Article (Scientific journals)
European Society of Cardiology: cardiovascular disease statistics 2021.
Timmis, Adam; Vardas, Panos; Townsend, Nick et al.
2022In European Heart Journal, 43 (8), p. 716-799
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Keywords :
Adult; Cardiology; Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology; Cardiovascular System; Female; Humans; Income; Male; Risk Factors; Cardiovascular disease; European Society of Cardiology; Health infrastructure; Morbidity; Mortality; Risk factors; Service provision; Statistics
Abstract :
[en] AIMS: This report from the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Atlas Project updates and expands upon the widely cited 2019 report in presenting cardiovascular disease (CVD) statistics for the 57 ESC member countries. METHODS AND RESULTS: Statistics pertaining to 2019, or the latest available year, are presented. Data sources include the World Health Organization, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, the World Bank, and novel ESC sponsored data on human and capital infrastructure and cardiovascular healthcare delivery. New material in this report includes sociodemographic and environmental determinants of CVD, rheumatic heart disease, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, left-sided valvular heart disease, the advocacy potential of these CVD statistics, and progress towards World Health Organization (WHO) 2025 targets for non-communicable diseases. Salient observations in this report: (i) Females born in ESC member countries in 2018 are expected to live 80.8 years and males 74.8 years. Life expectancy is longer in high income (81.6 years) compared with middle-income (74.2 years) countries. (ii) In 2018, high-income countries spent, on average, four times more on healthcare than middle-income countries. (iii) The median PM2.5 concentrations in 2019 were over twice as high in middle-income ESC member countries compared with high-income countries and exceeded the EU air quality standard in 14 countries, all middle-income. (iv) In 2016, more than one in five adults across the ESC member countries were obese with similar prevalence in high and low-income countries. The prevalence of obesity has more than doubled over the past 35 years. (v) The burden of CVD falls hardest on middle-income ESC member countries where estimated incidence rates are ∼30% higher compared with high-income countries. This is reflected in disability-adjusted life years due to CVD which are nearly four times as high in middle-income compared with high-income countries. (vi) The incidence of calcific aortic valve disease has increased seven-fold during the last 30 years, with age-standardized rates four times as high in high-income compared with middle-income countries. (vii) Although the total number of CVD deaths across all countries far exceeds the number of cancer deaths for both sexes, there are 15 ESC member countries in which cancer accounts for more deaths than CVD in males and five-member countries in which cancer accounts for more deaths than CVD in females. (viii) The under-resourced status of middle-income countries is associated with a severe procedural deficit compared with high-income countries in terms of coronary intervention, ablation procedures, device implantation, and cardiac surgical procedures. CONCLUSION: Risk factors and unhealthy behaviours are potentially reversible, and this provides a huge opportunity to address the health inequalities across ESC member countries that are highlighted in this report. It seems clear, however, that efforts to seize this opportunity are falling short and present evidence suggests that most of the WHO NCD targets for 2025 are unlikely to be met across ESC member countries.
Disciplines :
Cardiovascular & respiratory systems
Author, co-author :
Timmis, Adam ;  William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University London, London, UK.
Vardas, Panos;  Hygeia Hospitals Group, HHG, Athens, Greece. ; European Heart Agency, European Society of Cardiology, Brussels, Belgium.
Townsend, Nick ;  Department for Health, University of Bath, Bath, UK.
Torbica, Aleksandra ;  Centre for Research on Health and Social Care Management (CERGAS), Bocconi
Katus, Hugo;  Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiology, University of Heidelberg,
De Smedt, Delphine ;  Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
Gale, Chris P ;  Medical Research Council Bioinformatics Centre, Leeds Institute for
Maggioni, Aldo P;  Research Center of Italian Association of Hospital Cardiologists (ANMCO),
Petersen, Steffen E ;  William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University London, London, UK.
Huculeci, Radu;  European Heart Agency, European Society of Cardiology, Brussels, Belgium.
Kazakiewicz, Dzianis;  European Heart Agency, European Society of Cardiology, Brussels, Belgium.
de Benito Rubio, Victor;  European Heart Agency, European Society of Cardiology, Brussels, Belgium.
Ignatiuk, Barbara;  Division of Cardiology, Ospedali Riuniti Padova Sud, Monselice, Italy.
Raisi-Estabragh, Zahra ;  William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University London, London, UK.
Pawlak, Agnieszka;  Mossakowski Medical Research Centre Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
Karagiannidis, Efstratios ;  First Department of Cardiology, AHEPA University Hospital, Aristotle University
Treskes, Roderick;  Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The
Gaita, Dan;  Universitatea de Medicina si Farmacie Victor Babes, Institutul de Boli
Beltrame, John F;  University of Adelaide, Central Adelaide Local Health Network, Basil Hetzel
McConnachie, Alex ;  Robertson Centre for Biostatistics, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.
Bardinet, Isabel;  European Society of Cardiology, Sophia Antipolis, France.
Graham, Ian;  Tallaght University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.
Flather, Marcus;  Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.
Elliott, Perry ;  Institute of Cardiovascular Science, University College London, London, UK.
Mossialos, Elias A ;  Department of Health Policy, London School of Economics, London, UK.
Weidinger, Franz;  Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiology, Klinik Landstrasse, Vienna,
Achenbach, Stephan;  Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.
Atlas Writing Group, European Society of Cardiology
More authors (18 more) Less
Other collaborator :
Mimoza, Lezha
Artan, Goda
Aurel, Demiraj
Chettibi, Mohammed
Hammoudi, Naima
Vardanyan, Katarine
Pepoyan, Sergey
Sisakian, Hamayak
Scherr, Daniel
Siostrzonek, Peter
Metzer, Bernhard
Kostov, Jorgo
Kostovska, Elizabeta Srbinovska
Kedev, Sasko
Angel, Kristin
Mjølstad, Ole Christian
Bleie, Øyvind
Gierlotka, Marek
Dąbrowski, Rafał
Jankowski, Piotr
Bravo Baptista, Sérgio
Mustafayev, Isah
Ferreira, Jorge
Gil, Victor
Badila, Elisabeta
Gaita, Dan
Popescu, Bogdan A
Shlyakhto, Evgeny
Zvartau, Nadezhda
Kotova, Evgenia
Foscoli, Marina
Zavatta, Marco
Jahangirov, Tofig
Stojkovic, Sinisa
Tesic, Milorad
Juricic, Stefan
Kaliská, Gabriela
Hatala, Robert
Hlivák, Peter
Fras, Zlatko
Bunc, Matjaž
Pernat, Andrej
Cequier, Ángel
Rustamova, Yasmin
Anguita, Manuel
Muñiz, Javier
Johansson, Bengt
Platonov, Pyotr
Carballo, David
Rüdiger-Stürchler, Marjam
Tanner, Felix C
Shebli, Hussam Eddin
Kabbani, Samer
Abid, Leila
Mitkovskaya, Natalya
Faouzi, Addad
Abdessalem, Salem
Aytekin, Vedat
Atar, Ilyas
Kovalenko, V
Nesukay, E
Archbold, Andrew
Tayal, Upasana
Wilkinson, Chris
Kurbanov, Ravshanbek
Shibeka, Natalya
Fozilov, Khurshid
Mirmaksudov, Mirakhmadjon
Boateng, Dennis
Daval, Ghislain
Momotyuk, Ganna
Sebastiao, David
Stelmashok, Valeriy
De Pauw, Michel
LANCELLOTTI, Patrizio  ;  Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège - CHU > > Service de cardiologie
Claeys, Marc
Kušljugić, Zumreta
Džubur, Alen
Smajić, Elnur
Tokmakova, Mariya
Traykov, Vassil
Milicic, Davor
Pasalic, Marijan
Pavasovic, Sasa
Christodoulides, Theodoros
Papasavvas, Ilias
Eftychiou, Christos
Linhart, Aleš
Táborský, Miloš
Hutyra, Martin
Sørensen, Jacob Thorsted
Andersen, Mads Jønsson
Kristensen, Steen Dalby
Abdelhamid, Magdy
Shokry, Khaled
Kampus, Priit
Laine, Mika
Niemelä, Matti
Iung, Bernard
Cohen, Ariel
Leclercq, Christophe
Trapaidze, Dali
Etsadashvili, Kakhaber
Aladashvili, Alexander
Bestehorn, Kurt
Baldus, Stephan
Zeiher, Andreas M
Kanakakis, John
Patrianakos, Alexandria
Chrysohoou, Christina
Csanádi, Zoltán
Becker, Dávid
Járai, Zoltán
Hrafnkelsdóttir, Þórdís Jóna
Maher, Vincent
Crowley, Jim
Dalton, Barbra
Wolak, Arik
Assa, Eyal Ben
Zafrir, Barak
Murrone, Adriano
Spaccarotella, Carmen
Urbinati, Stefano
Salim, Berkinbayev
Orazbek, Sakhov
Ayan, Abdrakhmanov
Bajraktari, Gani
Poniku, Docor Afrim
Erkin, Mirrakhimov
Saamay, Abilova
Kurban, Kalysov
Erglis, Andrejs
Jegere, Sanda
Bajare, Iveta
Mohammed, Malek
Sarkis, Antoine
Saadeh, Georges
Šlapikas, Rimvydas
Lapinskas, Tomas
Čelutkienė, Jelena
Ellafi, Khaled
El Ghamari, Fathi
Beissel, Jean
Banu, Cristiana
Felice, Tiziana
Xuereb, Robert
Popovici, Mihail
Lisii, Dorin
Rudi, Victor
Boskovic, Aneta
Rabrenovic, Miroslav
Ztot, Samir
Abir-Khalil, Saadia
Meeder, J G
van Rossum, A C
Elsendoorn, M
More authors (146 more) Less
Language :
English
Title :
European Society of Cardiology: cardiovascular disease statistics 2021.
Publication date :
22 February 2022
Journal title :
European Heart Journal
ISSN :
0195-668X
eISSN :
1522-9645
Publisher :
Oxford University Press, Gb
Volume :
43
Issue :
8
Pages :
716-799
Peer reviewed :
Peer Reviewed verified by ORBi
Commentary :
© The European Society of Cardiology 2022. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Available on ORBi :
since 18 May 2022

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