[en] Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is used in Lipid Nanoparticles (LNPs) formulations to confer stealth properties and is traditionally anchored in membranes by a lipid moiety whose length significantly impacts the LNPs fate in vivo. C18 acyl chains are efficiently anchored in the membrane, while shorter C14 lipids are quickly desorbed and replaced by a protein corona responsible for the completely different fate of LNPs. In this context, a method to predict the biological behavior of LNPs depending on the lipid-PEG dissociation was developed using the Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA) method in serum. Two formulations of siRNA-containing LNPs were prepared including CSL3 or SM-102 lipids and were grafted with different lipids-PEG (C18, C14 lipids-PEG, and Ceramide-PEG). The impact of the lipid-PEG on the interactions between LNPs and serum components was demonstrated by monitoring the mean particle size and the concentration over time. In vitro, these formulations demonstrated low toxicity and efficient gene knockdown on tumor MDA-MB-231 cells, but serum was found to significantly impact the efficiency of C18-PEG-based LNPs, while it did not impact the efficiency of C14-PEG-based LNPs. The NTA method demonstrated the ability to discriminate between the behaviors of LNPs according to serum proteins’ interactions. CSL3 lipid and Cer-PEG were confirmed to have promise for LNP formulation.