Article (Scientific journals)
A safe and effective vaccine against bovine leukemia virus
Suárez Archilla, Guillermo; Gutiérrez, Gerónimo; Camussone, Cecilia et al.
2022In Frontiers in Immunology, 13, p. 980514
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Keywords :
Immunology; Immunology and Allergy
Abstract :
[en] Previous attempts to develop a vaccine against bovine leukemia virus (BLV) have not been successful because of inadequate or short-lived stimulation of all immunity components. In this study, we designed an approach based on an attenuated BLV provirus by deleting genes dispensable for infectivity but required for efficient replication. The ability of the vaccine to protect from natural BLV infection was investigated in the context of dairy productive conditions in an endemic region. The attenuated vaccine was tested in a farm in which the prevalence rose from 16.7% in young cattle at the beginning of the study to more than 90% in adult individuals. Sterilizing immunity was obtained in 28 out of 29 vaccinated heifers over a period of 48 months, demonstrating the effectiveness of the vaccine. As indicated by the antiviral antibody titers, the humoral response was slightly reduced compared to wild-type infection. After initial post-vaccination bursts, the proviral loads of the attenuated vaccine remained most frequently undetectable. During the first dairy cycle, proviral DNA was not detected by nested-PCR in milk samples from vaccinated cows. During the second dairy cycle, provirus was sporadically detected in milk of two vaccinated cows. Forty-two calves born from vaccinated cows were negative for proviral DNA but had antiviral antibodies in their peripheral blood. The attenuated strain was not transmitted to sentinels, further supporting the safety of the vaccine. Altogether, these data thus demonstrate that the vaccine against BLV is safe and effective in herd conditions characterized by a very high incidence. This cost-effective approach will thus decrease the prevalence of BLV without modification of production practices. After facing a series of challenges pertaining to effectiveness and biosafety, the vaccine is now available for further large-scale delivery. The different challenges and hurdles that were bypassed may be informative for the development of a vaccine against HTLV-1.
Disciplines :
Anatomy (cytology, histology, embryology...) & physiology
Veterinary medicine & animal health
Immunology & infectious disease
Author, co-author :
Suárez Archilla, Guillermo
Gutiérrez, Gerónimo
Camussone, Cecilia
Calvinho, Luis
Abdala, Alejandro
Alvarez, Irene
Petersen, Marcos
Franco, Lautaro
Destefano, Gabriel
Monti, Gustavo
Jacques, Jean-Rock  ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département GxABT > Microbial technologies
Joris, Thomas ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > TERRA Research Centre
Willems, Luc   ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département GxABT > Microbial technologies
Trono, Karina 
More authors (4 more) Less
 These authors have contributed equally to this work.
Language :
English
Title :
A safe and effective vaccine against bovine leukemia virus
Publication date :
2022
Journal title :
Frontiers in Immunology
eISSN :
1664-3224
Publisher :
Frontiers Media SA
Volume :
13
Pages :
e980514
Peer reviewed :
Peer Reviewed verified by ORBi
Funders :
INTA - Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria [AR]
CONICET - Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas [AR]
Asociación Cooperadora INTA Rafaela
F.R.S.-FNRS - Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique [BE]
ULiège - Université de Liège [BE]
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