Reference : Pesticide and veterinary drug residues in Belgian beeswax: Occurrence, toxicity, and ...
Scientific journals : Article
Life sciences : Veterinary medicine & animal health
http://hdl.handle.net/2268/250556
Pesticide and veterinary drug residues in Belgian beeswax: Occurrence, toxicity, and risk to honey bees.
English
El Agrebi, Noémie mailto [Université de Liège - ULiège > Département des maladies infectieuses et parasitaires (DMI) > Epidémiologie et analyse des risques appl. aux sc. vétér. >]
Traynor, Kirsten [> >]
Wilmart, Olivier [> >]
Tosi, Simone [> >]
Leinartz, Laurent [> >]
Danneels, Ellen [> >]
de Graaf, Dirk C. [> >]
Saegerman, Claude mailto [Université de Liège - ULiège > Département des maladies infectieuses et parasitaires (DMI) > Epidémiologie et analyse des risques appl. aux sc. vétér. >]
2020
The Science of the total environment
745
141036
Yes (verified by ORBi)
International
0048-9697
1879-1026
Netherlands
[en] Apis mellifera ; Beeswax ; Chlorfenvinphos ; Hazard Quotient ; Modelling ; Pesticide ; Residues ; Risk assessment ; Toxicity ; Veterinary drug
[en] Pesticide and veterinary drug residues are one of the stress factors affecting bee health and mortality. To investigate the occurrence, the concentration and the toxicity risk to bees of pesticide residues in four different types of beeswax (brood comb wax, recycled comb wax, honey comb wax, and cappings wax), 182 samples were collected from apiaries located all over the Belgian territories, during spring 2016 and analysed by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS for the presence of 294 chemical residues. The toxicity risk to bees expressed as the Hazard Quotient (HQ) was calculated for each wax sample, according to two scenarios with different tau-fluvalinate LD(50) values. Residues showing the highest prevalence were correlated to bee mortality in a multivariate logistic regression model and a risk-based model was used to predict colony bee mortality. Altogether, 54 different pesticide and veterinary drug residues were found in the four types of beeswax. The residues with a higher likelihood to be retained in beeswax are applied in-hive or with a high lipophilic nature. The multivariate logistic regression model showed a statistically significant influence of chlorfenvinphos on bee mortality. All our results indicated that cappings wax was substantially less contaminated. This national survey on beeswax contamination provides guidelines on the re-use of beeswax by beekeepers and shows the necessity to introduce maximum residue levels for global trade in beeswax. An online tool was developed to enable beekeepers and wax traders to estimate the risk to honey bee health associated with contaminated wax.
http://hdl.handle.net/2268/250556
10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141036
Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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