Reference : Reactivity of penicillin-binding proteins with peptidoglycan-mimetic beta-lactams: wh...
Scientific journals : Article
Life sciences : Biochemistry, biophysics & molecular biology
Reactivity of penicillin-binding proteins with peptidoglycan-mimetic beta-lactams: what's wrong with these enzymes?
Josephine, Helen R. [> > > >]
Charlier, Paulette mailto [Université de Liège - ULiège > Département des sciences de la vie > Cristallographie des macromolécules biologiques >]
Davies, Christopher [> > > >]
Nicholas, Robert A. [> > > >]
Pratt, R. F. [> > > >]
American Chemical Society
Yes (verified by ORBi)
[en] Actinomycetales/enzymology ; Binding Sites/drug effects ; Cephalosporins/chemical synthesis/pharmacology ; Escherichia coli/enzymology ; Molecular Mimicry ; Neisseria gonorrhoeae/enzymology ; Penicillin-Binding Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors/chemical synthesis/metabolism ; Penicillins/chemical synthesis/pharmacology ; Peptidoglycan/metabolism ; Serine-Type D-Ala-D-Ala Carboxypeptidase/antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Streptococcus pneumoniae/drug effects/enzymology ; beta-Lactams/chemical synthesis/metabolism/pharmacology
[en] Beta-lactams exert their antibiotic action through their inhibition of bacterial DD-peptidases (penicillin-binding proteins). Bacteria, in general, carry several such enzymes localized on the outside of their cell membrane to catalyze the final step in cell wall (peptidoglycan) synthesis. They have been classified into two major groups, one of high molecular weight, the other of low. Members of the former group act as transpeptidases in vivo, and their inhibition by beta-lactams leads to cessation of bacterial growth. The latter group consists of DD-carboxypeptidases, and their inhibition by beta-lactams is generally not fatal to bacteria. We have previously shown that representatives of the former group are ineffective at catalyzing the hydrolysis/aminolysis of peptidoglycan-mimetic peptides in vitro [Anderson et al. (2003) Biochem. J. 373, 949-955]. The theme of these experiments is expanded in the present paper where we describe the synthesis of a series of beta-lactams (penicillins and cephalosporins) containing peptidoglycan-mimetic side chains and the kinetics of their inhibition of a panel of penicillin-binding proteins spanning the major classes (Escherichia coli PBP 2 and PBP 5, Streptococcus pneumoniae PBP 1b, PBP 2x and PBP 3, the Actinomadura R39 DD-peptidase, and the Streptomyces R61 DD-peptidase). The results of these experiments mirror and expand the previous results with peptides. Neither peptides nor beta-lactams with appropriate peptidoglycan-mimetic side chains react with the solubilized constructs of membrane-bound penicillin binding proteins (the first five enzymes above) at rates exceeding those of generic analogues. Such peptides and beta-lactams do react at greatly enhanced rates with certain soluble low molecular weight enzymes (R61 and R39 DD-peptidases). The former result is unexpected and interesting. Why do the majority of penicillin-binding proteins not recognize elements of local peptidoglycan structure? Possible answers are discussed. That this question needs to be asked casts fascinating shadows on current studies of penicillin-binding proteins for new drug design.

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