Reference : A large sub-Neptune transiting the thick-disk M4 V TOI-2406
Scientific journals : Article
Physical, chemical, mathematical & earth Sciences : Space science, astronomy & astrophysics
http://hdl.handle.net/2268/263926
A large sub-Neptune transiting the thick-disk M4 V TOI-2406
English
Wells, R. D. [Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, Gesellschaftsstrasse 6, 3012, Bern, Switzerland]
Rackham, B. V. [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA; Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA]
Schanche, N. [Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, Gesellschaftsstrasse 6, 3012, Bern, Switzerland]
Petrucci, R. [Universidad Nacional de Córdoba - Observatorio Astronómico de Córdoba, Laprida 854, X5000BGR, Córdoba, Argentina; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientf́icas y Técnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina]
Gómez Maqueo Chew, Y. [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Astronomía, AP 70-264, CDMX, 04510, México]
Demory, B.-O. [Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, Gesellschaftsstrasse 6, 3012, Bern, Switzerland]
Burgasser, A. J. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA]
Burn, R. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (MPIA), Koenigstuhl 17, 69117, Heidelberg, Germany]
Pozuelos Romero, Francisco José mailto [Astrobiology Research Unit, Université de Liège, Allée du 6 Août 19C, 4000, Liège, Belgium; Space Sciences, Technologies and Astrophysics Research (STAR) Institute, Universitďe Liège, Allée du 6 Août 19C, 4000, Liège, Belgium]
Günther, M. N. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA; Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA]
Sabin, L. [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Astronomía, AP 106, Ensenada, 22800, BC, México]
Schroffenegger, U. [Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, Gesellschaftsstrasse 6, 3012, Bern, Switzerland]
Gómez-Muñoz, M. A. [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Astronomía, AP 106, Ensenada, 22800, BC, México]
Stassun, K. G. [Department of Physics & Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 6301 Stevenson Center Ln., Nashville, TN 37235, USA]
Van Grootel, Valérie mailto [Université de Liège - ULiège > Département d'astrophys., géophysique et océanographie (AGO) > Astrophysique stellaire théorique et astérosismologie >]
Howell, S. B. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA]
Sebastian, Daniel [Université de Liège - ULiège > Département d'astrophys., géophysique et océanographie (AGO) > Exotic >]
Triaud, A. H. M. J. [School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmimgham, B15 2TT, UK]
Apai, D. [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA; Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, 1639 E. University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA]
Plauchu-Frayn, I. [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Astronomía, AP 106, Ensenada, 22800, BC, México]
Guerrero, C. A. [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Astronomía, AP 106, Ensenada, 22800, BC, México]
Guillén, P. F. [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Astronomía, AP 106, Ensenada, 22800, BC, México]
Landa, A. [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Astronomía, AP 106, Ensenada, 22800, BC, México]
Melgoza, G. [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Astronomía, AP 106, Ensenada, 22800, BC, México]
Montalvo, F. [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Astronomía, AP 106, Ensenada, 22800, BC, México]
Serrano, H. [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Astronomía, AP 106, Ensenada, 22800, BC, México]
Riesgo, H. [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Astronomía, AP 106, Ensenada, 22800, BC, México]
Barkaoui, Khalid mailto [Université de Liège - ULiège > Département d'astrophys., géophysique et océanographie (AGO) > Exotic >]
Bixel, A. [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA]
Burdanov, A. [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA]
Chen, W. P. [Graduate Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, 300 Jhongda Road, Zhongli, Taoyuan, 32001, Taiwan]
Chinchilla, P. [Astrobiology Research Unit, Université de Liège, Allée du 6 Août 19C, 4000, Liège, Belgium; Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), Calle Vía Láctea s/n, 38200, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain]
Collins, K. A. [Center for Astrophysics, Harvard & Smithsonian, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA, 02138, USA]
Daylan, T. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA; Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA]
de Wit, J. [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA]
Delrez, Laetitia mailto [Université de Liège - ULiège > Département d'astrophys., géophysique et océanographie (AGO) > Exotic >]
Dévora-Pajares, M. [Dpto. Física Teórica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, 18071, Granada, Spain]
Dietrich, Jennifer [Université de Liège - ULiège > Département d'aérospatiale et mécanique > Laboratoire de structures et systèmes spatiaux >]
Dransfield, G. [School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmimgham, B15 2TT, UK]
Ducrot, Elsa [Université de Liège - ULiège > Département d'astrophys., géophysique et océanographie (AGO) > Exotic >]
Fausnaugh, M. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA; Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA]
Furlan, E. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, Caltech/IPAC, Mail Code 100-22, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125, USA]
Gabor, P. [Vatican Observatory Research Group, University of Arizona, 933 N Cherry Ave., Tucson AZ, 85721-0065, USA]
Gan, T. [Department of Astronomy, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, PR China]
Garcia, Lionel mailto [Université de Liège - ULiège > Département d'astrophys., géophysique et océanographie (AGO) > Exotic >]
Ghachoui, M. [Oukaimeden Observatory, High Energy Physics and Astrophysics Laboratory, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakech, Morocco]
Giacalone, S. [Department of Astronomy, 501 Campbell Hall, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA]
Gibbs, A. B. [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA]
Gillon, Michaël mailto [Université de Liège - ULiège > Département d'astrophys., géophysique et océanographie (AGO) > Exotic >]
Gnilka, C. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA]
Gore, R. [Department of Astronomy, 501 Campbell Hall, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA]
Guerrero, N. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA; Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA]
Henning, T. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (MPIA), Koenigstuhl 17, 69117, Heidelberg, Germany]
Hesse, K. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA; Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA]
Jehin, Emmanuel mailto [Université de Liège - ULiège > Département d'astrophys., géophysique et océanographie (AGO) > Origines Cosmologiques et Astrophysiques (OrCa) >]
Jenkins, J. M. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA]
Latham, D. W. [Center for Astrophysics, Harvard & Smithsonian, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA, 02138, USA]
Lester, K. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA]
McCormac, J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK]
Murray, C. A. [Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE, UK]
Niraula, P. [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA]
Pedersen, P. P. [Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE, UK]
Queloz, D. [Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE, UK]
Ricker, G. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA; Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA]
Rodriguez, D. R. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21218, USA]
Schroeder, A. [Department of Astronomy, 501 Campbell Hall, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA]
Schwarz, R. P. [Patashnick Voorheesville Observatory, Voorheesville, NY 12186, USA]
Scott, N. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA]
Seager, S. [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA; Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA; Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA; Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA]
Theissen, C. A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA]
Thompson, S. [Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE, UK]
Timmermans, Mathilde mailto [Université de Liège - ULiège > Département d'astrophys., géophysique et océanographie (AGO) > Exotic >]
Twicken, J. D. [SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA; NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA]
Winn, J. N. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA)]
1-Sep-2021
Astronomy and Astrophysics
EDP Sciences
653
A97
Yes (verified by ORBi)
International
0004-6361
1432-0746
Les Ulis
France
[en] planets and satellites: detection ; stars: individual: TOI-2406 ; techniques: photometric ; Astrophysics - Earth and Planetary Astrophysics
[en] Context. Large sub-Neptunes are uncommon around the coolest stars in the Galaxy and are rarer still around those that are metal-poor. However, owing to the large planet-to-star radius ratio, these planets are highly suitable for atmospheric study via transmission spectroscopy in the infrared, such as with JWST. Aims: Here we report the discovery and validation of a sub-Neptune orbiting the thick-disk, mid-M dwarf star TOI-2406. The star's low metallicity and the relatively large size and short period of the planet make TOI-2406 b an unusual outcome of planet formation, and its characterisation provides an important observational constraint for formation models. Methods: We first infer properties of the host star by analysing the star's near-infrared spectrum, spectral energy distribution, and Gaia parallax. We use multi-band photometry to confirm that the transit event is on-target and achromatic, and we statistically validate the TESS signal as a transiting exoplanet. We then determine physical properties of the planet through global transit modelling of the TESS and ground-based time-series data. Results: We determine the host to be a metal-poor M4 V star, located at a distance of 56 pc, with properties Teff = 3100 ± 75 K, M* = 0.162 ± 0.008M⊙, R* = 0.202 ± 0.011R⊙, and [Fe∕H] = −0.38 ± 0.07, and a member of the thick disk. The planet is a relatively large sub-Neptune for the M-dwarf planet population, with Rp = 2.94 ± 0.17R⊕ and P= 3.077 d, producing transits of 2% depth. We note the orbit has a non-zero eccentricity to 3σ, prompting questions about the dynamical history of the system. Conclusions: This system is an interesting outcome of planet formation and presents a benchmark for large-planet formation around metal-poor, low-mass stars. The system warrants further study, in particular radial velocity follow-up to determine the planet mass and constrain possible bound companions. Furthermore, TOI-2406 b is a good target for future atmospheric study through transmission spectroscopy. Although the planet's mass remains to be constrained, we estimate the S/N using amass-radius relationship, ranking the system fifth in the population of large sub-Neptunes, with TOI-2406 b having a much lower equilibrium temperature than other spectroscopically accessible members of this population.
Professionals
http://hdl.handle.net/2268/263926
10.1051/0004-6361/202141277
https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2021A&A...653A..97W

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