[en] Eco-cultural landscapes are assumed to be favourable environments for the persistence of biodiversity, but global change may affect differently their terrestrial and aquatic components. Yet, few long-term studies have examined how multiple, global change stressors may affect wetland biodiversity in such environments. Facultative paedomorphosis is a spectacular example of intra-specific variation, in which biphasic (metamorphosing) amphibians coexist with fully aquatic conspecifics which do not metamorphose (paedomorphs). Paedomorphosis is seriously threatened by global change stressors, but it is unknown to what extent traditional management will allow its long-term persistence. Here, we tested the effects of alien species introductions while taking into account land-use and climate changes on the distribution of two polymorphic newt species (Ichthyosaura alpestris and Lissotriton graecus) in Montenegro by using a 68-year data set and Bayesian mixed models integrating complex spatial and temporal structures. We found that, despite the persistence of natural landscapes, metamorphs dramatically declined, and paedomorphs were nearly extirpated, losing 99.9% of their aquatic area of occupancy and all the major populations. Fish introduction was the main determinant of decline for both phenotypes. Climate and the presence of crayfish further contributed to the decline of metamorphs, which started later and was less dramatic than that of paedomorphs. The near extinction of paedomorphosis on a country-wide scale shows how invasive species determine broad scale impacts, which can be even stronger than other global change stressors, and underlines the need for immediate management actions to avoid the extinction of a unique developmental process, paedomorphosis.
Research center :
FOCUS - Freshwater and OCeanic science Unit of reSearch - ULiège
Denoël, Mathieu ; Université de Liège - ULiège > Département de Biologie, Ecologie et Evolution > Biologie du comportement - Ethologie et psychologie animale
Ficetola, G. Francesco; Università degli Studi di Milano
Sillero, Neftali; University of Porto
Dzukic, Georg; University of Belgrade
Kalezic, Milos L.; University of Belgrade
Vukov, Tanja; University of Belgrade
Muhovic, Irma; Montenegrin Ecologists Society
Ikovic, Vuk; Montenegrin Ecologists Society
Lejeune, Benjamin ; Université de Liège - ULiège > Département de Biologie, Ecologie et Evolution > Biologie du comportement - Ethologie et psychologie animale
Traditionally managed landscapes do not prevent amphibian decline and the extinction of paedomorphosis
Publication date :
Journal title :
Wiley-Blackwell, United States
Peer reviewed :
Peer Reviewed verified by ORBi
F.R.S.-FNRS - Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique Fonds pour la formation à la Recherche dans l'Industrie et dans l'Agriculture (Communauté française de Belgique) - FRIA ULiège - Université de Liège Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of Republic of Serbia
Abell, R., B. Lehner, M. Thieme, and S. Linke. 2017. Looking beyond the fenceline: assessing protection gaps for the world's rivers. Conservation Letters 10:383–393.
Arntzen, J. W., C. Abrahams, W. R. M. Meilink, R. Iosif, and A. Zuiderwijk. 2017. Amphibian decline, pond loss and reduced population connectivity under agricultural intensification over a 38 year period. Biodiversity and Conservation 26:1411–1430.
Bignal, E. M., and D. I. McCracken. 2000. The nature conservation value of European traditional farming systems. Environmental Reviews 8:149–171.
Bivand, R., V. Gómez-Rubio, and H. Rue. 2015. Spatial data analysis with R-INLA with some extensions. Journal of Statistical Software 63:1–31.
Bivand, R., Z. Sha, L. Osland, and I. S. Thorsen. 2017. A comparison of estimation methods for multilevel models of spatially structured data. Spatial Statistics 21:440–459.
Boix, D., J. Biggs, R. Céréghino, A. P. Hull, T. Kalettka, and B. Oertli. 2012. Pond research and management in Europe: “Small is Beautiful.” Hydrobiologia 689:1–9.
Bonett, R. M., and A. L. Blair. 2017. Evidence for complex life cycle constraints on salamander body form diversification. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 114:9936–9941.
Bonett, R. M., M. A. Steffen, S. M. Lambert, J. J. Wiens, and P. T. Chippindale. 2014. Evolution of paedomorphosis in plethodontid salamanders: Ecological correlates and re-evolution of metamorphosis. Evolution 68:466–482.
Bosch, J., S. Fernández-Beaskoetxea, T. W. J. Garner, and L. M. Carrascal. 2018. Long-term monitoring of an amphibian community after a climate change- and infectious disease-driven species extirpation. Global Change Biology 24:2622–2632.
Breuil, M. 1985. Etude des mesures possibles pour assurer la protection des biotopes de Tritons alpestres Triturus alpestris du Parc National des Ecrins. Rapport du Marché d’étude 69/84. Parc National des Ecrins, Gap, France.
Bucciarelli, G. M., A. R. Blaustein, T. S. Garcia, and L. B. Kats. 2014. Invasion complexities: The diverse impacts of nonnative species on amphibians. Copeia 2014:611–632.
Cabrera-Guzmán, E., C. Díaz-Paniagua, and I. Gomez-Mestre. 2017. Competitive and predatory interactions between invasive mosquitofish and native larval newts. Biological Invasions 19:1449–1460.
Ćirović, R. 2009. Mrmoljci (rodovi: Triturus Rafinesque, 1815 Mesotriton Bolkay, 1927, i Lissotriton Bell, 1839; Salamandridae) karsta Crne Gore—osnove zastite i ocuvanja. PhD Thesis. Univerzitet u Podgorici, Podgorica, Montenegro.
Contreras, V., E. Martinez-Meyer, E. Valiente, and L. Zambrano. 2009. Recent decline and potential distribution in the last remnant area of the microendemic Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). Biological Conservation 142:2881–2885.
Crochet, P. A., O. Chaline, M. Cheylan, and C. P. Guillaume. 2004. No evidence of general decline in an amphibian community of southern France. Biological Conservation 119:297–304.
Cruickshank, S. S., A. Ozgul, S. Zumbach, and B. R. Schmidt. 2016. Quantifying population declines based on presence-only records for red-list assessments. Conservation Biology 30:1112–1121.
Cruz, M. J., R. Rebelo, and E. G. Crespo. 2006. Effects of an introduced crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, on the distribution of south-western Iberian amphibians in their breeding habitats. Ecography 29:329–338.
Davies, B., J. Biggs, P. Williams, M. Whitfield, P. Nicolet, D. Sear, S. Bray, and S. Maund. 2008. Comparative biodiversity of aquatic habitats in the European agricultural landscape. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 125:1–8.
Denoël, M. 2012. Newt decline in Western Europe: highlights from relative distribution changes within guilds. Biodiversity and Conservation 21:2887–2898.
Denoël, M. 2017. On the identification of paedomorphic and overwintering larval newts based on cloacal shape: review and guidelines. Current Zoology 63:165–173.
Denoël, M., and G. F. Ficetola. 2007. Landscape level thresholds and newt conservation. Ecological Applications 17:302–309.
Denoël, M., and L. Winandy. 2015. The importance of phenotype diversity in conservation: Resilience of palmate newt morphotypes after fish removal in Larzac ponds (France). Biological Conservation 192:402–408.
Denoël, M., R. Duguet, G. Džukić, M. L. Kalezić, and S. Mazzotti. 2001. Biogeography and ecology of paedomorphosis in Triturus alpestris (Amphibia, Caudata). Journal of Biogeography 28:1271–1280.
Denoël, M., G. Džukić, and M. L. Kalezić. 2005a. Effect of widespread fish introductions on paedomorphic newts in Europe. Conservation Biology 19:162–170.
Denoël, M., H. H. Whiteman, and P. Joly. 2005b. Evolutionary ecology of facultative paedomorphosis in newts and salamanders. Biological Reviews 80:663–671.
Denoël, M., G. F. Ficetola, R. Ćirović, D. Radović, G. Džukić, M. L. Kalezić, and T. D. Vukov. 2009. A multi-scale approach to facultative padomorphosis of European newts in the Montenegrin karst: distribution pattern, environmental variables and conservation. Biological Conservation 142:509–517.
Denoël, M., A. Perez, Y. Cornet, and G. F. Ficetola. 2013. Similar local and landscape processes affect both a common and a rare newt species. PLoS ONE 8:e62727.
Diaz-Nieto, J., and R. L. Wilby. 2005. A comparison of statistical downscaling and climate change factor methods: impacts on low flows in the River Thames, United Kingdom. Climatic Change 69:245–268.
Drechsler, A., D. Ortmann, and S. Steinfartz. 2016. How do we deal with species of the habitats Directive – The crash of one of the largest great crested newt populations (Triturus cristatus) on record to the edge of extinction. Zeitschrift fur Feldherpetologie 23:181–202.
Dudgeon, D., et al. 2006. Freshwater biodiversity: importance, threats, status and conservation challenges. Biological Reviews 81:163–182.
Dufresnes, C., and N. Perrin. 2015. Effect of biogeographic history on population vulnerability in European amphibians. Conservation Biology 29:1235–1241.
Džukić, G. 1981. Prvi nalaz neotenicne populacije malog mrmoljka Triturus vulgaris (Linnaeus), 1758 in Yugoslavia. Glasnik Republicki Zavod za Zdravstvenu Zastitu Prirode—Prirodnjackog Muzeja Titograd 14:71–77.
Džukić, G. 1995. Diversitet vodozemaca (Amphibia) i gmizavaca (Reptilia) Jugoslavije sa pregledom vrsta od medjunarodnog znacaja. Pages 447–469 in V. Stevanović and V. Vasić, editors. Biodiverzitet Jugoslavije sa pregledom vrsta of medjunarodnog znacaja. Bioloski Fakultet i Ecolibri, Belgrade, Serbia.
Džukić, G., M. L. Kalezić, M. Tvrtković, and A. Djorović. 1990. An overview of the occurrence of paedomorphosis in Yugoslav newt (Triturus, Salamandridae) populations. British Herpetological Society Bulletin 34:16–22.
Džukić, G., M. Cvijanović, A. Urošević, T. D. Vukov, N. Tomasevic Kolarov, M. Slipjepcević, A. Ivanović, and M. L. Kalezić. 2015. The batrachological collections of the Institute for Biological Research “Siniša Stanković.” Bulletin of the Natural History Museum 8:118–167.
EU Water Framework Directive. 2000. Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for community action in the field of water policy. Official Journal of the European Communities 327:1–72.
Ferreira, M., and P. Beja. 2013. Mediterranean amphibians and the loss of temporary ponds: Are there alternative breeding habitats? Biological Conservation 165:179–186.
Ficetola, G. F., and L. Maiorano. 2016. Contrasting effects of temperature and precipitation change on amphibian phenology, abundance and performance. Oecologia 181:683–693.
Ficetola, G. F., L. Maiorano, A. Falcucci, N. Dendoncker, L. Boitani, E. Padoa-Schioppa, C. Miaud, and W. Thuiller. 2010. Knowing the past to predict the future: Land-use change and the distribution of invasive bullfrogs. Global Change Biology 16:528–537.
Ficetola, G. F., M. E. Siesa, R. Manenti, L. Bottoni, F. De Bernardi, and E. Padoa-Schioppa. 2011. Early assessment of the impact of alien species: Differential consequences of an invasive crayfish on adult and larval amphibians. Diversity and Distributions 17:1141–1151.
Ficetola, G. F., M. E. Siesa, F. De Bernardi, and E. Padoa-Schioppa. 2012. Complex impact of an invasive crayfish on freshwater food webs. Biodiversity and Conservation 21:2641–2651.
Ficetola, G. F., et al. 2018. DNA from lake sediments reveals long-term ecosystem changes after a biological invasion. Science Advances 4:eaar4292.
Fischer, J., T. Hartel, and T. Kuemmerle. 2012. Conservation policy in traditional farming landscapes. Conservation Letters 5:167–175.
Fiske, I., and R. Chandler. 2011. Unmarked: an R package for fitting hierarchical models of wildlife occurrence and abundance. Journal of Statistical Software 43:1–23.
Gallardo, B., M. Clavero, M. I. Sánchez, and M. Vilà. 2016. Global ecological impacts of invasive species in aquatic ecosystems. Global Change Biology 22:151–163.
Gamradt, S. C., and L. B. Kats. 1996. Effect of introduced crayfish and mosquitofish on California newts. Conservation Biology 10:1155–1162.
Gherardi, F. 2010. Invasive crayfish and freshwater fishes of the world. Revue Scientifique et Technique 29:241–254.
Gordon, L. J., C. M. Finlayson, and M. Falkenmark. 2010. Managing water in agriculture for food production and other ecosystem services. Agricultural Water Management 97:512–519.
Gould, S. J. 1977. Ontogeny and phylogeny. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
Griffiths, H. I., B. Kryštufek, and J. M. Reed, editors. 2004. Balkan biodiversity. Pattern and process in the European hotspot. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Hammitt, W. E., M. E. Patterson, and F. P. Noe. 1994. Identifying and predicting visual preference of southern Appalachian forest recreation vistas. Landscape and Urban Planning 29:171–183.
Harris, I., P. Jones, T. Osborn, and D. Lister. 2014. Updated high-resolution grids of monthly climatic observations–the CRU TS3. 10 Dataset. International Journal of Climatology 34:623–642.
Hartel, T., and H. von Wehrden. 2013. Farmed areas predict the distribution of amphibian ponds in a traditional rural landscape. PLoS ONE 8:e63649.
Hartel, T., O. Schweiger, K. Öllerer, D. Cogalniceanu, and J. W. Arntzen. 2010. Amphibian distribution in a traditionally managed rural landscape of Eastern Europe: Probing the effect of landscape composition. Biological Conservation 143:1118–1124.
Hartel, T., T. Sos, V. D. Popescu, R. I. Băncilă, D. Cogălniceanu, and L. Rozylowicz. 2014. Amphibian conservation in traditional cultural landscapes: The case of Central Romania. North-Western Journal of Zoology 10:S51–S61.
Havel, J. E., K. E. Kovalenko, S. M. Thomaz, S. Amalfitano, and L. B. Kats. 2015. Aquatic invasive species: challenges for the future. Hydrobiologia 750:147–170.
IUCN. 2017. Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Version 13. http://www.iucnredlist.org/documents/RedListGuidelines.pdf:IUCN
Jehle, R., and J. W. Arntzen. 2000. Post-breeding migrations of newts (Triturus cristatus and T. marmoratus) with contrasting ecological requirements. Journal of Zoology, London 251:297–306.
Kalezić, M. L., and G. Džukić. 1985. Ecological aspects of the smooth newt (Triturus vulgaris) paedomorphosis from Montenegro. Arhiv Bioloskih Nauka 37:43–50.
Kalezić, M. L., and G. Dzukiž. 1986. The frequent occurrence of paedomorphosis in the smooth newt (Triturus vulgaris) population from the submediterranean area of Yugoslavia. Amphibia-Reptilia 7:86–89.
Kalezić, M. L., G. Džukić, and A. Popadić. 1989. Paedomorphosis in Yugoslav Alpine newt (Triturus alpestris) populations: morphometric variability and sex ratio. Arhiv Bioloskih Nauka, Beograd 41:67–79.
Kalezić, M. L., D. Cvetković, A. Djorović, and G. Džukić. 1996. Alternative life-history pathways: paedomorphosis and adult fitness in European newts (Triturus vulgaris and T. alpestris). Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 34:1–7.
Karger, D. N., O. Conrad, J. Böhner, T. Kawohl, H. Kreft, R. W. Soria-Auza, N. E. Zimmermann, H. P. Linder, and M. Kessler. 2017. Climatologies at high resolution for the earth's land surface areas. Scientific Data 4:170122.
Knapp, R. A., and K. R. Matthews. 1998. Eradication of nonnative fish by gill netting from a small mountain lake in California. Restoration Ecology 6:207–213.
Knapp, R. A., and K. R. Matthews. 2000. Non-native fish introductions and the decline of the mountain yellow-legged frog from within protected areas. Conservation Biology 14:428–438.
Knapp, R. A., K. R. Matthews, and O. Sarnelle. 2001. Resistance and resilience of alpine lake fauna to fish introductions. Ecological Monographs 71:401–421.
Knapp, R. A., D. M. Boiano, and V. T. Vredenburg. 2007. Removal of nonnative fish results in population expansion of a declining amphibian (mountain yellow-legged frog, Rana muscosa). Biological Conservation 135:11–20.
Knapp, R. A., G. M. Fellers, P. M. Kleeman, D. A. W. Miller, V. T. Vredenburg, E. B. Rosenblum, and C. J. Briggs. 2016. Large-scale recovery of an endangered amphibian despite ongoing exposure to multiple stressors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 113:11889–11894.
Lakovic, I., S. Pekovic, D. Statuto, and P. Picuno. 2016. The katuns-rural buildings as a perspective of seasonal mountain settlements in Montenegro. Pages 557–566 in Proceedings of the 44th International Symposium on Agricultural Engineering: Actual Tasks on Agricultural Engineering, Opatija, Croatia, 23–26 February 2016. University of Zagreb, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagreb, Croatia.
Lejeune, B., N. Sturaro, G. Lepoint, and M. Denoël. 2018. Facultative paedomorphosis as a mechanism promoting intraspecific niche differentiation. Oikos 127:427–439.
MacKenzie, D. I., J. D. Nichols, J. A. Royle, K. H. Pollock, L. Bailey, and J. E. Hines. 2017. Occupancy estimation and modeling: inferring patterns and dynamics of species occurrence. Academic Press, Burlington, Massachusetts, USA.
Mathiron, A. G. E., J.-P. Lena, S. Baouch, and M. Denoël. 2017. The ‘male escape hypothesis’: sex-biased metamorphosis in response to climatic drivers in a facultatively paedomorphic amphibian. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 284:20170176.
Milligan, W. R., M. T. Jones, L. B. Kats, T. A. Lucas, and C. L. Davis. 2017. Predicting the effects of manual crayfish removal on California newt persistence in Santa Monica Mountain streams. Ecological Modelling 352:139–151.
Miró, A., and M. Ventura. 2013. Historical use, fishing management and lake characteristics explain the presence of non-native trout in Pyrenean lakes: Implications for conservation. Biological Conservation 167:17–24.
Miró, A., I. Sabás, and M. Ventura. 2018. Large negative effect of non-native trout and minnows on Pyrenean lake amphibians. Biological Conservation 218:144–153.
Mittermeier, R. A., P. R. Gil, M. Hoffmann, J. Pilgrim, T. Brooks, C. G. Mittermeier, J. Lamoreux, and G. A. B. Da Fonseca, editors. 2004. Hotspots revisited. CEMEX, Mexico City, Mexico.
Nicolet, P., A. Ruggiero, and J. Biggs. 2009. Second European pond workshop: Conservation of pond biodiversity in a changing European landscape. International Journal of Limnology 43:77–80.
Nyssen, J., J. V. Branden, V. Spalević, A. Frankl, L. Van de velde, M. Čurović, and P. Billi. 2014. Twentieth century land resilience in Montenegro and consequent hydrological response. Land Degradation and Development 25:336–349.
Oertli, B., J. Biggs, R. Céréghino, S. Declerck, A. Hull, and M. R. Miracle. 2010. Pond conservation in Europe. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Orizaola, G., and F. Braña. 2006. Effect of salmonid introduction and other environmental characteristics on amphibian distribution and abundance in mountain lakes of northern Spain. Animal Conservation 9:171–178.
Oromi, N., J. Michaux, and M. Denoël. 2016. High gene flow between alternative morphs and the evolutionary persistence of facultative paedomorphosis. Scientific Reports 6:32046.
Oromi, N., E. Valbuena-Ureña, A. Soler-Membrives, F. Amat, S. Camarasa, S. Carranza, D. Sanuy, and M. Denoël. 2019. Genetic structure of lake and stream populations in a Pyrenean amphibian (Calotriton asper) reveals evolutionary significant units associated with paedomorphosis. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research. In press. https://doi.org/10.1111/jzs.12250
Papaioannou, H., A. Batistatou, M. C. Mavrogiorgou, C. Konidaris, S. Frillingos, E. Briasoulis, K. Vareli, and I. Sainis. 2015. High incidence of dorsal dark spots in north-western Greek populations of alpine newts Ichthyosaura alpestris (Salamandridae, Caudata). Herpetology Notes 8:589–598.
Pătru-Stupariu, I., C. A. Tudor, M. S. Stupariu, A. Buttler, and A. Peringer. 2016. Landscape persistence and stakeholder perspectives: The case of Romania's Carpathians. Applied Geography 69:87–98.
Pilliod, D. S., B. R. Hossack, P. F. Bahls, E. L. Bull, P. S. Corn, G. Hokit, B. A. Maxell, J. C. Munger, and A. Wyrick. 2010. Non-native salmonids affect amphibian occupancy at multiple spatial scales. Diversity and Distributions 16:959–974.
Plǎiaşu, R., R. Bǎncilǎ, C. Samoilǎ, T. Hartel, and D. Cogǎlniceanu. 2012. Waterbody availability and use by amphibian communities in a rural landscape. Herpetological Journal 22:13–21.
Radovanović, M. 1951. A new race of the Alpine newt from Yugoslavia. British Journal of Herpetology 1:93–97.
Radovanović, M. 1961. Neue Fundorte neotenischer Bergmolche in Jugoslawien. Zoologischer Anzeiger 166:206–218.
Ricciardi, A., and J. B. Rasmussen. 1999. Extinction rates of North American freshwater fauna. Conservation Biology 13:1220–1222.
Rodríguez, C. F., E. Bécares, M. Fernández-Aláez, and C. Fernández-Aláez. 2005. Loss of diversity and degradation of wetlands as a result of introducing exotic crayfish. Biological Invasions 7:75–85.
Rotherham, I. D. 2015. Bio-cultural heritage and biodiversity: emerging paradigms in conservation and planning. Biodiversity and Conservation 24:3405–3429.
Rounsevell, M. D. A., et al. 2006. A coherent set of future land use change scenarios for Europe. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 114:57–68.
Rue, H., A. Riebler, S. H. Sørbye, J. B. Illian, D. P. Simpson, and F. K. Lindgren. 2017. Bayesian computing with INLA: a review. Annual Review of Statistics and Its Application 4:395–421.
Sala, O. E., et al. 2000. Global biodiversity scenarios for the year 2100. Science 287:1770–1774.
Sayer, C. D. 2014. Conservation of aquatic landscapes: ponds, lakes, and rivers as integrated systems. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Water 1:573–585.
Schabetsberger, R., and C. D. Jersabek. 1995. Alpine newts (Triturus alpestris) as top predators in a high-altitude karst lake: daily food-consumption and impact on the copepod Arctodiaptomus alpinus. Freshwater Biology 33:47–61.
Scheffers, B. R., D. P. Edwards, A. Diesmos, S. E. Williams, and T. A. Evans. 2014. Microhabitats reduce animal's exposure to climate extremes. Global Change Biology 20:495–503.
Semlitsch, R. D. 1998. Biological delineation of terrestrial buffer zones for pond-breeding salamanders. Conservation Biology 12:1113–1119.
Semlitsch, R. D. 2003. Conservation of pond-breeding amphibians. Pages 8–23 in R. D. Semlitsch, editor. Amphibian conservation. Smithsonian, Washington, D.C., USA.
Semlitsch, R. D., and J. W. Gibbons. 1985. Phenotypic variation in metamorphosis and paedomorphosis in the salamander Ambystoma talpoideum. Ecology 66:1123–1130.
Semlitsch, R. D., and H. M. Wilbur. 1989. Artificial selection for paedomorphosis in the salamander Ambystoma talpoideum. Evolution 43:105–112.
Sotiropoulos, K., K. Moustakas, K. Konstantinidis, V. Mantzana-Oikonomaki, S. Siarabi, and A. Bounas. 2017. First record of facultative paedomorphosis in the Macedonian crested newt (Triturus macedonicus) and an additional record for the Greek smooth newt (Lissotriton vulgaris) from Greece: implications on species conservation and preservation of alternative ontogenetic trajectories. Herpetology Notes 10:255–260.
Stoate, C., A. Báldi, P. Beja, N. D. Boatman, I. Herzon, A. van Doorn, G. R. de Snoo, L. Rakosy, and C. Ramwell. 2009. Ecological impacts of early 21st century agricultural change in Europe—A review. Journal of Environmental Management 91:22–46.
Tiberti, R. 2018. Can satellite ponds buffer the impact of introduced fish on newts in a mountain pond network? Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 28:457–465.
Tiberti, R., L. Nelli, S. Brighenti, R. Iacobuzio, and M. Rolla. 2017. Spatial distribution of introduced brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis (Salmonidae) within alpine lakes: evidences from a fish eradication campaign. European Zoological Journal 84:73–88.
Vorosmarty, C. J., et al. 2010. Global threats to human water security and river biodiversity. Nature 467:555–561.
Voss, S. R., and H. B. Shaffer. 1997. Adaptive evolution via a major gene effect: Paedomorphosis in the Mexican axolotl. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 94:14185–14189.
Vredenburg, V. T. 2004. Reversing introduced species effects: Experimental removal of introduced fish leads to rapid recovery of a declining frog. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 101:7646–7650.
Walls, S. C. 2009. The role of climate in the dynamics of a hybrid zone in Appalachian salamanders. Global Change Biology 15:1903–1910.
Whiteman, H. H., and R. D. Howard. 1998. Conserving alternative amphibian phenotypes: Is there anybody out there? Pages 317–324 in M. J. Lannoo, editor. The status and conservation of Midwestern amphibians. Iowa University Press, Iowa City, Iowa, USA.
Wielstra, B., et al. 2018. The distributions of the six species constituting the smooth newt species complex (Lissotriton vulgaris sensu lato and L. montandoni)—an addition to the New Atlas of amphibians and reptiles of Europe. Amphibia-Reptilia 39:252–259.
Williams, P., M. Whitfield, J. Biggs, S. Bray, G. Fox, P. Nicolet, and D. Sear. 2004. Comparative biodiversity of rivers, streams, ditches and ponds in an agricultural landscape in Southern England. Biological Conservation 115:329–341.
Winandy, L., and M. Denoël. 2015. The aggressive personality of an introduced fish affects foraging behavior in a polymorphic newt. Behavioral Ecology 26:1528–1536.
Winandy, L., E. Darnet, and M. Denoël. 2015. Amphibians forgo aquatic life in response to alien fish introduction. Animal Behaviour 109:209–216.
Winandy, L., P. Legrand, and M. Denoël. 2017. Habitat selection and reproduction of newts in networks of fish and fishless aquatic patches. Animal Behaviour 123:107–115.
Wood, P. J., M. T. Greenwood, and M. D. Agnew. 2003. Pond diversity and habitat loss in the UK. Area 35:206–216.
Young, J., et al. 2005. Towards sustainable land use: identifying and managing the conflicts between human activities and biodiversity conservation in Europe. Biodiversity & Conservation 14:1641–1661.
Zambrano, L., E. Valiente, and M. J. Vander Zanden. 2010. Food web overlap among native axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and two exotic fishes: carp (Cyprinus carpio) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Xochimilco, Mexico City. Biological Invasions 12:3061–3069.