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07 April 2022
Article (Scientific journals)
Complex Modulation of Rapidly Rotating Young M Dwarfs: Adding Pieces to the Puzzle
Günther, Maximilian N.; Berardo, David A.; Ducrot, Elsa  et al.
2022 • In Astronomical Journal, 163, p. 144
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Abstract :
[en] New sets of young M dwarfs with complex, sharp-peaked, and strictly periodic photometric modulations have recently been discovered with Kepler/K2 (scallop shells) and TESS (complex rotators). All are part of star-forming associations, are distinct from other variable stars, and likely belong to a unified class. Suggested hypotheses include starspots, accreting dust disks, corotating clouds of material, magnetically constrained material, spots and misaligned disks, and pulsations. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview and add new observational constraints with TESS and SPECULOOS Southern Observatory photometry. We scrutinize all hypotheses from three new angles: (1) We investigate each scenario's occurrence rates via young star catalogs, (2) we study the feature's longevity using over one year of combined data, and (3) we probe the expected color dependency with multicolor photometry. In this process, we also revisit the stellar parameters accounting for activity effects, study stellar flares as activity indicators over year-long timescales, and develop toy models to simulate typical morphologies. We rule out most hypotheses, and only (i) corotating material clouds and (ii) spots and misaligned disks remain feasible-with caveats. For (i), corotating dust might not be stable enough, while corotating gas alone likely cannot cause percentage-scale features and (ii) would require misaligned disks around most young M dwarfs. We thus suggest a unified hypothesis, a superposition of large-amplitude spot modulations and sharp transits of corotating gas clouds. While the complex rotators' mystery remains, these new observations add valuable pieces to the puzzle going forward.
Disciplines :
Space science, astronomy & astrophysics
Author, co-author :
Günther, Maximilian N.;  Department of Physics, and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA, European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands
Berardo, David A.;  Department of Physics, and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
Ducrot, Elsa ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Astrobiology
Murray, Catriona A.;  Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE, UK
Stassun, Keivan G.;  Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235, USA
Olah, Katalin;  Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungary
Bouma, L. G.;  Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
Rappaport, Saul;  Department of Physics, and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
Winn, Joshua N.;  Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
Feinstein, Adina D.;  Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
Matthews, Elisabeth C.;  Department of Physics, and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
Sebastian, Daniel ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département d'astrophysique, géophysique et océanographie (AGO) > Exoplanets in Transit: Identification and Characterization
Rackham, Benjamin V.;  Department of Physics, and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA, Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
Seli, Bálint;  Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungary
Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.;  School of Physics &, Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
Gillen, Edward;  Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE, UK, Astronomy Unit, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS, UK
Levine, Alan M.;  Department of Physics, and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
Demory, Brice-Olivier;  University of Bern, Center for Space and Habitability, Bern, Switzerland
Gillon, Michaël  ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Astrobiology
Queloz, Didier;  Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE, UK, Observatoire astronomique de l'Université de Genève, 51 chemin de Pégase, 1290 Sauverny, Switzerland
Ricker, George R.;  Department of Physics, and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
Vanderspek, Roland K.;  Department of Physics, and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
Seager, Sara;  Department of Physics, and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA, Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
Latham, David W.;  Center for Astrophysics ∣ Harvard &, Smithsonian, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
Jenkins, Jon M.;  NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
Brasseur, C. E.;  Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes, USA
Colón, Knicole D.;  NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory (Code 667), Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
Daylan, Tansu;  Department of Physics, and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
Delrez, Laetitia ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Astrobiology
Fausnaugh, Michael;  Department of Physics, and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
Garcia, Lionel  ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Astrobiology
Jayaraman, Rahul;  Department of Physics, and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
Jehin, Emmanuel  ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Unités de recherche interfacultaires > Space sciences, Technologies and Astrophysics Research (STAR)
Kristiansen, Martti H.;  Brorfelde Observatory, Observator Gyldenkernes Vej 7, DK-4340 Tølløse, Denmark, DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark
Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik;  Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstraße 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany
Pedersen, Peter Pihlmann;  Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE, UK
Pozuelos, Francisco J.  ;  Astrobiology Research Unit, Université de Liège, 19C Allée du 6 Aout̂, B-4000 Liège, Belgium, Space Sciences, Technologies and Astrophysics Research (STAR) Institute, Université de Liège, 19C Allée du 6 Aout̂, B-4000 Liège, Belgium
Rodriguez, Joseph E.;  Center for Astrophysics ∣ Harvard &, Smithsonian, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
Wohler, Bill;  SETI Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, USA
Zhan, Zhuchang;  Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
More authors (30 more) Less
Language :
English
Title :
Complex Modulation of Rapidly Rotating Young M Dwarfs: Adding Pieces to the Puzzle
Publication date :
01 April 2022
Journal title :
Astronomical Journal
ISSN :
0004-6256
eISSN :
1538-3881
Publisher :
American Astronomical Society, Us
Volume :
163
Pages :
144
Peer reviewed :
Peer Reviewed verified by ORBi
European Projects :
FP7 - 336480 - SPECULOOS - SPECULOOS: searching for habitable planets amenable for biosignatures detection around the nearest ultra-cool stars

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