
Materials science & engineering
Engineering, computing & technology: Multidisciplinary, general & others
Author, co-author :
Jardin, Rúben Tome;  Department ArGEnCo-MSM, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium
Tuninetti, Víctor ;  Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile
Tchuindjang, Jérôme Tchoufack  ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Aérospatiale et Mécanique (A&M) ; Université de Liège - ULiège > Département d'aérospatiale et mécanique > Metallic materials for additive manufacturing ; Université de Liège - ULiège > Département d'aérospatiale et mécanique > Science des matériaux métalliques
Duchene, Laurent  ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département ArGEnCo > Analyse multi-échelles dans le domaine des matériaux et structures du génie civil
Hashemi, Seyedeh Neda ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département ArGEnCo > Département Argenco : Secteur MS2F
Tran, Hoang Son;  Department ArGEnCo-MSM, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium
Carrus, Raoul;  Sirris Research Centre (Liège), Seraing, Belgium
Mertens, Anne  ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Aérospatiale et Mécanique (A&M)
Habraken, Anne  ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département ArGEnCo > Département Argenco : Secteur MS2F ; Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique–F.R.S.-F.N.R.S., Brussels, Belgium
Language :
English
Title :
Optimizing laser power of directed energy deposition process for homogeneous AISI M4 steel microstructure
Publication date :
August 2023
Journal title :
Optics and Laser Technology
ISSN :
0030-3992
Publisher :
Elsevier Ltd
Volume :
163
Pages :
109426
Peer reviewed :
Peer Reviewed verified by ORBi
Funders :
F.R.S.-FNRS - Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique [BE]
UFRO - Universidad de La Frontera [CL]
ERDF - European Regional Development Fund [BE]
Walloon region [BE]
Waalse Gewest [BE]
Funding text :
This work was funded by Walloon Region through the RW 11-1-7335 Recylclad project, FNRS F.R.S. [PDR T.0039.14], FEDER [IAWATHA], the cooperation agreement WBI/AGCID SUB2019/419031 (DIE19-0005) and Universidad de La Frontera (DI22-0067). As Research Director of FRS-FNRS, A.M.H. acknowledges the support of this institution. The Center for Applied Research and Education in Microscopy CAREM of ULiège is also thanked for providing SEM/EDS facilities. Computational resources were provided by the Consortium des Équipements de Calcul Intensif (CÉCI) funded by the F.R.S.-FNRS. The authors also acknowledge Olivier Dedry for providing additional thermophysical properties data and Hélène Morch for the improvement of the optimization method.
Available on ORBi :
since 19 May 2023

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