Article (Scientific journals)
Evaluating Thermal Performance and Environmental Impact of Compressed Earth Blocks with Cocos and Canarium Aggregates: A Study in Douala, Cameroon
Ganou Koungang, Bernard Morino; Courard, Luc; Tatchum Defo, Ulrich et al.
2023In International Journal of Engineering Research in Africa, 67, p. 49-66
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Keywords :
Biosourced compressed earth brick; Hollow cement block; Building performance simulation; Life cycle assessment
Abstract :
[en] A novel low-cost earthen construction system integrating biosourced aggregates is proposed for houses’ erection of low-income households. This study is based on in-situ measurements on two representative test cells constructed in Douala, with a typical hot and humid climate. One of these buildings is made with a hollow cement block as a reference, and the other with biosourced earth bricks modified with Cocos nucifera and Canarium schweinfurthii aggregates. Dynamic thermal simulations of the two test cells were performed using the EnergyPlus building performance simulation program. The results are based on measuring air temperature and humidity, and the simulation leads to defining the discomfort hours and the annual energy consumption. The adaptive ASHRAE 55 thermal comfort model was used to evaluate the comfort conditions. The results show that air conditioning systems provide the best comfort systems with minimums of about 95% for plastered and unplastered wall construction systems. Biosourced compressed earth brick constructions offered the best thermal performance with comfort ranges of around 96% and 44% for air conditioning and natural ventilation, respectively. In terms of energy consumed, there was a gain of about 100 kWh over the year. Energy consumption is lower in the biosourced compressed earth brick building than in the hollowed cement block building: this one offered the lowest comfort range of about 40% in natural ventilation. The construction provisions were considered for the life cycle assessment, and two scenarios describing the origin of the cement raw materials were considered. It can be seen that cement accounts for more than 95% of the impacts for both construction systems, as well as for the scenarios of its origin. In all situations, the hollowed cement block construction presented the highest impact on the global warming potential: 66 KgCO2eq and 89 KgCO2eq, respectively, without plaster and with plaster. It can also be seen that the plastered layer had a carbon footprint (in terms of Green House Gas Emissions (GHG emissions)) of almost 40% on the overall functional unit. Canarium Schweinfurthii and Cocos Nucifera materials accounted for only 1% of the overall impact.
Disciplines :
Architecture
Civil engineering
Author, co-author :
Ganou Koungang, Bernard Morino  
Courard, Luc  ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département ArGEnCo > Matériaux de construction non métalliques du génie civil ; Université de Liège - ULiège > Urban and Environmental Engineering
Tatchum Defo, Ulrich;  Université de Douala
Ndapeu, Dieunedort;  Université de Dschang
Njeugna, Ebénézer;  Université de Douala
Attia, Shady  ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département ArGEnCo > Techniques de construction des bâtiments ; Université de Liège - ULiège > Urban and Environmental Engineering
Language :
English
Title :
Evaluating Thermal Performance and Environmental Impact of Compressed Earth Blocks with Cocos and Canarium Aggregates: A Study in Douala, Cameroon
Publication date :
2023
Journal title :
International Journal of Engineering Research in Africa
ISSN :
1663-3571
eISSN :
1663-4144
Publisher :
Trans Tech Publications Ltd (Scientific.net), Seestrasse 24c, CH-8806 Baech, Switzerland
Volume :
67
Pages :
49-66
Peer reviewed :
Peer Reviewed verified by ORBi
Development Goals :
11. Sustainable cities and communities
Available on ORBi :
since 03 October 2023

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