[en] The diagnosis of heart failure can sometimes be challenging for the clinician because presentation circumstances and heart failure phenotypes are varied. The identification and validation of sensitive and specific biomarkers for this condition are still a subject of intensive research. Among them, natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP, NTproBNP) are widely used and validated as markers of heart failure. Their appropriate use and correct interpretation, however, require knowledge of their indications, specificities and limitations. The European Society of Cardiology has recently issued recommendations in this regard. This article summarizes them in order to facilitate the understanding and the use of natriuretic peptides in clinical practice. It also discusses their use in the etiological diagnosis of pleural effusions caused by heart failure.