Article (Scientific journals)
What names for covert awareness? A systematic review.
Schnakers, Caroline; Bauer, Chase; Formisano, Rita et al.
2022In Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 16, p. 971315
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Keywords :
cognitive motor dissociation; consciousness; covert awareness; functional locked-in; minimally conscious state; non-behavioral MCS; unresponsive wakefulness syndrome; vegetative state
Abstract :
[en] BACKGROUND: With the emergence of Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI), clinicians have been facing a new group of patients with severe acquired brain injury who are unable to show any behavioral sign of consciousness but respond to active neuroimaging or electrophysiological paradigms. However, even though well documented, there is still no consensus regarding the nomenclature for this clinical entity. OBJECTIVES: This systematic review aims to 1) identify the terms used to indicate the presence of this entity through the years, and 2) promote an informed discussion regarding the rationale for these names and the best candidates to name this fascinating disorder. METHODS: The Disorders of Consciousness Special Interest Group (DoC SIG) of the International Brain Injury Association (IBIA) launched a search on Pubmed and Google scholar following PRISMA guidelines to collect peer-reviewed articles and reviews on human adults (>18 years) published in English between 2006 and 2021. RESULTS: The search launched in January 2021 identified 4,089 potentially relevant titles. After screening, 1,126 abstracts were found relevant. Finally, 161 manuscripts were included in our analyses. Only 58% of the manuscripts used a specific name to discuss this clinical entity, among which 32% used several names interchangeably throughout the text. We found 25 different names given to this entity. The five following names were the ones the most frequently used: covert awareness, cognitive motor dissociation, functional locked-in, non-behavioral MCS (MCS(*)) and higher-order cortex motor dissociation. CONCLUSION: Since 2006, there has been no agreement regarding the taxonomy to use for unresponsive patients who are able to respond to active neuroimaging or electrophysiological paradigms. Developing a standard taxonomy is an important goal for future research studies and clinical translation. We recommend a Delphi study in order to build such a consensus.
Disciplines :
Neurosciences & behavior
Author, co-author :
Schnakers, Caroline ;  Research Institute, Casa Colina Hospital and Centers for Healthcare, Pomona, CA,
Bauer, Chase;  College of Osteopathic Medicine, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona,
Formisano, Rita;  IRCCS Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy.
Noé, Enrique;  Vithas Neuro Rehab Human Brain, Fundación Hospitales Vithas, Valencia, Spain.
Llorens, Roberto;  Vithas Neuro Rehab Human Brain, Fundación Hospitales Vithas, Valencia, Spain. ; Neurorehabilitation and Brain Research Group, Instituto de Investigación e
Lejeune, Nicolas  ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > GIGA > GIGA Consciousness - Coma Science Group
Farisco, Michele;  Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. ; Science and Society Unit, Biogem, Biology and Molecular Genetics Research
Teixeira, Liliana;  Center for Innovative Care and Health Technology, School of Health Sciences,
Morrissey, Ann-Marie;  Ageing Research Centre, School of Allied Health, Health Research Institute,
De Marco, Sabrina;  Clínica Universitaria Reina Fabiola, Universidad Católica de Córdoba, Córdoba,
Veeramuthu, Vigneswaran;  Subang Jaya Medical Center, Subang Jaya, Malaysia.
Ilina, Kseniya;  Research Center of Neurology, Moscow, Russia. ; Faculty of Fundamental Medicine, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow,
Edlow, Brian L;  Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United
Gosseries, Olivia  ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > GIGA > GIGA Consciousness - Coma Science Group
Zandalasini, Matteo;  Unità Spinale, Neuroriabilitazione e Medicina Riabilitativa Intensiva,
De Bellis, Francesco;  IRCCS Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi, Florence, Italy.
Thibaut, Aurore ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > GIGA > GIGA Consciousness - Coma Science Group
Estraneo, Anna;  IRCCS Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi, Florence, Italy. ; Neurology Unit, SM della Pietà General Hospital, Nola, Italy.
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Title :
What names for covert awareness? A systematic review.
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Journal title :
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Publisher :
Frontiers Media S.A., Ch
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Peer reviewed :
Peer Reviewed verified by ORBi
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Copyright © 2022 Schnakers, Bauer, Formisano, Noé, Llorens, Lejeune, Farisco, Teixeira, Morrissey, De Marco, Veeramuthu, Ilina, Edlow, Gosseries, Zandalasini, De Bellis, Thibaut and Estraneo.
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