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03 July 2021
Article (Scientific journals)
Six transiting planets and a chain of Laplace resonances in TOI-178
Leleu, A.; Alibert, Y.; Hara, N. C. et al.
2021 • In Astronomy and Astrophysics, 649, p. 26
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Keywords :
techniques: photometric; techniques: spectroscopic; celestial mechanics; planets and satellites: detection; planets and satellites: dynamical evolution and stability; Astrophysics - Earth and Planetary Astrophysics
Abstract :
[en] Determining the architecture of multi-planetary systems is one of the cornerstones of understanding planet formation and evolution. Resonant systems are especially important as the fragility of their orbital configuration ensures that no significant scattering or collisional event has taken place since the earliest formation phase when the parent protoplanetary disc was still present. In this context, TOI-178 has been the subject of particular attention since the first TESS observations hinted at the possible presence of a near 2:3:3 resonant chain. Here we report the results of observations from CHEOPS, ESPRESSO, NGTS, and SPECULOOS with the aim of deciphering the peculiar orbital architecture of the system. We show that TOI-178 harbours at least six planets in the super-Earth to mini-Neptune regimes, with radii ranging from 1.152‒0.070+0.073 to 2.87‒0.13+0.14 Earth radii and periods of 1.91, 3.24, 6.56, 9.96, 15.23, and 20.71 days. All planets but the innermost one form a 2:4:6:9:12 chain of Laplace resonances, and the planetary densities show important variations from planet to planet, jumping from 1.02‒0.23+0.28 to 0.177‒0.061+0.055 times the Earth's density between planets c and d. Using Bayesian interior structure retrieval models, we show that the amount of gas in the planets does not vary in a monotonous way, contrary to what one would expect from simple formation and evolution models and unlike other known systems in a chain of Laplace resonances. The brightness of TOI-178 (H = 8.76 mag, J = 9.37 mag, V = 11.95 mag) allows for a precise characterisation of its orbital architecture as well as of the physical nature of the six presently known transiting planets it harbours. The peculiar orbital configuration and the diversity in average density among the planets in the system will enable the study of interior planetary structures and atmospheric evolution, providing important clues on the formation of super-Earths and mini-Neptunes.
Disciplines :
Space science, astronomy & astrophysics
Author, co-author :
Leleu, A.;  Observatoire Astronomique de l'Université de Genève, Chemin Pegasi 51, Versoix, Switzerland
Alibert, Y.;  Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Gesellsschaftstrasse 6, 3012, Bern, Switzerland
Hara, N. C.;  Observatoire Astronomique de l'Université de Genève, Chemin Pegasi 51, Versoix, Switzerland
Hooton, M. J.;  Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Gesellsschaftstrasse 6, 3012, Bern, Switzerland
Wilson, T. G.;  Centre for Exoplanet Science, SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, KY16 9SS, UK
Robutel, P.;  IMCCE, UMR8028 CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Univ., Sorbonne Univ., 77 av. Denfert-Rochereau, 75014, Paris, France
Delisle, J.-B.;  Observatoire Astronomique de l'Université de Genève, Chemin Pegasi 51, Versoix, Switzerland
Laskar, J.;  IMCCE, UMR8028 CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Univ., Sorbonne Univ., 77 av. Denfert-Rochereau, 75014, Paris, France
Hoyer, S.;  Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, CNES, LAM, Marseille, France
Lovis, C.;  Observatoire Astronomique de l'Université de Genève, Chemin Pegasi 51, Versoix, Switzerland
Bryant, E. M.;  Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK
Murray, C. A.;  Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE, UK
Nascimbeni, V.;  INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, 35122, Padova, Italy
Nunes, N. J.;  Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016, Lisboa, Portugal
Olofsson, G.;  Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, 10691, Stockholm, Sweden
Osborn, H. P.;  Center for Space and Habitability, Gesellsschaftstrasse 6, 3012, Bern, Switzerland
Oshagh, M.;  Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 38200, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
Ottensamer, R.;  Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, 1180, Vienna, Austria
Pagano, I.;  INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, 95123, Catania, Italy
Pallé, E.;  Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 38200, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
Pedersen, P. P.;  Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE, UK
Ducrot, Elsa ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département d'astrophys., géophysique et océanographie (AGO) > Exotic
Pepe, F. A.;  Observatoire Astronomique de l'Université de Genève, Chemin Pegasi 51, Versoix, Switzerland
Persson, C. M.;  Department of Space, Earth and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, 43992, Onsala, Sweden
Peter, G.;  Institute of Optical Sensor Systems, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489, Berlin, Germany
Piotto, G.;  INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, 35122, Padova, Italy
Polenta, G.;  Space Science Data Center, ASI, via del Politecnico snc, 00133, Roma, Italy
Pollacco, D.;  Departmentof Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK
Poretti, E.;  Fundación G. Galilei - INAF (Telescopio Nazionale Galileo), Rambla J. A. Fernández Pérez 7, 38712, Breña Baja, La Palma, Spain
Pozuelos, F. J.  ;  Astrobiology Research Unit, Université de Liège, Allée du 6 Août 19C, 4000, Liège, Belgium
Queloz, D.;  Observatoire Astronomique de l'Université de Genève, Chemin Pegasi 51, Versoix, Switzerland
Ragazzoni, R.;  INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, 35122, Padova, Italy
Cabrera, J.;  Institute of Planetary Research, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489, Berlin, Germany
Rando, N.;  ESTEC, European Space Agency, 2201AZ, Noordwijk, The Netherlands
Ratti, F.;  ESTEC, European Space Agency, 2201AZ, Noordwijk, The Netherlands
Rauer, H.;  Institute of Planetary Research, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489, Berlin, Germany
Raynard, L.;  School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH, UK
Rebolo, R.;  Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 38200, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
Reimers, C.;  Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, 1180, Vienna, Austria
Ribas, I.;  Institut de Ciències de l'Espai (ICE, CSIC), Campus UAB, Can Magrans s/n, 08193, Bellaterra, Spain
Santos, N. C.;  Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762, Porto, Portugal
Scandariato, G.;  INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, 95123, Catania, Italy
Schneider, J.;  Paris Observatory, LUTh UMR 8102, 92190, Meudon, France
Delrez, Laetitia ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département d'astrophys., géophysique et océanographie (AGO) > Exotic
Sebastian, Daniel ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département d'astrophys., géophysique et océanographie (AGO) > Exotic
Sestovic, M.;  Center for Space and Habitability, Gesellsschaftstrasse 6, 3012, Bern, Switzerland
Simon, Antoine
Smith, A. M. S.;  Institute of Planetary Research, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489, Berlin, Germany
Sousa, S. G.;  Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762, Porto, Portugal
Sozzetti, A.;  INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, 10025, Pino Torinese, Italy
Steller, M.;  Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, 8042, Graz, Austria
Suárez Mascareño, A.;  Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 38200, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
Szabó, Gy M.;  ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Gothard Astrophysical Observatory, 9700, Szombathely, Szent Imre h. u. 112, Hungary
Ségransan, D.;  Observatoire Astronomique de l'Université de Genève, Chemin Pegasi 51, Versoix, Switzerland
Acton, J. S.;  School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH, UK
Thomas, N.;  Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Gesellsschaftstrasse 6, 3012, Bern, Switzerland
Thompson, S.;  Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE, UK
Tilbrook, R. H.;  School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH, UK
Triaud, A.;  School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
Turner, O.;  Observatoire Astronomique de l'Université de Genève, Chemin Pegasi 51, Versoix, Switzerland
Udry, S.;  Observatoire Astronomique de l'Université de Genève, Chemin Pegasi 51, Versoix, Switzerland
Van Grootel, Valérie  ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département d'astrophys., géophysique et océanographie (AGO) > Astrophysique stellaire théorique et astérosismologie
Venus, H.;  Institute of Optical Sensor Systems, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489, Berlin, Germany
Verrecchia, F.;  Space Science Data Center, ASI, via del Politecnico snc, 00133, Roma, Italy
Vines, J. I.;  Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile
Adibekyan, V.;  Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762, Porto, Portugal
Walton, N. A.;  Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA, UK
West, R. G.;  Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK
Wheatley, P. J.;  Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK
Wolter, D.;  Institute of Planetary Research, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489, Berlin, Germany
Zapatero Osorio, M. R.;  Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Crta. Ajalvir km 4, 28850, Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain)
Allart, R.;  Observatoire Astronomique de l'Université de Genève, Chemin Pegasi 51, Versoix, Switzerland
Allende Prieto, C.;  Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 38200, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
Alonso, R.;  Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 38200, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
Alves, D.;  Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile
Anderson, D. R.;  Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK
Angerhausen, D.;  ETH Zürich, Institute for Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Zurich, Switzerland
Anglada Escudé, G.;  Institut de Ciències de l'Espai (ICE, CSIC), Campus UAB, Can Magrans s/n, 08193, Bellaterra, Spain
Asquier, J.;  ESTEC, European Space Agency, 2201AZ, Noordwijk, The Netherlands
Barrado, D.;  Departmento de Astrofísica, Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), ESAC campus, 28692, Villanueva de la Cãda (Madrid), Spain
Barros, S. C. C.;  Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762, Porto, Portugal
Baumjohann, W.;  Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, 8042, Graz, Austria
Bayliss, D.;  Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK
Beck, M.;  Observatoire Astronomique de l'Université de Genève, Chemin Pegasi 51, Versoix, Switzerland
Beck, T.;  Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Gesellsschaftstrasse 6, 3012, Bern, Switzerland
Bekkelien, A.;  Observatoire Astronomique de l'Université de Genève, Chemin Pegasi 51, Versoix, Switzerland
Benz, W.;  Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Gesellsschaftstrasse 6, 3012, Bern, Switzerland
Billot, N.;  Observatoire Astronomique de l'Université de Genève, Chemin Pegasi 51, Versoix, Switzerland
Bonfanti, A.;  Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, 8042, Graz, Austria
Bonfils, X.;  Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, 38000, Grenoble, France
Bouchy, F.;  Observatoire Astronomique de l'Université de Genève, Chemin Pegasi 51, Versoix, Switzerland
Bourrier, V.;  Observatoire Astronomique de l'Université de Genève, Chemin Pegasi 51, Versoix, Switzerland
Boué, G.;  IMCCE, UMR8028 CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Univ., Sorbonne Univ., 77 av. Denfert-Rochereau, 75014, Paris, France
Brandeker, A.;  Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, 10691, Stockholm, Sweden
Broeg, C.;  Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Gesellsschaftstrasse 6, 3012, Bern, Switzerland
Buder, M.;  Institute of Optical Sensor Systems, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489, Berlin, Germany
Burdanov, A.;  Astrobiology Research Unit, Université de Liège, Allée du 6 Août 19C, 4000, Liège, Belgium
Burleigh, M. R.;  School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH, UK
Bárczy, T.;  Admatis, Miskok, Hungary
Cameron, A. C.;  Centre for Exoplanet Science, SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, KY16 9SS, UK
Chamberlain, S.;  School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH, UK
Charnoz, S.;  Université de Paris, Institut de physique du globe de Paris, CNRS, 75005, Paris, France
Cooke, B. F.;  Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK
Corral Van Damme, C.;  ESTEC, European Space Agency, 2201AZ, Noordwijk, The Netherlands
Correia, A. C. M.;  CFisUC, Department of Physics, University of Coimbra, 3004-516, Coimbra, Portugal
Cristiani, S.;  INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G. B. Tiepolo 11, 34143, Trieste, Italy
Damasso, M.;  INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, 10025, Pino Torinese, Italy
Davies, M. B.;  Lund Observatory, Dept. of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, Box 43, 22100, Lund, Sweden
Deleuil, M.;  Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, CNES, LAM, Marseille, France
Demangeon, O. D. S.;  Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762, Porto, Portugal
Demory, B.-O.;  Center for Space and Habitability, Gesellsschaftstrasse 6, 3012, Bern, Switzerland
Di Marcantonio, P.;  INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G. B. Tiepolo 11, 34143, Trieste, Italy
Di Persio, G.;  INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133, Roma, Italy
Dumusque, X.;  Observatoire Astronomique de l'Université de Genève, Chemin Pegasi 51, Versoix, Switzerland
Ehrenreich, D.;  Observatoire Astronomique de l'Université de Genève, Chemin Pegasi 51, Versoix, Switzerland
Erikson, A.;  Institute of Planetary Research, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489, Berlin, Germany
Figueira, P.;  Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762, Porto, Portugal
Fortier, A.;  Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Gesellsschaftstrasse 6, 3012, Bern, Switzerland
Fossati, L.;  Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, 8042, Graz, Austria
Fridlund, M.;  Leiden Observatory, University of Leiden, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA, Leiden, The Netherlands
Futyan, D.;  Observatoire Astronomique de l'Université de Genève, Chemin Pegasi 51, Versoix, Switzerland
Gandolfi, D.;  Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino, via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125, Torino, Italy
García Muñoz, A.;  Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Technical University Berlin, Hardenberstrasse 36, 10623, Berlin, Germany
Garcia, Lionel  ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département d'astrophys., géophysique et océanographie (AGO) > Exotic
Gill, S.;  Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK
Gillen, E.;  Astronomy Unit, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS, UK
Gillon, Michaël  ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département d'astrophys., géophysique et océanographie (AGO) > Exotic
Goad, M. R.;  School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH, UK
González Hernández, J. I.;  Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 38200, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
Guedel, M.;  University of Vienna, Department of Astrophysics, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, 1180, Vienna, Austria
Günther, M. N.;  Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA
Haldemann, J.;  Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Gesellsschaftstrasse 6, 3012, Bern, Switzerland
Henderson, B.;  School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH, UK
Heng, K.;  Center for Space and Habitability, Gesellsschaftstrasse 6, 3012, Bern, Switzerland
Hogan, A. E.;  School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH, UK
Isaak, K.;  ESTEC, European Space Agency, 2201AZ, Noordwijk, The Netherlands
Jehin, Emmanuel  ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département d'astrophys., géophysique et océanographie (AGO) > Origines Cosmologiques et Astrophysiques (OrCa)
Jenkins, J. S.;  Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile
Jordán, A.;  Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Av. Diagonal las Torres 2640, Peñalolén, Santiago, Chile
Kiss, L.;  Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, 1121, Budapest, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, Hungary
Kristiansen, M. H.;  Brorfelde Observatory, Observator Gyldenkernes Vej 7, 4340, Tølløse, Denmark
Lam, K.;  Institute of Planetary Research, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489, Berlin, Germany
Lavie, B.;  Observatoire Astronomique de l'Université de Genève, Chemin Pegasi 51, Versoix, Switzerland
Lecavelier des Etangs, A.;  Institut d'astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Université Pierre & Marie Curie, 98bis blvd. Arago, 75014, Paris, France
Lendl, M.;  Observatoire Astronomique de l'Université de Genève, Chemin Pegasi 51, Versoix, Switzerland
Lillo-Box, J.;  Departmento de Astrofísica, Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), ESAC campus, 28692, Villanueva de la Cãda (Madrid), Spain
Lo Curto, G.;  European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Coórdova 3107, Vitacura, Región Metropolitana, Chile
Magrin, D.;  INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, 35122, Padova, Italy
Martins, C. J. A. P.;  Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762, Porto, Portugal
Maxted, P. F. L.;  Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG, UK
McCormac, J.;  Department of Physics, University of Warwick, xsCoventry, UK
Mehner, A.;  European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Coórdova 3107, Vitacura, Región Metropolitana, Chile
Micela, G.;  INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, 90134, Palermo, Italy
Molaro, P.;  INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G. B. Tiepolo 11, 34143, Trieste, Italy
Moyano, M.;  Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Católica del Norte, Angamos 0610, Antofagasta, Chile
More authors (145 more) Less
Language :
English
Title :
Six transiting planets and a chain of Laplace resonances in TOI-178
Publication date :
01 May 2021
Journal title :
Astronomy and Astrophysics
ISSN :
0004-6361
eISSN :
1432-0746
Publisher :
EDP Sciences, Les Ulis, France
Volume :
649
Pages :
A26
Peer reviewed :
Peer Reviewed verified by ORBi

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