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20 January 2022
Article (Scientific journals)
Kinetics and persistence of the cellular and humoral immune responses to BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in SARS-CoV-2-naive and -experienced subjects: impact of booster dose and breakthrough infections
Desmecht, Salomé  ; Tashkeev, Aleksandr  ; El Moussaoui, Majdouline  et al.
In press • In Frontiers in Immunology
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Abstract :
[en] Background: Understanding and measuring the individual level of immune protection and its persistence at both humoral and cellular levels after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is mandatory for the management of the vaccination booster campaign. Our prospective study was designed to assess the immunogenicity of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in triggering the cellular and humoral immune response in healthcare workers up to 12 months after the initial vaccination, with one additional boosting dose between 6 and 12 months.Methods: This prospective study enrolled 208 healthcare workers (HCWs) from the Liège University Hospital (CHU) of Liège in Belgium. Participants received two doses of BioNTech/Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine (BNT162b2) and a booster dose 6-12 months later. Fifty participants were SARS-CoV-2 experienced and 158 were naïve before the vaccination. Blood sampling was performed at the day of the first (T0) and second (T1) vaccine doses administration, then at 2 weeks (T2), 4 weeks (T3), 6 months (T4) and 12 months (T5) after the second dose. Between T4 and T5, participants also got the third boosting vaccine dose. A total of 1145 blood samples were collected. All samples were tested for the presence of anti-Spike antibodies, using the DiaSorin LIAISON SARS-CoV2 TrimericS IgG assay, and for anti-Nucleocapsid antibodies, using Elecsys anti-SARSCoV-2 assay. Neutralizing antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan-like variant strain were quantified in all samples using a Vero E6 cell-based neutralization-based assay. Cellmediated immune response was evaluated at T4 and T5 on 80 and 55 participants, respectively, by measuring the secretion of IFN-g on peripheral blood lymphocytes using the QuantiFERON Human IFN-g SARS-CoV-2, Qiagen. We analyzed separately the naïve and experienced participants. Findings: We found that anti-spike antibodies and neutralization capacity levels were significantly higher in SARS-CoV-2 experienced HCWs compared to naïve HCWs at all time points analyzed except the one after boosting dose. Cellular immune response was also higher in experienced HCWs six months following vaccination. Besides the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection history on immune response to BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine, we observed a significant negative association between age and persistence of humoral response. The booster dose induced an increase in humoral and cellular immune responses, particularly in naive individuals. Breakthrough infections resulted in higher cellular and humoral responses after the booster dose. Conclusions: Our data strengthen previous findings demonstrating that immunization through vaccination combined with natural infection is better than 2 vaccine doses immunization or natural infection alone. The benefit of the booster dose was greater in naive individuals. It may have implications for personalizing mRNA vaccination regimens used to prevent severe COVID-19 and reduce the impact of the pandemic on the healthcare system. More specifically, it may help prioritizing vaccination, including for the deployment of booster doses.
Disciplines :
Immunology & infectious disease
Author, co-author :
Desmecht, Salomé  ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département des maladies infectieuses et parasitaires (DMI) > Département des maladies infectieuses et parasitaires (DMI)
Tashkeev, Aleksandr  ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > GIGA Medical Genomics - Unit of Animal Genomics
El Moussaoui, Majdouline  ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département des sciences cliniques > Immunopathologie - Maladies infectieuses et médecine interne générale
MARECHAL, Nicole ;  Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège - CHU > > Service des maladies infectieuses - médecine interne
Perée, Hélène  ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > GIGA
Tokunaga, Yumie ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département de gestion vétérinaire des Ressources Animales (DRA) > Génomique animale
Fombellida-Lopez, Céline ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département des sciences cliniques
Polese, Barbara ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département des sciences biomédicales et précliniques
Legrand, Céline ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département des sciences fonctionnelles (DSF) > Biochimie et biologie moléculaire
Wéry, Marie ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département de gestion vétérinaire des Ressources Animales (DRA) > Génomique animale
Mni, Myriam ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département de gestion vétérinaire des Ressources Animales (DRA) > Génomique animale
Fouillien, Nicolas ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département des sciences biomédicales et précliniques
TOUSSAINT, Françoise ;  Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège - CHU > > Service de microbiologie clinique
Gillet, Laurent  ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Fundamental and Applied Research for Animals and Health (FARAH) > FARAH: Santé publique vétérinaire
Bureau, Fabrice ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > GIGA > GIGA Inflammation, Infection & Immunity
LUTTERI, Laurence ;  Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège - CHU > > Service de chimie clinique
HAYETTE, Marie-Pierre ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Unités de recherche interfacultaires > Centre Interdisciplinaire de Recherche sur le Médicament (CIRM)
MOUTSCHEN, Michel ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département des sciences cliniques > Immunopathologie - Maladies infectieuses et médecine interne générale
MEURIS, Christelle ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département des sciences cliniques > Immunopathologie - Maladies infectieuses et médecine interne générale
Vermeersch, Pieter
Desmecht, Daniel  ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Fundamental and Applied Research for Animals and Health (FARAH) > FARAH: Santé publique vétérinaire
Rahmouni, Souad   ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département des sciences biomédicales et précliniques
DARCIS, Gilles  ;  Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège - CHU > > Service des maladies infectieuses - médecine interne
More authors (13 more) Less
 These authors have contributed equally to this work.
Language :
English
Title :
Kinetics and persistence of the cellular and humoral immune responses to BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in SARS-CoV-2-naive and -experienced subjects: impact of booster dose and breakthrough infections
Publication date :
In press
Journal title :
Frontiers in Immunology
eISSN :
1664-3224
Publisher :
Frontiers Research Foundation, Lausanne, Switzerland
Peer reviewed :
Peer Reviewed verified by ORBi

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