[en] In children, high-grade gliomas (HGG) and diffuse midline gliomas (DMG) account for a high proportion of death due to cancer. Glioma stem cells (GSCs) are tumor cells in a specific state defined by a tumor-initiating capacity following serial transplantation, self-renewal, and an ability to recapitulate tumor heterogeneity. Their presence was demonstrated several decades ago in adult glioblastoma (GBM), and more recently in pediatric HGG and DMG. In adults, we and others have previously suggested that GSCs nest into the subventricular zone (SVZ), a neurogenic niche, where, among others, they find shelter from therapy. Both bench and bedside evidence strongly indicate a role for the GSCs and the SVZ in GBM progression, fostering the development of innovative targeting treatments. Such new therapeutic approaches are of particular interest in infants, in whom standard therapies are often limited due to the risk of late effects. The aim of this review is to describe current knowledge about GSCs in pediatric HGG and DMG, i.e., their characterization, the models that apply to their development and maintenance, the specific signaling pathways that may underlie their activity, and their specific interactions with neurogenic niches. Finally, we will discuss the clinical relevance of these observations and the therapeutic advantages of targeting the SVZ and/or the GSCs in infants.
Funding text :
M.-A.D.-V. is a Ph.D. student funded by the TELEVIE-FNRS and the EUROMA funds (Fondation L?on Fr?d?ricq, University of Li?ge); AL received the Clinical Researcher of the FNRS-Belgium; BR research group is supported by the FNRS, the TELEVIE, the University of Li?ge and the Fondation L?on Fr?d?ricq.Funding: M.-A.D.-V. is a Ph.D. student funded by the TELEVIE-FNRS and the EUROMA funds (Fondation Léon Frédéricq, University of Liège); AL received the Clinical Researcher of the FNRS-Belgium; BR research group is supported by the FNRS, the TELEVIE, the University of Liège and the Fondation Léon Frédéricq.