Reference : Etude chémo-écologique et comportementale du parasitoïde, Nasonia vitripennis Walker ...
Dissertations and theses : Doctoral thesis
Life sciences : Entomology & pest control
Etude chémo-écologique et comportementale du parasitoïde, Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hym., Pteromalidae), en vue de son utilisation comme biodétecteur en entomologie forensique
Frederickx, Christine [Université de Liège - ULiège > Sciences agronomiques > Entomologie fonctionnelle et évolutive >]
Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech Université de Liège, ​​Belgique
Docteur en sciences agronomiques et ingénierie biologique
Haubruge, Eric mailto
Francis, Frédéric mailto
Verheggen, François mailto
Mahy, Grégory mailto
Brostaux, Yves mailto
Lognay, Georges mailto
Hance, Thierry
[en] Nécrophile ; écologie chimique ; COVS ; olfactométrie ; cadavre ; entomologie forensique
[en] Most reports published in the field of forensic entomology are focused on Diptera, mostly on Calliphoridae. However, Hymenoptera are part of the entomofaunal colonisation of a dead body. Despite their significant presence in crime scenes, parasitoids are largely ignored due to their small size and the paucity of biological and behavioral information available in the ecosystem of corpse. The use of Hymenoptera parasitoids in forensic entomology can be relevant to many applications such as development of a biodectector. The objectives of this thesis were (1) to identify the Hymenoptera community parasitizing necrophagous Diptera, (2) to identify volatile organic compounds emitted by decaying process and by hosts which facilitate host-habitat and host location by female Nasonia vitripennis Walker (3) to evaluate the species N. vitripennis as biodectector of corpses. The faunistic study has identified five species of Hymenoptera in cadaver ecosystem. Alysia manducator was the most abundant Braconidae species. However, N. vitripennis was chosen as insect model; because over the last 50 years, this wasp has been intensely investigated in the subject of genetic, ecological and evolutionary research. A chemo-ecological approach, combining EAG and behavioral studies, was used on N. vitripennis with selected compounds from the decay process and their hosts. Firstly, we have demonstrated that host- habitat location and host location were dependent on the concentration of volatile organic compounds tested. In addition, dimethyldisulfide, a key component of decomposition and also released by Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Calliphoridae) pupae, has a biological activity. Secondly, we have showed that rate of parasitism was based on the age of pupa, depth and substrate in which larvae burrow. This rate is the most important when pupae were six day-old, on the surface of soil and in a soil with a granulometry greater than 1mm. Moreover, N. vitripennis expanded our potential resource in biosensor used in forensic science. Females demonstrated a capacity for learning and memory.
Fonds pour la formation à la Recherche dans l'Industrie et dans l'Agriculture (Communauté française de Belgique) - FRIA
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