Article (Scientific journals)
First survey on seroprevalence of Japanese encephalitis in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Bali, Indonesia
Putra, Gusti Agung Arta; Adi, Anak Agung Ayu Mirah; Astawa, Nyoman Mantik et al.
2022In Veterinary World, 15 (5), p. 1341-1346
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Keywords :
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Japanese encephalitis virus, Macaca fascicularis, seroprevalence
Abstract :
[en] Background and Aim: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a zoonotic infectious inflammatory brain disease caused by the JE virus (JEV). Considerable research into the seroprevalence of JE in domestic animals has been conducted, but there have been no reports of its occurrence in wild animals, including long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). This study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of JEV infection and its determinants in long-tailed macaques in Bali and the prevalence of mosquito vectors. Materials and Methods: Blood samples (3 mL) were collected from a population of M. fascicularis (92 heads) inhabiting a small forest with irrigated rice field nearby (wetland area) in Ubud, Gianyar, and from two populations in dryland areas with no wet rice field (Uluwatu, Badung, and Nusa Penida, Bali Province, Indonesia). The collected sera were tested for antibodies against JEV using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit (qualitative monkey JE Immunoglobulin G antibody kit). The seropositivity of the antibodies was then compared based on different variables, namely, habitat type, age, and sex. Results: The seroprevalence of the JEV antibodies in all the samples tested was found to be 41.3%. The seropositivity of the monkey serum samples collected from the wetland area was 46.4%, which was higher than the seropositivity of the sera samples collected from the dried field areas (1.25%). Monkey sera collected from the wetland areas were 6.1 times (odds ratio [OR]: 6.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71-51.5, p>0.05) more likely to be seropositive compared to the monkey sera collected from the dried field areas. Meanwhile, female monkeys were 1.79 times (OR: 1.79; 95% CI: 0.76-4.21; p>0.05) more likely to be seropositive to JEV than males. Similarly, juvenile monkeys were 2.38 times (OR: 2.38; 95% CI: 0.98-5.79); p>0.05) more likely to be seropositive against the JEV than adult monkeys. However, none of these differences achieved statistical significance. Regarding the JEV mosquito vector collection, more Culex mosquitoes were found in the samples from the wetland areas than from the dried field areas. Conclusion: The study confirms the existence of JEV infection in long-tailed macaques in Bali. There were patterned seropositivity differences based on habitat, age, and sex of the monkeys, but these were not significant. The possibility of monkeys as a JEV reservoir and the presence of the mosquitoes as the JEV vector are suggested but require more study to confirm.
Disciplines :
Veterinary medicine & animal health
Author, co-author :
Putra, Gusti Agung Arta
Adi, Anak Agung Ayu Mirah
Astawa, Nyoman Mantik
Kardena, Made
Wandia, Nengah
Soma, Gede
Brotcorne, Fany  ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département de Biologie, Ecologie et Evolution > Biologie du comportement - Ethologie et psychologie animale  ; Université de Liège - ULiège > Sphères
Fuentes, Agustin
Language :
Title :
First survey on seroprevalence of Japanese encephalitis in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Bali, Indonesia
Publication date :
27 May 2022
Journal title :
Veterinary World
Publisher :
Veterinary World, India
Volume :
Issue :
Pages :
Peer reviewed :
Peer Reviewed verified by ORBi
Available on ORBi :
since 27 May 2022


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