Reference : Emerging Models of Social Enterprise in Eastern Asia: a Cross-Country Analysis
Scientific journals : Article
Business & economic sciences : Social economics
Emerging Models of Social Enterprise in Eastern Asia: a Cross-Country Analysis
Defourny, Jacques mailto [Université de Liège - ULiège > HEC-Ecole de gestion : UER > Economie sociale et systèmes économiques >]
Kim, Shin-Yang [> >]
Social Enterprise Journal
Emerald Publ.
vol. 7
Social Enterprise in Eastern Asia (J. Defourny & Y.-Y. Kuan, eds)
86 - 111
[en] social enterprise ; Taiwan ; China ; Japan ; South Korea ; Hong Kong ; civil society ; public policy
[en] We first examine the socio-economic contexts in which new public policies and new NPOs’ initiatives were launched to offer innovative solutions to current challenges, especially unemployment. Interactions between Eastern Asia and Western regions (EU, US) are also analysed as to experiments and conceptions of social enterprise. In order to identify major convergences and divergences across countries in Eastern Asia, we rely on country studies presented in this issue as well as on a broad literature, related more specifically to the development and roles of NPOs and co-operatives in this region.

Five major models of social enterprise with specific dynamics can be identified in Eastern Asia. State influence and driving forces linked to public policies make these models rather different from the typical US social enterprise; as for the role of civil society, it seems weaker than in Western contexts but is growing significantly. Co-operative movements also play a significant role in shaping some social enterprise models. Finally, two conditions identified as critical for the development of social economy organisations – a "condition of necessity" and a "condition of shared destiny" - seem to be valid in Eastern Asia as well, provided they are properly reinterpreted.

The present analysis, just like the other four papers in this issue, is a result of a joint research project of the EMES European Research Network and East-Asian researchers. Country studies were conducted along common broad guidelines, and they were discussed and revised at various stages, which insured a fairly good level of comparability. Moreover, this seems to be the first systematic comparative analysis on social enterprise involving all industrialised countries in Eastern Asia.
Centre d'Économie Sociale - CES

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