Reference : The Inflammatory Reaction Induced by Formalin in the Rat Paw
Scientific journals : Article
Human health sciences : Pharmacy, pharmacology & toxicology
The Inflammatory Reaction Induced by Formalin in the Rat Paw
Damas, Jacques mailto [Université de Liège - ULg > Département des sciences biomédicales et précliniques > Département des sciences biomédicales et précliniques >]
Liégeois, Jean-François mailto [Université de Liège - ULg > Département de pharmacie > Chimie pharmaceutique >]
Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
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[en] The involvement of bradykinin and some other inflammatory mediators in formalin-induced oedema and plasma extravasation was examined. Formalin was injected in rat paws at two doses, 1.75% or 5%. The lower dose induced the development of an immediate oedema associated with a progressive accumulation of 125I-labelled albumin in the paws. These changes were suppressed by pretreatment with capsaicin or xylocaine. They were abolished by RP67580, a NK1 receptor antagonist, and increased by phosphoramidon or diprotin A. They were not affected by HOE140, a bradykinin B2 antagonist, captopril, methysergide, mepyramine, indomethacin, ketoprofen or L-N(G)-nitroarginine. The higher dose of formalin induced a swelling of the paws which took place in two phases associated with two periods of increase in vascular permeability. This oedema was reduced by pretreatment with capsaicin but not with xylocaine. It was reduced by RP67580 injected before or 30 min after formalin. It was inhibited by mepyramine, methysergide, indomethacin and NS-398, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor. It was not modified by HOE140. Its development was similar in normal and kininogen-deficient rats. We concluded that formalin administered at a low dose induces an oedema which mainly results from a neurogenic inflammation mediated by neuropeptides such as substance P. At higher doses, formalin induces an oedema which mainly depends on the release of substance P, prostanoids, 5-hydroxytryptamine and histamine. Bradykinin plays no significant role in the vascular changes whereas this peptide has been reported to participate in the stimulation of nociceptive afferent neurons. This discrepancy could be explained by a difference in the threshold of stimulation of the nociceptive neurons and that of the cells of the vascular walls, or by a formation of kinins in close contact of the neurons.
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