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PET Imaging in Altered States of Consciousness: Coma, Sleep, and Hypnosis
Bonin, Estelle; Martens, Géraldine; Cassol, Helena et al.
2020In van Waarde, A; Otte, A; de Vries, E.F.J et al. (Eds.) PET and SPECT in Neurology
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Keywords :
Positron Emission Tomography; Positron Emission Tomography Study; Conscious State
Abstract :
[en] Positron emission tomography (PET) allows studies of cerebral metabolism and blood flow and has been widely used to investigate physiological mechanisms underlying altered states of consciousness. Consciousness is characterized by two components: wakefulness and awareness. In this chapter, we review the current literature on brain metabolism during pathological loss of consciousness (vegetative/unresponsive or minimally conscious states), sleep (in healthy subjects and in patients with insomnia), and under hypnosis. By identifying brain areas specifically involved in conscious processing, these studies have contributed to our understanding of the underlying physiology of consciousness. The precuneal and cingulate cortices, for example, seem to be key areas for maintaining conscious awareness. FDG-PET further allowed the identification of the minimal energetic requirement for conscious awareness in this population, which corresponds to 42% of normal cortical activity. Up to now, it is the most accurate neuroimaging tool regarding the diagnosis of patients with disorders of consciousness. In the future, its use as part of multimodal assessment could improve diagnosis and prognosis in this challenging population. In sleep, a greater activity of the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex and the fronto-parietal areas during non rapid eye movement sleep also seems to play a role in disorders such as insomnia. Other areas such as the hypothalamus, amygdala, or temporo-occipital cortex seem to play a role in different states such as rapid eye movement sleep and hypnosis. PET studies permit a better comprehension of the neural correlates of consciousness and to identify the implication of specific neural areas and networks in altered states of consciousness in post-comatose patients, sleep and induced hypnosis.
Research Center/Unit :
CHU de Liège-Centre du Cerveau² - ULiège
Disciplines :
Neurosciences & behavior
Author, co-author :
Bonin, Estelle  ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > GIGA
Martens, Géraldine  ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > GIGA
Cassol, Helena ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département d'aérospatiale et mécanique > Ingénierie des véhicules terrestres
Chatelle, Camille ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Consciousness-Coma Science Group
Laureys, Steven  ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Giga Consciousness-Coma Science Group
Thibaut, Aurore ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Consciousness-Coma Science Group
Language :
English
Title :
PET Imaging in Altered States of Consciousness: Coma, Sleep, and Hypnosis
Publication date :
2020
Main work title :
PET and SPECT in Neurology
Editor :
van Waarde, A
Otte, A
de Vries, E.F.J
Dierckx, R.A.J.O
Leenders, K.L
Publisher :
Springer Nature, Berlin, Germany
Edition :
2nd edition
Peer reviewed :
Peer reviewed
Commentary :
This update is based on the work of previous authors whom we would like to thank : Johan Stender, Athena Demertzi, Claire Bernard, Roland Hustinx, and Marie-Aurélie Bruno.
Available on ORBi :
since 28 April 2020

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