Article (Scientific journals)
Research Facilities for Europe’s Next Generation Gravitational-Wave Detector Einstein Telescope
Pace, Sibilla Di; Mangano, Valentina; Pierini, Lorenzo et al.
2022In Galaxies, 10 (3), p. 65
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Keywords :
Coating noise; Cryogenics; Cryostat; Einstein telescope; Gravitational waves; Newtonian noise; Payload; Seismic noise; Silicon; Suspensions; Thermal noise; Astronomy and Astrophysics
Abstract :
[en] The Einstein Telescope is Europe’s next generation gravitational-wave detector. To develop all necessary technology, four research facilities have emerged across Europe: The Amaldi Research Center (ARC) in Rome (Italy), ETpathfinder in Maastricht (The Netherlands), SarGrav in the Sos Enattos mines on Sardinia (Italy) and E-TEST in Liége (Belgium) and its surroundings. The ARC pursues the investigation of a large cryostat, equipped with dedicated low-vibration cooling lines, to test full-scale cryogenic payloads. The installation will be gradual and interlaced with the payload development. ETpathfinder aims to provide a low-noise facility that allows the testing of full interferometer configurations and the interplay of their subsystems in an ET-like environment. ETpathfinder will focus amongst others on cryogenic technologies, silicon mirrors, lasers and optics at 1550 and 2090 nm and advanced quantum noise reduction schemes. The SarGrav laboratory has a surface lab and an underground operation. On the surface, the Archimedes experiment investigates the interaction of vacuum fluctuations with gravity and is developing (tilt) sensor technology for the Einstein Telescope. In an underground laboratory, seismic characterisation campaigns are undertaken for the Sardinian site characterisation. Lastly, the Einstein Telecope Euregio meuse-rhine Site & Technology (E-TEST) is a single cryogenic suspension of an ET-sized silicon mirror. Additionally, E-TEST investigates the Belgian–Dutch–German border region that is the other candidate site for Einstein Telescope using boreholes and seismic arrays and hydrogeological characterisation. In this article, we describe the Einstein Telescope, the low-frequency part of its science case and the four research facilities.
Disciplines :
Geological, petroleum & mining engineering
Aerospace & aeronautics engineering
Author, co-author :
Pace, Sibilla Di ;  Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”, Roma, Italy ; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Roma, Roma, Italy
Mangano, Valentina ;  Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”, Roma, Italy ; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Roma, Roma, Italy
Pierini, Lorenzo ;  Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”, Roma, Italy ; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Roma, Roma, Italy
Rezaei, Amirsajjad ;  Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”, Roma, Italy ; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Roma, Roma, Italy
Hennig, Jan-Simon;  Department of Gravitational Waves and Fundamental Physics, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands ; Nikhef, Amsterdam, Netherlands
Hennig, Margot;  Department of Gravitational Waves and Fundamental Physics, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands ; Nikhef, Amsterdam, Netherlands
Pascucci, Daniela ;  Department of Physics and Astronomy, Universiteit Gent, Gent, Belgium
Allocca, Annalisa ;  Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli Federico II, Napoli, Italy ; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S, Napoli, Italy
E Melo, Iara Tosta;  Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Catania, Italy
Nair, Vishnu G.;  Precision Mechatronics Laboratory, Université de Liège, Liège, Belgium ; Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India
Orban, Philippe  ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département ArGEnCo > Hydrogéologie & Géologie de l'environnement
Sider, Ameer;  Precision Mechatronics Laboratory, Université de Liège, Liège, Belgium
Shani-Kadmiel, Shahar ;  R&D Department of Seismology and Acoustics, Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), De Bilt, Netherlands
Heijningen, Joris Van ;  Centre for Cosmology, Particle Physics and Phenomenology (CP3), Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
More authors (4 more) Less
Language :
English
Title :
Research Facilities for Europe’s Next Generation Gravitational-Wave Detector Einstein Telescope
Publication date :
June 2022
Journal title :
Galaxies
eISSN :
2075-4434
Publisher :
MDPI
Volume :
10
Issue :
3
Pages :
65
Peer reviewed :
Peer Reviewed verified by ORBi
Funding text :
Amaldi Research Center is an excellence centre in the Sapienza University (Department of Physics) in Rome and it is funded for five years period (2018–2022) by MIUR with an associated CUP number B81I18001170001. The ETpathfinder project in Maastricht is funded by Interreg VlaanderenNederland, the province of Dutch Limburg, the province of Antwerp, the Flamish Government, the province of North Brabant, the Smart Hub Flemish Brabant, the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, the Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, and by own funding of the involved partners. The SarGrav laboratory is supported by: INFN with Protocollo di Intesa tra Ministero dell’Universita’ e della Ricerca, la Regione Autonoma della Sardegna, l’Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare e l’Università degli Studi di Sassari; University of Sassari with Accordo di Programma tra la Regione Autonoma della Sardegna, l’Università degli Studi di Sassari, l’Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, l’Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, l’Università degli Studi di Cagliari e l’IGEA S.p.a(progetto SAR-GRAV, funds FSC 2014–2020 Patto per lo sviluppo della Regione Sardegna); Università degli Studi di Sassari with “Fondo di Ateneo per la ricerca 2019”; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and by the Italian Ministero dell’ Università e della Ricerca with PRIN 2017 Research Program Framework, n. 2017SYRTCN. L. Loddo and IGEA miners supported the operation in Sos Enattos. Interreg is the European Union’s tool to support cross-border projects, which otherwise would not be conducted. The Interreg V-A Euregio Meuse-Rhine (EMR) programme invests almost EUR 100 million in the development of our region until the end of 2020. The E-TEST project is perfored within the framework of the Interreg V-A Euregio Meuse-Rhine Programme, with 50% funding from the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). By investing EU funds in Interreg projects, the European Union is investing directly in economic development, innovation, territorial development, social inclusion and education in the Euregio Meuse-Rhine. The E-TEST project is co-funded by the Walloon Region, the Flanders Region, the Province of Flemish Brabant, the Province of Belgian Limburg, the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, the Province of Dutch Limburg, the North Rhine-Westphalia, and by own funding of the involved partners.Funding: Amaldi Research Center is an excellence centre in the Sapienza University (Department of Physics) in Rome and it is funded for five years period (2018–2022) by MIUR with an associated CUP number B81I18001170001. The ETpathfinder project in Maastricht is funded by Interreg Vlaanderen-Nederland, the province of Dutch Limburg, the province of Antwerp, the Flamish Government, the province of North Brabant, the Smart Hub Flemish Brabant, the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, the Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, and by own funding of the involved partners. The SarGrav laboratory is supported by: INFN with Protocollo di Intesa tra Ministero dell’Universita’ e della Ricerca, la Regione Autonoma della Sardegna, l’Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare e l’Università degli Studi di Sassari; University of Sassari with Accordo di Programma tra la Regione Autonoma della Sardegna, l’Università degli Studi di Sassari, l’Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, l’Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, l’Università degli Studi di Cagliari e l’IGEA S.p.a (progetto SAR-GRAV, funds FSC 2014–2020 Patto per lo sviluppo della Regione Sardegna); Università degli Studi di Sassari with “Fondo di Ateneo per la ricerca 2019” ; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and by the Italian Ministero dell’ Università e della Ricerca with PRIN 2017 Research Program Framework, n. 2017SYRTCN. L. Loddo and IGEA miners supported the operation in Sos Enattos. Interreg is the European Union’s tool to support cross-border projects, which otherwise would not be conducted. The Interreg V-A Euregio Meuse-Rhine (EMR) programme invests almost EUR 100 million in the development of our region until the end of 2020. The E-TEST project is perfored within the framework of the Interreg V-A Euregio Meuse-Rhine Programme, with 50% funding from the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). By investing EU funds in Interreg projects, the European Union is investing directly in economic development, innovation, territorial development, social inclusion and education in the Euregio Meuse-Rhine. The E-TEST project is co-funded by the Walloon Region, the Flanders Region, the Province of Flemish Brabant, the Province of Belgian Limburg, the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, the Province of Dutch Limburg, the North Rhine-Westphalia, and by own funding of the involved partners.The Amaldi Research Center (ARC) was funded in 2018 by the Italian Ministry of University and Research (MIUR) as an excellence centre at the Department of Physics of Sapienza University of Rome [50]. ARC activities are inter-disciplinary research branches pivoting on the theme of observational GWs science of research, ranging from quantum optics to R&D developments concerning cryogenic payloads for the Einstein Telescope [51]. ARC is partially supported by INFN Roma Sapienza branch. This report touches only the activities conducted towards the realization of cryogenic Laboratory and the foreseen installation of related apparatuses.
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