[en] The importance of the Cucurbitaceae family consists not only in the species that are widely known for various economically important human uses, but also in the species that have proven an important and promising potential concerning their biological activities. Bryonia alba L. and Ecballium elaterium (L.) A. Rich. are two species belonging to this family, that are known since ancient times for their homeopathic or traditional use in the treatment of numerous disorders. There is clear evidence that links between the two species are not only related to family morphological characters, but also to a certain degree to the sexual system and, most importantly, to the active principle content or to potential medicinal uses. All these elements helped to include both species in the same tribe and may result in important reasons for heading future studies towards the elucidation of their complete phytochemical composition and mechanisms of the biological activities. The present study aims to review the existing scientific literature on the two species and to offer sufficient evidence in order to justify a most detailed study of their pharmaceutical potential.