A. Gautier, A. Ittoo, and N. Petit. "Algorithmic Price Discrimination & Tacit Collusion." Paper presented at Workshop on Law and Economics of Big Data and AI. Rome, Italy, December 5, 2018.
I. Salem and A. Gautier. "Local policies to reduce residential waste:Are they effective? Evidence from Wallonia." Paper presented at 5th FAERE Annual Conference. Aix-en-Provence, France, August 31, 2018.
A. Gautier. "La fin de l’Internet neutre." Regards économiques [Focus] (June 28, 2018).
Le paysage de l’Internet est en train de se transformer radicalement aux États-Unis. Deux décisions récentes vont modifier en profondeur la manière dont les fournisseurs d’accès à Internet (ci-après FAI, tel que Proximus) et les fournisseurs de contenu (tel que YouTube) interagissent. Le 11 juin, le régulateur américain des télécoms (FCC) a édicté de nouvelles règles concernant la neutralité du net. Alors que l’Open Internet Order de 2015 et abrogé en décembre réaffirmait le principe de neutralité du net et limitait sévèrement les pratiques des FAI, les nouvelles règles parues le 11 juin (ou plutôt l’absence de règles) permettent aux FAI de faire plus ou moins ce qu’ils veulent sous la seule obligation de transparence. La même semaine, la justice américaine validait la fusion entre AT&T (un des plus importants FAI américain) et Time Warner (fournisseur de contenu), alors que continue la bataille entre Disney et le FAI Comcast pour le rachat de la Fox. A travers ces fusions, on assiste à une intégration des FAI et des fournisseurs de contenu. Dans ce focus, je reviens sur les implications de la neutralité du net.
M. Manuel de Villena Millan, A. Gautier, R. Fonteneau, and D. Ernst. "A multi-agent system approach to model the interaction between distributed generation deployment and the grid." In Proc. of CIRED Workshop 2018. 2018.
This paper introduces a multi-agent dynamical system of the interaction between electricity consumers, the electricity distribution system operator, and the technological (generation, storage) and regulatory (tariff design, incentive schemes) environments. For any type of environment, our dynamical system simulates the evolution of the deployment of distributed electricity generation, as well as the evolution of the cost of distribution. The system relies on the assumption that individual electricity consumers behave statistically as rational agents, who may invest in optimised distributed renewable energy installations, if they are cost-efficient compared to the retail electricity tariff. The deployment of these installations induces a change in the aggregated net consumption and generation of the users of a distribution network. By modelling the cost recovery mechanism of the distribution system operator, the system simulates the evolution of the retail electricity tariff in response to such a change in the aggregated consumption and production.
L. Artige. "Public Education Expenditures, Growth and Income Inequality." Paper presented at CEPR Growth and Inequality: Long-Term Effects of Short-Term Policies. Tel Aviv, Israel, May 16, 2018.
A. Gautier. "Transition énergétique: Repenser le rôle des consommateurs et du réseau." Paper presented at Rencontres de Liège créative. Liège, 2018.
La transition énergétique amène de nouvelles manières de produire, consommer, stocker et échanger l’énergie. Ces nouvelles habitudes modifient fondamentalement le rôle du réseau. Le réseau de distribution est amené à fournir de nouveaux services aux acteurs du marché. La présentation fera le point sur les nouveaux comportements observés dans le cadre de la transition énergétique (auto consommation, production décentralisée, économies d’énergie, etc.) et sur les moyens de les encourager. Elle se poursuivra avec une réflexion sur la tarification des réseaux et la présentation d’un simulateur tarifaire.
M. Manuel de Villena Millan, R. Fonteneau, A. Gautier, and D. Ernst. "Exploring Regulation Policies in Distribution Networks through a Multi-Agent Simulator." In Proc. of YRS2018. 2018.
This paper presents a multi-agent simulator that describes the interactions between the agents of a distribution network (DN), and an environment. The agents are the users of the DN and the electricity distribution system operator. The environment is the set of rules (tariff design, technology costs, or incentive schemes) that impacts the agents interactions. For a given environment, we can simulate the evolution of the agents and the environment itself. We assume the electricity consumers are rational agents that may deploy distributed renewable energy installations if they are cost-efficient compared to the retail electricity tariff. The deployment of such installations may alter the cost recovery scheme of the distribution system operator, by inducing a change in the way the user use of the grid. By modelling the cost recovery mechanism of the distribution system operator, the system simulates the evolution of the retail electricity tariff in response to such a change in the aggregated consumption and production.
A. Gautier. "Energy transition Integrating renewables into the grid." Paper presented at Energy Day. Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, April 16, 2018.
L. Artige. "Déploiement économique wallon: sommes-nous prêts ?" Paper presented at Conférence Linklaters et HEC Liège. Seraing, Belgique, 2018.
A. Gautier. "Une nouvelle tarification des réseaux pour la transition énergétique." Paper presented at Actualités du solaire photovoltaïque et du stockage énergétique en Wallonie et en Région de Bruxelles-Capitale. Namur, Belgique, 2018.
A. Gautier and N. Neysen. "Deliveroo perd elle les pédales." L'écho (January 31, 2018).
A. Gautier. "Prioritization vs zero-rating: Discrimination on the internet." Paper presented at EARIE. Athens, Greece, 2018.
A. Gautier. "Prioritization vs zero-rating: Discrimination on the internet." Paper presented at European economic association (EEA) meeting. Cologne, Germany, 2018.
A. Gautier. "Prioritization vs zero-rating: Discrimination on the internet." Paper presented at CESifo Area Conference on the Economics of Digitization. Munich, Germany, 2018.
A. Gautier. "PV adoption in Wallonia: The role of distribution tariffs under net metering." Paper presented at Journées de microéconomie appliquée. Bordeaux, France, 2018.
A. Gautier. "Quels accès à quels actifs pour une libéralisation effective du secteur ferroviaire?" Paper presented at 3ème conférence annuelle de l'Association Française d'Economie du Droit (AFED). Nancy, France, 2018.
I. Salem and A. Gautier. "Local policies to reduce residential waste: Are they effective ? Evidence from Wallonia." Paper presented at 11th PhD Workshop in Economics. Torino, Italy, 2018.
A. Gautier. "La neutralité du net est-elle vraiment neutre ?" The Conversation (December 21, 2017).
Le 14 décembre, la Commission fédérale de réglementation des communications (FCC) a voté la fin de la neutralité du net aux États-Unis, malgré les nombreux appels au maintien d’un Internet neutre des pionniers de l’Internet et des entreprises de la sillicon valley. L’« Open Internet Order » de mars 2015 » a vécu et l’organisation de l’Internet risque de changer, peut-être radicalement.
A. Gautier. "L'économie collaborative." Paper presented at Réunion du Conseil économique et social de Wallonie. Liège, 2017.
A. Gautier. "Prioritization vs zero-rating: Quality and financial discrimination on the net." Paper presented at Séminaire en économie. Nanterre, France, November 2017.
L. Artige. "Creativity and Innovation." Paper presented at ENTRENOVA 2017. Dubrovnik, Croatia, September 8, 2017.
A. Gautier. "Smallest salable patent practicing unit (SSPPU) and component licensing: Why $1 is not $1?" Paper presented at European Association of Law and Economics (EALE). London, UK, September 2017.
A. Gautier. "Net neutrality: Paid prioritization vs Zero-rating." Paper presented at PET 2017, Public Economic Theory Conference. Paris, July 2017.
A. Gautier. "Hardware vs. software: How to make the energy system smarter?" Paper presented at 21st EMAN conference. Liège, June 27, 2017.
A. Gautier. "Net neutrality: Paid prioritization vs Zero-rating." Paper presented at VIII Institutions, Individual Behavior, and Economic Outcomes. Alghero, Italy, June 2017.
A. Gautier. "Smallest salable patent practicing unit (SSPPU) and component licensing: Why $1 is not $1?" Paper presented at 4th International meeting in Law & Economics. Paris, June 2017.
A. Gautier. "Smallest salable patent practicing unit (SSPPU) and component licensing: Why $1 is not $1?" Paper presented at LCII-TILEC Conference on "Innovation, Research and Competition in the EU: The Future of Open and Collaborative Standard Setting". Brussels, May 29, 2017.
A. Gautier. "The prosumers and the grid." Paper presented at Séminaire BETA Lorraine. Nancy, France, April 25, 2017.
A. Gautier. "The prosumers and the grid." Paper presented at 15th Annual International Industrial Organization Conference. Boston, USA, April 2017.
W. M. W. Lam. "Attack-Prevention and Damage-Control Investments in Cybersecurity." Paper presented at Department seminar at Colegio Universitario de Estudios Financieros. Madrid, February 2017.
W. M. W. Lam. "Attack-Prevention and Damage-Control Investments in Cybersecurity." Paper presented at Royal Economic Society PhD Meetings. London, January 2017.
S. Broos. "Targeted advertising and consumer information." Paper presented at Mannheim Seminar, 2017.
N. Petit and N. Neyrinck. "Les Joint-Ventures – Aspects de droit de la concurrence." Paper presented at Les Joint-Ventures. Bruxelles, Belgium, 2017.
Obligations et formalités imposées par les droits belge et européen ; Mesures correctives spécifiques aux JV ; La frontière entre JV de plein exercice et JV coopérative.
W. M. W. Lam. "Attack-Prevention and Damage-Control Investments in Cybersecurity." Paper presented at The 9th Biennial Conference of Hong Kong Economic Association. Hong Kong, December 2016.
A. Gautier. "SSPPU: Why 1$ is not 1$." Paper presented at Seminaire CRED. Paris, France, November 21, 2016.
A. Gautier and J. Jacqmin. "Hardware vs. software platforms: How to make the energy grid smarter?" Paper presented at 5th BAEE Research Workshop on Energy Economics. Delft, Netherlands, November 4, 2016.
A. Gautier. "Cartels in the EU: who appeals and who wins?" Paper presented at Association française d'économie du droit. Paris, France, November 2016.
W. M. W. Lam. "Attack-Prevention and Damage-Control Investments in Cybersecurity." Paper presented at Department seminar at Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. Leuven, November 2016.
A. Gautier. "Défi climatique: l'état et le marché." Paper presented at Sommet Wallon pour le climat. Mons, 2016.
L. Artige. "Measurement of Innovation: Where Do We Stand?" Paper presented at ENTRENOVA 2016. Rovinj, Croatia, September 8, 2016.
J. Teusch. "Merger incentives under yardstick competition: A theoretical model." Paper presented at 31st Jornadas de Economia Industria. Palma de Mallorca, September 2, 2016.
W. M. W. Lam. "Attack-Prevention and Damage-Control Investments in Cybersecurity." Paper presented at Workshop on Legal and Policy Dimensions of Cybersecurity. Washington DC, September 2016.
A. Gautier. "The prosumers and the grid." Paper presented at EARIE. Lisbonne, Portugal, August 2016.
S. Vandenbosch and N. Petit. "Le Brexit et "l'arme nucléaire" de l'UE, l'article 7." Le Vif. L'Express (July 12, 2016).
J. Teusch and P. Agrell. "Merger incentives under yardstick competition: Theory and evidence from Norway." Paper presented at 11th International Conference on Competition and Regulation. Rhodes, June 30, 2016.
L. Artige and L. Cavenaile. "Public Education Expenditures, Growth and Income Inequality." Paper presented at 2016 Taipei International Conference on Growth, Trade, and Dynamics. Taipei, Taiwan, June 23, 2016.
L. Artige. "Le secteur de la construction en Belgique." Paper presented at Réunion OPTICOST. Limelette, Belgique, 2016.
A. Gautier. "Cartels in the EU: who appeals and who wins?" Paper presented at Journées de Microéconomie appliquée. Besançon, France, June 2016.
W. M. W. Lam. "Attack-Prevention and Damage-Control Investments in Cybersecurity." Paper presented at Department seminar at Telecom ParisTech. Paris, June 2016.
J. Marcos Ramos. "The Origins of Dominance in EU Competition Law: An Introductory Note." Paper presented at CENTRE FOR COMPETITION POLICY PhD WORKSHOP 2016. Norwich, UK, June 2016.
A. Gautier. "Optimal Enforcement of Competition Policy: the Commitments Procedure under Uncertainty." Paper presented at Research Seminar CRESE. Besançon, France, April 7, 2016.
J. Marcos Ramos. "Google, Google Shopping and Amazon: the importance of competing business models and two-sided intermediaries in defining relevant markets." Paper presented at 2nd Annual BECCLE Competition Policy Conference. Bergen, Norway, April 2016.
J. Teusch. "Yardstick competition, unobserved heterogeneity and merger incentives." Paper presented at 21st Spring Meeting of Young Economists. Lisbon, March 31, 2016.
L. Artige. "Will Big Data Deliver Its Promised Productivity Growth?" Paper presented at IAES Conference. Lisbon, Portugal, March 18, 2016.
J. Marcos Ramos. "Big Data Regulation in the Platform Economy." Paper presented at -, 2016.
L. Artige. "The Macroeconomics of PAYG Pension Schemes in an Ageing Society." Paper presented at BEL-Ageing Meeting. Bruxelles, Belgium, March 10, 2016.
A. Gautier. "Une nouvelle tarification des réseaux énergétiques." Le Vif. L'Express (February 22, 2016).
La transition énergétique est en marche. Nos manières de produire et de consommer de l'énergie sont en train de changer. Un des éléments les plus visible de cette transition est sans doute la production décentralisée d'électricité au moyen de panneaux photovoltaïques. Partager sur Facebook Partager sur Twitter Partager sur Google+ Partager sur LinkedIn Envoyer par e-mail 132Fois partagé Axel Gautier Axel Gautier Professeur à l'Université de Liège Opinion 22/02/16 à 10:02 - Mise à jour à 10:08 Une nouvelle tarification des réseaux énergétiques La transition énergétique est en marche. Nos manières de produire et de consommer de l'énergie sont en train de changer. Un des éléments les plus visible de cette transition est sans doute la production décentralisée d'électricité au moyen de panneaux photovoltaïques. Nous pensons que la transition énergétique doit s'accompagner d'une transition tarifaire et que les relations financières entre consommateurs et réseaux doivent être repensées.
A. Gautier. "L'économie du partage." Paper presented at Quelle place pour "l'économie du partage" dans notre société?. Parlement Bruxellois, 2016.
L. Artige. "Public Education Expenditures, Growth and Income Inequality." Paper presented at Economics Seminar. Hohenheim, Germany, January 20, 2016.
A. Gautier. "Optimal Enforcement of Competition Policy: The Commitments Procedure under Uncertainty." Paper presented at Séminaire de recherche GREDEG. Nice, France, January 19, 2016.
W. M. W. Lam. "Switching Costs in Two-sided Markets." Paper presented at Department seminar at Université catholique de Louvain. Louvain-la-Neuve, January 2016.
S. Broos. "Targeted advertising and consumer information." Paper presented at European Association for Research in Industrial Economics, 2016.
S. Broos. "Targeted advertising and consumer information." Paper presented at 14th ZEW Conference on The Economics of Information and Communication Technologies, 2016.
S. Broos. "Targeted advertising and consumer information." Paper presented at Industrial Organization in the Digital Economy, 2016.
S. Broos. "Targeted advertising and consumer information." Paper presented at Séminaire Télécom ParisTech, 2016.
S. Broos. "Targeted advertising and consumer information." Paper presented at Seminar TILEC, Tilburg University, 2016.
S. Broos and A. Gautier. "Cartels in the EU: Who Appeal and Who Wins?" Paper presented at European Association of Law and Economics annual conference, 2016.
S. Broos and A. Gautier. "The exclusion of competing one-way essential complements: implications for net neutrality." Paper presented at Ninth IDEI-TSE-IAST Conference on The Economics of Intellectual Property, Software and the Internet, 2016.
S. Broos and J. Marcos Ramos. "Competing Business Models And Two-Sidedness: An Application To The Google Shopping Case." Paper presented at Google Seminar, 2016.
S. Broos and J. Marcos Ramos. "Competing Business Models And Two-Sidedness: An Application To The Google Shopping Case." Paper presented at Annual Conference of the Leibniz ScienceCampus MaCCI - Mannheim Centre for Competition and Innovation, 2016.
L. Artige. "La croissance : stop ou encore ?" Paper presented at -. Etoile-sur-Rhône, France, 2015.
L. Artige. "Les relations entre universités et entreprises comme vecteurs d'innovation." Paper presented at Les Midis de l'innovation. Jambes, Belgium, 2015.
L. Artige. "Why Facebook is flying up high and Twitter can't fly away." LCII Policy Brief (September 28, 2015).
L. Artige. "Will Big Data Deliver its Promised Productivity Growth?" Paper presented at ENTRENOVA 2015. Kotor, Montenegro, September 11, 2015.
W. M. W. Lam. "Attack-Prevention and Damage-Control Investments in Cybersecurity." Paper presented at The 32nd Annual Conference of the European Association of Law and Economics. Vienna, September 2015.
A. Gautier. "Competing one-way essential complements: the forgotten side of net neutrality." Paper presented at 42nd EARIE Annual Conference. Munich, Germany, August 28, 2015.
W. M. W. Lam. "Status and Coordination in Organizations." Paper presented at The 42nd Annual Conference of the European Association for Research in Industrial Economics. Munich, August 2015.
L. Artige and P. Pestieau. "Public education, PAYG pension and economic growth in an a geing s ociety." Paper presented at BEL - Ageing Workshop: Labor market, pensions, and debt in Europe: live long, retire late or die poor?. Ghent, Belgium, June 5, 2015.
A. Gautier. "Competing one-way essential complements: the forgotten side of net neutrality." Paper presented at 32ème Journées de Microéconomie Appliquée 2015. Montpellier, France, June 2015.
W. M. W. Lam. "Attack-Prevention and Damage-Control Investments in Cybersecurity." Paper presented at The 14th Annual Workshop on the Economics of Information Security. Delft, June 2015.
N. Petit. "Antitrust and The challenge of policing « moligopolists »." Paper presented at CLEEN Annual Conference, May 29, 2015.
L. Artige and P. Pestieau. "Pensions, education and growth with declining fertility and increasing longevity." Paper presented at Human Capital & Aging Workshop. Boston, USA, April 13, 2015.
A. Gautier. "Optimal Enforcement of Competition Policy: The Commitments Procedure under Uncertainty." Paper presented at Séminaire. Montpellier, France, April 9, 2015.
S. Broos and A. Gautier. "Competing One-Way Essential Complements: The Forgotten Side of Net Neutrality." Paper presented at 6th Workshop on the Economics of ICTs, April 2015.
A. Gautier. "Faut-il payer le train plus cher à l'heure de pointe ?" Regards économiques (Focus) (March 25, 2015).
La semaine dernière, la presse faisait écho du projet de la SNCB d'introduire des tarifs plus élevés pour les voyages effectués à l'heure de pointe. Concrètement, celui qui prendrait le train dans les tranches 6h-9h et 15h-18h paierait un supplément. La SNCB motive son projet par le fait que le prix actuel est un des plus faible d'Europe. La proposition a –comme on s'en doute- reçu un accueil glacial de la part des usagers du rail. Dans ce focus de Regards économiques, Axel Gautier livre les réflexions d'un économiste (qui est aussi navetteur) à propos de ce projet de la SNCB.
A. Gautier. "Investir et gérer le transport public urbain ?" Paper presented at Téléphérique urbain: un potentiel à Liège?. Liège, 2015.
W. M. W. Lam. "Attack-Prevention and Damage-Control Investments in Cybersecurity." Paper presented at Workshop on Industrial Organization in the Digital Economy. Liege, March 2015.
N. Petit and N. Neyrinck. "Les fonctions de la procédure en droit de la concurrence." Paper presented at DES FONCTIONS DE LA PROCÉDURE DANS LE DROIT ÉCONOMIQUE EUROPÉEN, March 2015.
N. Petit. "“Problem Practices” in EU Competition Law." Paper presented at CCP 10th Annual Conference, ‘Problem Markets’, February 10, 2015.
A. Gautier. "Optimal Enforcement of Competition Policy: The Commitments Procedure under Uncertainty." Paper presented at Séminaire Cournot. Strasbourg, France, January 8, 2015.
A. Gautier. "Le coût de l’énergie verte en Wallonie, 2003-2012." Paper presented at WORKSHOP ON THE BELGIAN ENERGY MARKET PERSPECTIVES. Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, 2015.
A. Gautier. "The prosumer and the grid." Paper presented at 4th BAEE Research Workshop on Energy Economics. Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, 2015.
N. Petit. "Article 102 TFEU and the Test Debate." Paper presented at IBC Conference, 2015.
A. Reginster. "Les entreprises sociales belges en neuf questions." Baromètre des Entreprises Sociales en Belgique (2015).
W. M. W. Lam. "Attack-Prevention and Damage-Control Investments in Cybersecurity." Paper presented at Department seminar at Université Saint-Louis - Bruxelles. Brussels, November 2014.
W. M. W. Lam. "Competition in the Market for Flexible Resources: an application to cloud computing." Paper presented at Department seminar at University of Liege. Liege, November 2014.
A. Gautier. "Les services publics: Organisation et performance." Paper presented at Séminaire des Entreprises publiques locales. Spa, Belgique, 2014.
L. Artige. "Liège. Où s’amorce le nouveau modèle économique wallon ? Où s’échoue le vieux modèle politique wallon ?" Paper presented at -. Liège, Belgium, 2014.
S. Broos and A. Gautier. "Competing One-Way Essential Complements: The Forgotten Side of Net Neutrality." Paper presented at Jornadas de economia industrial, September 2014.
A. Gautier. "Optimal Enforcement of Competition Policy: The Commitments Procedure under Uncertainty." Paper presented at 41st Annual Conference of the European Association for Research in Industrial Economics (EARIE). Bocconi University, Milan, August 2014.
S. Broos and A. Gautier. "Competing One-Way Essential Complements : the Forgotten Side of the Net Neutrality Story." Paper presented at 18th Centre for Competition and Regulatory Policy (CCRP) Workshop. Barcelone, Espagne, July 11, 2014.
We examine the incentives of an internet service provider (ISP) to break net neutrality by excluding internet applications competing with its own products, a typical example being the exclusion of VoIP applications by a telecom company offering internet and voice services. We show that exclusion is not a concern when the ISP is a monopoly because it can extract the additional surplus created by the application through price rebalancing. By contrast, when ISP’s compete, in an attempt to differentiate, only one ISP will offer the app. Applying a no-exclusion rule in this case can lead to monopoly.
A. Gautier. "Optimal Enforcement of Competition Policy: The Commitments Procedure under Uncertainty." Paper presented at CRESSE 2014, 9th International Conference on Competition and Regulation. Corfu, Greece, July 4, 2014.
S. Broos and A. Gautier. "Competing One-Way Essential Complements : the Forgotten Side of the Net Neutrality Story}." Paper presented at Connected Life 2014. Oxford, Grande-Bretagne, June 12, 2014.
We examine the incentives of an internet service provider (ISP) to break net neutrality by excluding internet applications competing with its own products, a typical example being the exclusion of VoIP applications by a telecom company offering internet and voice services. We show that exclusion is not a concern when the ISP is a monopoly because it can extract the additional surplus created by the application through price rebalancing. By contrast, when ISP’s compete, in an attempt to differentiate, only one ISP will offer the app. Applying a no-exclusion rule in this case can lead to monopoly.
A. Gautier. "Optimal Enforcement of Competition Policy: The Commitments Procedure under Uncertainty." Paper presented at Commitments in EU Competition Policy. Brussels, June 5, 2014.
M. Bougnouch and A. Gautier. "Regulation in Practice: Choice among regulatory Tools." Paper presented at 11th International Conference on the European Energy Market. Krakow, Poland, May 28, 2014.
A. Gautier. "Optimal Enforcement of Competition Policy: The Commitments Procedure under Uncertainty." Paper presented at Economic Seminar Università degli Studi di Sassari. Sassari, Italy, May 22, 2014.
L. Artige. "The Macroeconomics of PAYG Pension Schemes in an Aging Society." Paper presented at BEL-Ageing Meeting. Leuven, Belgium, May 16, 2014.
L. Artige and L. Cavenaile. "Liquidity Constraints and Global Imbalances." Paper presented at International Atlantic Economic Society. Madrid, Spain, April 5, 2014.
A. Gautier. "La collecte des déchets en Wallonie : organisation et performances." Paper presented at Séminaire de la chaire EPPP. Paris, France, April 3, 2014.
N. Petit. "The Principles of Equivalence and Effectiveness as a Limit to National Procedural Autonomy." Paper presented at ENTraNCE 2014, March 2014.
N. Neyrinck. "Report for Belgium 2012 LIDC Report for Belgium - SMEs and Competition Law: Should small and middle size undertakings be subject to other or specific competition rules." In ntitrust for Small and Middle Size Undertakings and Image Protection from Non-Competitors. Edited by N. Neyrinck. LIDC Contributions on Antitrust Law, Intellectual Property and Unfair Competition. Berlin Heidelberg, Germany: Springer, 2014. 41-64.
This article examines whether small and middle-sized businesses could or should be subject to specific competition rules under Belgian competition Law. These businesses account for 99% of the enterprises in Europe. The paper considers both the public and private enforcement rules.
A. Reginster. "Les entreprises en forte croissance: Leur part dans la croissance de l'économie wallonne et leur durabilité dans le temps." Dynamisme 247 (2014): 16-19.
Quelle croissance en termes de valeur ajoutée et d'emploi resterait-il à l'économie non financière wallonne sans une poignée d'entreprises en plein essor? Quelle durabilité une entreprise peut-elle espérer dans le temps pour son état de forte croissance? Comment évoluent les entreprises au sortir d'une période de plein essor? Enfin, comment les entreprises qui ont connu une forte croissance se sont-elles relevées de la crise économique de 2009, par comparaison avec le reste de l'économie?
A. Gautier, J. Bouckaert, and A. de Streel. "Current challenges in the economic regulation of utilities in Belgium." Paper presented at Regulatory performance: The role of politics and institutional design. Brussels, Belgium, 2013.
Regulation covers all the ways in which, in our markets-based economies, the public sector influences, constrains, dictates or coordinates private activities for the common good. This session will deal with the question of institutional design and the role of politics in determining regulatory performance in Belgium. These themes will be explored through concrete examples of regulatory failures and successes, with an eye towards generating general principles and guidelines for improving regulatory designs.
L. Artige. "Perspectives économiques internationales et conjoncture belge : quels défis pour la Wallonie ?" Paper presented at Liège creative. Liège, Belgique, 2013.
A. Gautier and J.-C. Poudou. "Reforming the Postal Universal Service." Paper presented at EARIE. Evora, Portugal, August 2013.
The postal sector has undergone dramatic changes over the recent years under the double effect of ongoing liberalization and increased competition with alternative communication channels (e-substitution). As a result, the mail volume handled by the historical operator has declined sharply while the latter's ability to match the same standard of universal service may be under threat. Thus, a reform of the postal universal service is on the agenda. This paper examines possible reforming options ranging from keeping universal service within the postal sector to redefining universal service as spanning postal and electronic technologies.
L. Artige, Cavenaile, and P. Pestieau. "The Shift from Defined Benefit to Defined Contribution in an Ageing Society." Paper presented at Beldebt meeting. Brussels, Belgium, June 18, 2013.
L. Artige, A. Dedry, and P. Pestieau. "Social Security and Economic Integration." Paper presented at Beldebt meeting. Brussels, Belgium, June 3, 2013.
A. Gautier and J.-C. Poudou. "Reforming the Postal Universal Service." Paper presented at Journées de Microéconomie appliquée. Nice, France, June 2013.
The postal sector has undergone dramatic changes over the recent years under the double effect of ongoing liberalization and increased competition with alternative communication channels (e-substitution). As a result, the mail volume handled by the historical operator has declined sharply while the latter's ability to match the same standard of universal service may be under threat. Thus, a reform of the postal universal service is on the agenda. This paper examines possible reforming options ranging from keeping universal service within the postal sector to redefining universal service as spanning postal and electronic technologies.
A. Gautier and B. Thiry. "An Empirical Analysis of School Bus Lines Procurement in Wallonia." Paper presented at Contracts, Procurement, and Public-Private Arrangements. Firenze, Italy, June 2013.
L. Artige. "La dette publique dans la zone euro." Paper presented at Espace universitaire de Liège. Liège, 2013.
L. Artige. "Liquidity Shocks and Global Imbalances." Paper presented at Economics research seminar. Graz, Austria, December 4, 2012.
L. Artige, L. Cavenaile, and P. Pestieau. "Debt, Pension and Demographics." Paper presented at Beldebt meeting. Liège, Belgium, November 29, 2012.
N. Petit. "Microsoft Corp. contre Commission T-167/08, 27 juin 2012." Paper presented at EIPA ANNUAL CONFERENCE RECENT TRENDS IN THE CASE LAW OF THE COURT OF JUSTICE OF THE EU. Luxembourg, Luxembourg, November 29, 2012.
L. Artige. "Analyse comparée des performances des entreprises dans les provinces d’Anvers et de Liège." Paper presented at Innova Workshop. Liège, Belgium, 2012.
N. Petit. "Aims and Values in EU Competition Law." Paper presented at University of Copenhagen. Copenhagen, Danemark, September 20, 2012.
F. Bloch and A. Gautier. "Strategic bypass deterrence." Paper presented at 39th EARIE Annual Conference. Roma, Italy, September 2012.
N. Petit. "L'Europe change nos vies." Sudpresse (June 7, 2012).
L. Artige. "La décroissance : nécessité ou utopie ?" Paper presented at -. Liège, Belgique, 2012.
N. Petit. "Europe's antitrust chief urges Google to settle allegations." Los Angeles Times (May 22, 2012).
N. Petit. "Europe weighs Antitrust Case aigainst Google, urging search changes." New York Times.com (May 21, 2012).
Google may have abused its dominant position in Internet search by promoting its own businesses at the expense of competitors, the European Commission said. It warned the company to propose chnages 'in a matter of weeks" to its method of answering user search queries, or possibly face antitrust lawsuit.
A. Gautier. "Vers un service universel 2.0?" La Libre Belgique (May 19, 2012).
La révolution numérique a radicalement changé notre façon de communiquer. Il faut repenser le service universel des communications en intégrant les changements technologiques.
N. Petit. "Change of Tone could help Google in European Antitrust Case." New York Times.com (April 29, 2012).
For the past two years, Google has worked hard to avoid facing formal antitrust charges in Europe that could mean years of expensive litigation and encourage the authorities in other parts of the world to take comparable actions. Time is running out. The European Commission could bring charges against the U.S. company for abusing its dominance in the search and advertising market in the next few weeks.
N. Petit. "US Antitrust Move has Google fighting on Two Fronts." New York Times.com (April 27, 2012).
Google may soon be fighting antitrust battle on two fronts. The European Commission has been looking for two years into wether the search giant abused local competition law. Now the Federal Trade Commission is starting its own antitrust inquiry.
L. Artige and L. Cavenaile. "Global imbalances, Exchange Rates and Economic Growth." Paper presented at International Atlantic Economic Conference. Istanbul, Turkey, March 29, 2012.
A. Gautier and J.-C. Poudou. "Reforming the Postal Universal Service." Paper presented at 7th Postal conference on the economics of the postal sector in a digital world. Toulouse, France, March 22, 2012.
The postal sector has dramatically changed in the recent years with the ongoing liberalization process and the increased competitive pressures from alternative communication channels (e-substitution). These two effects concur to decrease the mail volume handled by the historical operator which in turn may threaten the financial viability of the universal service and may call for a reform of the universal service. This paper examines the question of reforming the postal universal service, first by considering that the universal service remains confined in the postal word and, latter, by defining a universal service that includes postal and electronic technologies.
N. Petit. "A Quick Look into the past, present and future of competition Enforcement in the Pharmaceutical Sector." Paper presented at -, 2012.
F. Bloch and A. Gautier. "Strategic Bypass Deterrence." Paper presented at The 10th annual International Industrial Organization Conference. Georges MASON University, Washington DC, USA, March 17, 2012.
In liberalized network industries, entrants can either compete for service using the existing infrastructure (access) or deploy their own infrastructure capacity (bypass). In this paper, we demonstrate that, under the threat of bypass, the access price set by an unregulated and vertically integrated incumbent is compatible with productive efficiency. This means that the entrant bypasses the existing infrastructure only if it can produces the network input more efficiently. The incumbent lowers the access price compared to the ex-post efficient level to strategically deter inefficient bypass by the entrant. Accordingly, from a productive efficiency point of view, there is no need to regulate access prices when the entrant has the option to bypass. Despite that, we show that restricting the possibilities of access might be profitable for consumers.
N. Petit. "Budget : Après la rigueur douce, la concurrence dure?" La Libre Belgique (March 12, 2012).
L’un des maux endémiques de l’économie belge tient aux pressions concurrentielles insuffisantes sur de nombreux marchés de produits. Faute d’un cadre de surveillance effectif, les prix des biens et services demeurent – comme le décrivent maintes études – plus élevés que dans d'autres États membres, et ce spécialement dans le secteur de la vente au détail et dans les industries de réseaux (énergie, télécommunications, transport ferroviaire, etc.).
L. Artige, L. Cavenaile, and P. Pestieau. "Debt and Pension." Paper presented at Beldebt meeting. Leuven, Belgium, February 15, 2012.
A. Gautier. "Energie et environnement." Paper presented at Cycle développement durable. Liège, 2012.
N. Petit and N. Neyrinck. "Industrial Policy and Competition Enforcement: Is There, Could There and Should There Be a Nexus?" Paper presented at 2012 GCLC Annual Conference, 8-9 November 2012, Residence Palace, Brussels, 2012.
This paper muses on whether there can be, there is, and there should exist a nexus between European Union (“EU”) competition law and industrial policy. A well-known, long lasting grievance in the history of EU competition law is indeed that the European Commission (“the Commission”) has allegedly enforced the competition rules dogmatically, and turned a blind eye on industrial policy considerations. Lately, this policy debate has revived. With the current economic debacle in the Western world, decades of free-market economic policies – including competition policies – inherited from the so-called “Washington consensus” are called into question. In contrast, thriving economic models like Brazil, China, or India where the State interferes with the market at the expense of free competition, are increasingly looked by the “old world” as a possible source of inspiration. Those new developments justify devoting another paper to the question whether industrial policy considerations could and should inform EU competition enforcement. To address it, we follow a four steps methodology. We first solve definitional issues by describing the various possible meanings of “industrial policy” (I). Second, we follow a legalistic approach to review whether such considerations can, as a matter of positive law, play a role (II). Third, we turn to empirical analysis, to examine if there has been some industrial policy influence in the Commission’s case-law (III). Fourth, we review consequentialist arguments to assess whether industrial policy considerations should play a stronger role in EU competition enforcement (IV).
A. Gautier. "Rethinking regulatory capture." Paper presented at ECORE Seminar. Brussels, November 14, 2011.
L. Artige. "Innovation : relations entre universités et entreprises." Paper presented at L'innovation et les relations université-entreprises. Bruxelles, Belgique, November 9, 2011.
A. Gautier. "Améliorer la régulation et la politique de concurrence." Paper presented at Table ronde de politique économique : Les défis de la Belgique face aux réformes structurelles. Brussels, November 9, 2011.
A. Gautier and F. Bloch. "Strategic bypass deterrence." Paper presented at V Intertic Conference on Innovation, Competition and the New Economy. University of Venice, Ca’ Foscari, Department of Economics, Italy, October 17, 2011.
In liberalized network industries, entrants can either compete for service using the existing infrastructure (access) or deploy their own infrastructure capacity (bypass). In this paper, we demonstrate that, under the threat of bypass, the access price set by an unregulated and vertically integrated incumbent is compatible with productive efficiency. This means that the entrant bypasses the existing infrastructure only if it can produces the network input more efficiently. The incumbent lowers the access price compared to the ex-post efficient level to strategically deter inefficient bypass by the entrant. Accordingly, from a productive efficiency point of view, there is no need to regulate access prices when the entrant has the option to bypass. Despite that, we show that restricting the possibilities of access might be profitable for consumers.
P. Agrell and A. Gautier. "Soft Capture." Paper presented at XXVI Jornadas de Economia Industrial. Valencia, Spain, September 2011.
L. Artige and L. Cavenaile. "A Growth Model of Global Imbalances." Paper presented at European Economic Association. Oslo, Norway, August 29, 2011.
N. Petit. "L'UE devrait enquêter sur l'irrationalité des agences de notation." Libération (July 15, 2011): 14.
N. Petit. "Les vertus oubliées d'une politique de concurrence efficace." Le Soir (June 17, 2011): 14.
La Commission européenne a remis en cause le système belge d’indexation automatique des salaires. L’inflation s’accélère et est nettement supérieure à celle de la zone euro. Il y a pourtant un remède « gagnant/gagnant » au panier percé de l’indexation automatique. Il faut revoir la politique belge de la concurrence.
L. Artige and D. Dubois. "Enquête sur l’innovation en Province de Liège : premiers résultats." Paper presented at Workshop: "Économie et innovation en province de Liège: passé, présent et avenir". Liège, Belgique, June 9, 2011.
A. Gautier and G. d'Alcantara. "The Postal Sector as a Vector of Financial Inclusion." Paper presented at 19th conference on Postal and Delivery Economics. St-Helier, Jersey, June 2011.
P. Agrell and A. Gautier. "Soft Capture." Paper presented at IIOC conference. Boston, USA, April 2011.
L. Artige and L. Cavenaile. "A Growth Model of Global Imbalances." Paper presented at International Atlantic Economic Conference. Athens, Greece, March 18, 2011.
A. Gautier. "Soft Capture." Paper presented at Research Seminar at the Universitat de Barcelona. Barcelona, Spain, November 25, 2010.
Capture of regulatory agencies by firms or other stakeholders has given rise to a rich literature, much of which is dominated by models in which the motivation for the welfare-reducing behavior is found in side-contracting (bribes, corruption), threats (blackmail, political support) or corresponding mechanisms for repeated games (reputation, career concerns, signaling for promotion). Notwithstanding, the empirical support for monetary corruption and 'revolving doors' is scarce and inconclusive. We propose an alternative and more intuitive model for regulatory capture that is based on information transmission and asymmetric information. In a three-tier model, a regulator is charged by a political principal to provide a signal for the type of a regulated firm. Only the firm can observe his type and the production of a correlated signal with a given accuracy is costly for the regulator. The firm can costlessly provide an alternative signal of lower accuracy that is presented to the regulator. In a self-enforcing equilibrium, the regulator transmits the firm-produced signal, internalizes its own savings in information cost and the firm enjoys higher information rents. The main feature of soft capture is that it is not based on a reciprocity of favors but on a congruence of interests between the firm and the regulator.
N. Neyrinck. "Il faut criminaliser les cartels." L'Echo (November 12, 2010): 16.
This article supports the view according to which cartels should be criminalized in EU. Despite their impressive amounts, administrative fines fail to deter collusion. In order to tackle "agency issues", managers should be held responsible for their involvement in cartels.
A. Gautier. "Price Competition under Universal Service Obligations." Paper presented at 37th EARIE Conference. Istanbul, Turkey, September 2010.
In industries like telecom, postal services or energy provision, universal service obligations (uniform price and universal coverage) are often imposed on one market participant. Universal service obligations are likely to alter firms' strategic behavior in such competitive markets. In this paper we show that, depending on the entrant's market coverage and the degree of product differentiation, the Nash equilibrium in prices involves either pure or mixed strategies. We show that the pure strategy market sharing equilibrium, as identified by Valletti et al. (2002) defines a lower bound on the level of equilibrium prices.
A. Gautier. "Contract renewal as an incentive device: An application to the French urban transport sector." Paper presented at 1st International conference on Economics and Management of Public Utilities. University of Eastern Piemonte, Novara and Boccony University, Milan, Italy, July 2010.
In the French urban public transport industry, operations are often delegated and periodically putted out forto tender. Thus, operators’ incentives to reduce costs come from both profit maximization during the current contract and from the perspective of contract renewal. We have constructed a dynamic incentive regulation model that captures these features and we show that both the level of cost-reducing effort and its repartition during the contracting period depend on the contract type (cost-plus, gross cost or net cost contract). We then estimated a cost frontier model for an eight-year panel of French bus companies (677 company-year observations) to test our predictions.
A. Gautier. "Scoring-rule and the choice of a contractor by a financially constrained government." Paper presented at International conference on "contracts, procurement and public-private agreements'. Paris, France, June 15, 2010.
Governments and public authorities are increasingly relying on Public-Private Partnerships for the provision of public goods and services. It is often argued that the use of a public private partnership can relieve the government from a strained budget constraint and, in this paper, we analyze the choice of a contractual solution for designing, constructing and managing a project, with observable externalities, by a budget-constrained government. We show that the quality of the project and the designed contractor are affected by the extent of the budget constraint and we show that the use of a PPP may partially overcome the resulting inefficiencies.
A. Gautier. "Efficient access pricing and endogenous market structure." Paper presented at Workshop on effective competition in network industries. Giessen, Germany, May 2010.
We investigate how a regulatory mechanism can influence the nature of competition in a network industry. In the downstream market, the seller of a differentiated retail product competes with an incumbent firm. The incumbent firm is also the owner of the essential input. The regulator may or may not observe the cost of the entrant. To maximize social welfare the regulator specifies the access charge that the entrant must pay to the incumbent, and the retail prices. The optimal access charge is a uniform price that respects the criteria of transparency and non-discrimination that are imposed by the competition and regulation directives in most countries. We derive new formulas for retail and access prices adhering to the traditional Ramsey rule. Since the competing firm takes the decision to enter following the choice of the regulatory regime, the nature of the retail market competition is endogenous
A. Gautier and D. Paolini. "Universal service financing in competitive postal markets: One size does not fit all." Paper presented at 6th conference on 'Regulation, Competition and Universal Service in the Postal Sector'. Toulouse, France, March 2010.
In the postal sector, the financial burden of the universal service depends on its content, the postal market characteristics and the country’s geographical configuration. These three groups of factors affect both the direct cost of providing the service and the extent of competition on the market. In this paper, we consider countries with different geographical characteristics and we show that the choice of an appropriate mechanism to share the burden of universal service between market participants depends on the country configuration. Thus, for universal service financing, one size does not fit all.
N. Petit. "The Past Clouds the Future of Europe’s New Antitrust Enforcer." New York Times (February 18, 2010).
N. Petit and N. Neyrinck. "Behavioral Economics and Abuse of Dominance – A Fresh Look at the Article 102 TFEU Case-Law." Paper presented at The Vienna Competition 2010, February 15, 2010.
N. Petit and C. Lousberg. "Enquêtes sectorielles: complément ou substitut de l'action des autorités de concurrence? Le "couteau suisse" du droit européen de la concurrence?" Concurrences , no. 2 (2010): 19-28.
The present article seeks to determine whether sector inquiries are a “substitute” or a "complement” to conventional competition enforcement techniques. The analysis shows that not unlike a “Swiss knife”, sector inquiries constitute a convenient, multifunctional tool, which serves a variety of purposes. Sector inquiries indeed entitle the Commission to (i) lower the minimal procedural requirements which must be met to launch investigations; (ii) extend the substantive scope of its inquiries beyond mere infringements to Article 101 and 102 TFEU; and (iii) incentivize firms to spontaneously comply with the antitrust rules. In light, however, of a number of shortcomings arising from the Commission’s sector inquiries’ practice, this article formulates several “best practices” (which are also relevant for other competition authorities with similar powers).
N. Petit. "Annual congress of the international league for competition law." Paper presented at Congrès annuel international de la ligue pour le droit de la concurence. Vienne, Autriche, October 25, 2009.
A. Defossez and N. Petit. "Lisbonne, et après?" La Libre Belgique (October 23, 2009).
Le référendum irlandais est un révélateur des déficiences congénitales de la communication autour de l’Europe. Bref, loin d'être un sujet de réjouissance, le "oui" irlandais démontre, jusqu'à la caricature, la pauvreté du débat européen.
L. Artige. "Firm-Level Evidence on Innovation in Spain." Paper presented at Globelics 2009. Dakar, Sénégal, October 8, 2009.
N. Petit. "International report on Competition Authorities Discretion." Paper presented at LIDC Internationale conference. Vienne, Autriche, September 2009.
N. Petit. "OCCP Seminar on Dominant Positions and New Technologies." Paper presented at OCCP Seminar. Warsaw, Pologne, July 8, 2009.
N. Petit. "Actualité des droits communautaire et belge de la concurrence." Paper presented at Commission juridique de la FEB. Bruxellles, Belgique, June 29, 2009.
N. Petit. "Towards an optimal enforcement of Competition rules in Europe." Paper presented at Annual Conference of the GCLC. Bruxellles, Belgique, June 12, 2009.
N. Petit. "Le droit de la distribution." Paper presented at Séminaire de recyclage. Liège, Belgique, May 8, 2009.
N. Petit. "Les fédérations d’entreprises et les règles de concurrence." Paper presented at -. Bruxellles, Belgique, March 13, 2009.
N. Petit. "Actualités du droit de la concurence." Paper presented at Conférence du jeune Barreau de Bruxelles. Bruxelles, Belgique, February 12, 2009.
N. Petit. "Concurrence difficile." 15e Jour du Mois (Le) , no. 180 (2009): 9.
N. Petit. "Ne dites plus Constitution." 15e Jour du Mois , no. 169 (2009): 5.
N. Petit. "Les stratégies juridiques des entreprises en Europe." Paper presented at -. Luxembourg, Luxembourg, December 5, 2008.
N. Petit. "Trois questions à Nicolas Petit." Forward , no. 7 (September 2008).
N. Petit. "L'effet de la décision de justice." Paper presented at Séminaire de recyclage. Charleroi, Belgique, May 2008.
N. Petit and A. Defossez. "Les effets des arrêts de la CJCE et du TPICE." Paper presented at CUP L'effet de la décision de Justice: contentieux européens, constitutionnel, civil et pénal. Liège, Bruxelles, Charleroi, Belgique, May 2008.
N. Petit. "Fidelity Discounts and Rebates not Justified by Costs." Paper presented at Association Belge d'Etude de la Concurrence. Bruxellles, Belgique, April 17, 2008.
N. Petit. "Le Traité de Lisbonne: Traité simplifié ou constitution cachée?" Paper presented at -. Liège, Belgique, February 29, 2008.
N. Petit. "L'actualité du droit des ententes 2007." Paper presented at Colloque annuel de l'association Française d'étude de la concurence. Paris, France, February 14, 2008.
N. Petit. "Le français devrait-il servir de référence juridique?" 2007.
L. Artige. "Memory in Contracts: The Experience of the EBRD (1991-2003)." Paper presented at European Meeting of the Econometric Society (ESEM). Vienne, Autriche, August 2006.
A. Defossez, N. Petit, and M. Candela. "2006, l'Europe sans boussole." La Libre Belgique (January 13, 2006).
L. Artige and R. Nicolini. "Memory in contracts. The experience of the EBRD (1991-2003)." Paper presented at 14th World Congress. Marrakech, Maroc, August 2005.
L. Artige. "On Dictatorship, Economic Development and Stability." Paper presented at Macroeconomics Seminar. Barcelone, Espagne, April 2004.
N. Petit and D. Geradin. "Competition Rules in the Euromed Countries with a Special Emphasis on Network Industries." Paper presented at ABCDE World Bank Conference, May 15, 2003.
L. Artige. "On dictatorship, economic development and stability." Paper presented at Annual Meeting of the Public Choice Society. Nashville, USA, March 2003.
L. Artige. "Endogenous growth and regional dynamics in an OLG model with land." Paper presented at 5th Annual EUNIP Conference. Vienna, Autriche, November 2001.
L. Artige. "Endogenous Growth and Regional Dynamics in an OLG Model with Land." Paper presented at Society for Economic Dynamics Meeting. San José, Costa Rica, June 2000.