T-cell transfer; adenovirus; cellular therapy; central nervous system; cytomegalovirus; encephalitis; immune therapy; multiple sclerosis; progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy; viral infections; virus-specific T-cells; Antiviral Agents; Humans; Central Nervous System; Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use; Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy; Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Opportunistic Infections; Central Nervous System Diseases/therapy; Central Nervous System Diseases; Infectious Diseases; Virology
[en] Opportunistic viral infections of the central nervous system represent a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among an increasing number of immunocompromised patients. Since antiviral treatments are usually poorly effective, the prognosis generally relies on the ability to achieve timely immune reconstitution. Hence, strategies aimed at reinvigorating antiviral immune activity have recently emerged. Among these, virus-specific T-cells are increasingly perceived as a principled and valuable tool to treat opportunistic viral infections. Here we briefly discuss how to develop and select virus-specific T-cells, then review their main indications in central nervous system infections, including progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, CMV infection, and adenovirus infection. We also discuss their potential interest in the treatment of progressive multiple sclerosis, or EBV-associated central nervous system inflammatory disease. We finish with the key future milestones of this promising treatment strategy.