Article (Scientific journals)
Modelling interactions between three Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) systems in Brussels (Belgium)
De Paoli, Caroline; Duren Thierry; Petitclerc Estelle et al.
2023In Applied Sciences, Volume II
Peer Reviewed verified by ORBi


Full Text
Author postprint (3.88 MB)

All documents in ORBi are protected by a user license.

Send to


Keywords :
energy storage; groundwater; open shallow geothermal system; ATES; renewable energy; groundwater modelling; interactions; heat plumes; cold plumes
Abstract :
[en] Shallow open-loop geothermal systems function by creating heat and cold reserves in an aquifer, via doublets of pumping and reinjection wells. Three adjacent buildings in the center of Brussels have adopted this type of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. Two of them exploit the same aquifer consisting of Cenozoic sands, and started operation in 2014 and 2017, respectively. A previous hydrogeological model developed by Bulté et al. (2021) has shown how the thermal imbalance of one of the systems jeopardizes the thermal state of this upper aquifer. Here, the interactions with a more recent third ATES system located in the deep aquifer of the Palaeozoic bedrock are studied and modelled. After being calibrated on groundwater flow conditions in both aquifers, a 3D hydrogeological model was used to simulate the cumulative effect of the three geothermal installations in the two exploited aquifers. The results of the simulations showed that although the hydraulic interactions between the two aquifers are very weak (as shown by the different observed potentiometric heads), heat exchanges occur between the two aquifers through the aquitard. Fortunately, these heat exchanges are not sufficient to have a significant impact on the efficiency of the individual geothermal systems. Additionally, this study shows clearly that adding a third system in the lower aquifer with a mean power of 286 kW for heating between October and March and an equivalent mean cooling power between April and September is efficient.
Research center :
UEE - Urban and Environmental Engineering - ULiège
Disciplines :
Geological, petroleum & mining engineering
Author, co-author :
De Paoli, Caroline ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Urban and Environmental Engineering
Duren Thierry;  ARTESIA Ltd. Hydrogeology & Environment, Liège Science Park, 4031 Liège, Belgium
Petitclerc Estelle;  Geothermal Energy, Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Geological Survey of Belgium, 1000 Brussels, Belgium
Agniel Mathieu;  Water Department, Brussels Environment, 1000 Brussels, Belgium
Dassargues, Alain  ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département ArGEnCo > Hydrogéologie & Géologie de l'environnement
Language :
Title :
Modelling interactions between three Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) systems in Brussels (Belgium)
Publication date :
24 February 2023
Journal title :
Applied Sciences
Publisher :
MDPI, Basel, Switzerland
Special issue title :
Special Issue on Advances in Underground Energy Storage for Renewable Energy Sources
Volume :
Volume II
Peer reviewed :
Peer Reviewed verified by ORBi
Development Goals :
7. Affordable and clean energy
Commentary :
This paper can be found on app13052934
Available on ORBi :
since 28 February 2023


Number of views
93 (14 by ULiège)
Number of downloads
54 (5 by ULiège)

Scopus citations®
Scopus citations®
without self-citations


Similar publications

Contact ORBi