Article (Scientific journals)
Missing Data in Prediction Research: A Five-Step Approach for Multiple Imputation, Illustrated in the CENTER-TBI Study.
Gravesteijn, Benjamin Yaël; Sewalt, Charlie Aletta; Venema, Esmee et al.
2021In Journal of Neurotrauma, 38 (13), p. 1842-1857
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Keywords :
Biomedical Research/methods/statistics & numerical data; Brain Injuries, Traumatic/diagnosis/epidemiology; Cohort Studies; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Databases, Factual/statistics & numerical data; Europe/epidemiology; Humans; Prognosis; Prospective Studies; imputation; missing data; prediction; traumatic brain injury; tutorial
Abstract :
[en] In medical research, missing data is common. In acute diseases, such as traumatic brain injury (TBI), even well-conducted prospective studies may suffer from missing data in baseline characteristics and outcomes. Statistical models may simply drop patients with any missing values, potentially leaving a selected subset of the original cohort. Imputation is widely accepted by methodologists as an appropriate way to deal with missing data. We aim to provide practical guidance on handling missing data for prediction modeling. We hereto propose a five-step approach, centered around single and multiple imputation: 1) explore the missing data patterns; 2) choose a method of imputation; 3) perform imputation; 4) assess diagnostics of the imputation; and 5) analyze the imputed data sets. We illustrate these five steps with the estimation and validation of the IMPACT (International Mission on Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials in Traumatic Brain Injury) prognostic model in 1375 patients from the CENTER-TBI database, included in 53 centers across 17 countries, with moderate or severe TBI in the prospective European CENTER-TBI study. Future prediction modeling studies in acute diseases may benefit from following the suggested five steps for optimal statistical analysis and interpretation, after maximal effort has been made to minimize missing data.
Disciplines :
Human health sciences: Multidisciplinary, general & others
Author, co-author :
Gravesteijn, Benjamin Yaël;  Department of Public Health, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Sewalt, Charlie Aletta;  Department of Public Health, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Venema, Esmee;  Department of Public Health, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Nieboer, Daan;  Department of Public Health, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Steyerberg, Ewout W;  Department of Public Health, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ; Department of Biomedical Data Sciences, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden,
CENTER-TBI, Collaborators
Other collaborator :
Åkerlund, Cecilia
Amrein, Krisztina
Andelic, Nada
Andreassen, Lasse
Anke, Audny
Antoni, Anna
Audibert, Gérard
Azouvi, Philippe
Azzolini, Maria Luisa
Bartels, Ronald
Barzó, Pál
Beauvais, Romuald
Beer, Ronny
Bellander, Bo-Michael
Belli, Antonio
Benali, Habib
Berardino, Maurizio
Beretta, Luigi
Blaabjerg, Morten
Bragge, Peter
Brazinova, Alexandra
Brinck, Vibeke
Brooker, Joanne
Brorsson, Camilla
Buki, Andras
Bullinger, Monika
Cabeleira, Manuel
Caccioppola, Alessio
Calappi, Emiliana
Rosa Calvi, Maria
Cameron, Peter
Carbayo Lozano, Guillermo
Carbonara, Marco
Chevallard, Giorgio
Chieregato, Arturo
Citerio, Giuseppe
Cnossen, Maryse
Coburn, Mark
Coles, Jonathan
Cooper, D Jamie
Correia, Marta
Čović, Amra
Curry, Nicola
Czeiter, Endre
Czosnyka, Marek
Dahyot-Fizelier, Claire
Dawes, Helen
De Keyser, Véronique ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département de Psychologie
Degos, Vincent
Della Corte, Francesco
den Boogert, Hugo
Depreitere, Bart
Đilvesi, Đula
Dixit, Abhishek
Donoghue, Emma
Dreier, Jens
Dulière, Guy-Loup
Ercole, Ari
Esser, Patrick
Ezer, Erzsébet
Fabricius, Martin
Feigin, Valery L
Foks, Kelly
Frisvold, Shirin
Furmanov, Alex
Gagliardo, Pablo
Galanaud, Damien
Gantner, Dashiell
Gao, Guoyi
George, Pradeep
GHUYSEN, Alexandre ;  Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège - CHU > > Service des urgences
Giga, Lelde
Glocker, Ben
Golubovic, Jagoš
Gomez, Pedro A
Gratz, Johannes
Gravesteijn, Benjamin
Grossi, Francesca
Gruen, Russell L
Gupta, Deepak
Haagsma, Juanita A
Haitsma, Iain
Helbok, Raimund
Helseth, Eirik
Horton, Lindsay
Huijben, Jilske
Hutchinson, Peter J
Jacobs, Bram
Jankowski, Stefan
Jarrett, Mike
Jiang, Ji-Yao
Jones, Kelly
Karan, Mladen
Kolias, Angelos G
Kompanje, Erwin
Kondziella, Daniel
Koraropoulos, Evgenios
Koskinen, Lars-Owe
Kovács, Noémi
Lagares, Alfonso
Lanyon, Linda
LAUREYS, Steven  ;  Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège - CHU > > Centre du Cerveau²
Lecky, Fiona
Lefering, Rolf
Legrand, Valerie
Lejeune, Aurelie
Levi, Leon
Lightfoot, Roger
Lingsma, Hester
Maas, Andrew I R
Castaño-León, Ana M
Maegele, Marc
Majdan, Marek
Manara, Alex
Manley, Geoffrey
Martino, Costanza
Maréchal, Hugues
Mattern, Julia
McMahon, Catherine
Melegh, Béla
Menon, David
Menovsky, Tomas
Mulazzi, Davide
Muraleedharan, Visakh
Murray, Lynnette
Nair, Nandesh
Negru, Ancuta
Nelson, David
Newcombe, Virginia
Noirhomme, Quentin ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > GIGA > GIGA CRC In vivo Imaging
Nyirádi, József
Olubukola, Otesile
Oresic, Matej
Ortolano, Fabrizio
Palotie, Aarno
Parizel, Paul M
Payen, Jean-François
Perera, Natascha
Perlbarg, Vincent
Persona, Paolo
Peul, Wilco
Piippo-Karjalainen, Anna
Pirinen, Matti
Ples, Horia
Polinder, Suzanne
Pomposo, Inigo
Posti, Jussi P
Puybasset, Louis
Radoi, Andreea
Ragauskas, Arminas
Raj, Rahul
Rambadagalla, Malinka
Real, Ruben
Rhodes, Jonathan
Richardson, Sylvia
Richter, Sophie
Ripatti, Samuli
Rocka, Saulius
Roe, Cecilie
Roise, Olav
Rosand, Jonathan
Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V
Rosenlund, Christina
Rosenthal, Guy
Rossaint, Rolf
Rossi, Sandra
Rueckert, Daniel
Rusnák, Martin
Sahuquillo, Juan
Sakowitz, Oliver
Sanchez-Porras, Renan
Sandor, Janos
Schäfer, Nadine
Schmidt, Silke
Schoechl, Herbert
Schoonman, Guus
Frederik Schou, Rico
Schwendenwein, Elisabeth
Skandsen, Toril
Smielewski, Peter
Sorinola, Abayomi
Stamatakis, Emmanuel
Stanworth, Simon
Kowark, Ana
Stevens, Robert
Stewart, William
Stocchetti, Nino
Sundström, Nina
Synnot, Anneliese
Takala, Riikka
Tamás, Viktória
Tamosuitis, Tomas
Taylor, Mark Steven
Ao, Braden Te
Tenovuo, Olli
Theadom, Alice
Thomas, Matt
Tibboel, Dick
Timmers, Marjolein
Tolias, Christos
Trapani, Tony
Tudora, Cristina Maria
Vajkoczy, Peter
Vallance, Shirley
Valeinis, Egils
Vámos, Zoltán
Van der Steen, Gregory
van der Naalt, Joukje
van Dijck, Jeroen T J M
van Essen, Thomas A
Van Hecke, Wim
van Heugten, Caroline
Van Praag, Dominique
Vande Vyvere, Thijs
Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey  ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département des sciences cliniques
van Wijk, Roel P J
Vargiolu, Alessia
Vega, Emmanuel
Velt, Kimberley
Verheyden, Jan
Vespa, Paul M
Vik, Anne
Vilcinis, Rimantas
Volovici, Victor
von Steinbüchel, Nicole
Voormolen, Daphne
Vulekovic, Petar
Wang, Kevin K W
Wiegers, Eveline
Williams, Guy
Wilson, Lindsay
Winzeck, Stefan
Wolf, Stefan
Yang, Zhihui
Ylén, Peter
Younsi, Alexander
Zeiler, Frederik A
Zelinkova, Veronika
Ziverte, Agate
Zoerle, Tommaso
More authors (230 more) Less
Language :
English
Title :
Missing Data in Prediction Research: A Five-Step Approach for Multiple Imputation, Illustrated in the CENTER-TBI Study.
Publication date :
01 June 2021
Journal title :
Journal of Neurotrauma
ISSN :
0897-7151
eISSN :
1557-9042
Volume :
38
Issue :
13
Pages :
1842-1857
Peer reviewed :
Peer Reviewed verified by ORBi
Available on ORBi :
since 27 March 2022

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