Article (Scientific journals)
Exposure to magnetic fields and childhood leukemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies.
Brabant, Christian; Geerinck, Anton; BEAUDART, Charlotte et al.
2022In Reviews on Environmental Health, online first
Peer Reviewed verified by ORBi
 

Files


Full Text
Brabant et al (2022) Magnetic fields and childhood leukemia meta-analysis.pdf
Author postprint (1.68 MB)
Download

All documents in ORBi are protected by a user license.

Send to



Details



Keywords :
cancer; childhood leukemia; electromagnetic fields; magnetic fields; power lines
Abstract :
[en] The association between childhood leukemia and extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) generated by power lines and various electric appliances has been studied extensively during the past 40 years. However, the conditions under which ELF-MF represent a risk factor for leukemia are still unclear. Therefore, we have performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the relation between ELF-MF from several sources and childhood leukemia. We have systematically searched Medline, Scopus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Review and DARE to identify each article that has examined the relationship between ELF-MF and childhood leukemia. We have performed a global meta-analysis that takes into account the different measures used to assess magnetic field exposure: magnetic flux density measurements (<0.2 µT vs. >0.2 µT), distances between the child's home and power lines (>200 m vs. <200 m) and wire codings (low current configuration vs. high current configuration). Moreover, meta-analyses either based on magnetic flux densities, on proximity to power lines or on wire codings have been performed. The association between electric appliances and childhood leukemia has also been examined. Of the 863 references identified, 38 studies have been included in our systematic review. Our global meta-analysis indicated an association between childhood leukemia and ELF-MF (21 studies, pooled OR=1.26; 95% CI 1.06-1.49), an association mainly explained by the studies conducted before 2000 (earlier studies: pooled OR=1.51; 95% CI 1.26-1.80 vs. later studies: pooled OR=1.04; 95% CI 0.84-1.29). Our meta-analyses based only on magnetic field measurements indicated that the magnetic flux density threshold associated with childhood leukemia is higher than 0.4 µT (12 studies, >0.4 µT: pooled OR=1.37; 95% CI 1.05-1.80; acute lymphoblastic leukemia alone: seven studies, >0.4 µT: pooled OR=1.88; 95% CI 1.31-2.70). Lower magnetic fields were not associated with leukemia (12 studies, 0.1-0.2 µT: pooled OR=1.04; 95% CI 0.88-1.24; 0.2-0.4 µT: pooled OR=1.07; 95% CI 0.87-1.30). Our meta-analyses based only on distances (five studies) showed that the pooled ORs for living within 50 m and 200 m of power lines were 1.11 (95% CI 0.81-1.52) and 0.98 (95% CI 0.85-1.12), respectively. The pooled OR for living within 50 m of power lines and acute lymphoblastic leukemia analyzed separately was 1.44 (95% CI 0.72-2.88). Our meta-analyses based only on wire codings (five studies) indicated that the pooled OR for the very high current configuration (VHCC) was 1.23 (95% CI 0.72-2.10). Finally, the risk of childhood leukemia was increased after exposure to electric blankets (four studies, pooled OR=2.75; 95% CI 1.71-4.42) and, to a lesser extent, electric clocks (four studies, pooled OR=1.27; 95% CI 1.01-1.60). Our results suggest that ELF-MF higher than 0.4 µT can increase the risk of developing leukemia in children, probably acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Prolonged exposure to electric appliances that generate magnetic fields higher than 0.4 µT like electric blankets is associated with a greater risk of childhood leukemia.
Disciplines :
Public health, health care sciences & services
Author, co-author :
Brabant, Christian ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département de Psychologie > Méta-recherche et éthique de la méthodologie quantitative
Geerinck, Anton ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Faculté de Médecine > Doct. sc. santé publ. (paysage)
BEAUDART, Charlotte ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département des sciences de la santé publique > Santé publique, Epidémiologie et Economie de la santé ; WHO Collaborating Centre for Public Health Aspects of Musculo-Skeletal Health and Ageing, Division of Public Health, Epidemiology and Health Economics, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium
Tirelli, Ezio ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Psychologie et Neuroscience Cognitives (PsyNCog)
Geuzaine, Christophe  ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Montefiore Institute of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
BRUYERE, Olivier  ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département des sciences de la santé publique > Santé publique, Epidémiologie et Economie de la santé ; WHO Collaborating Centre for Public Health Aspects of Musculo-Skeletal Health and Ageing, Division of Public Health, Epidemiology and Health Economics, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium
Language :
English
Title :
Exposure to magnetic fields and childhood leukemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies.
Publication date :
15 March 2022
Journal title :
Reviews on Environmental Health
ISSN :
0048-7554
eISSN :
2191-0308
Publisher :
Walter de Gruyter, United States - Delaware
Volume :
online first
Peer reviewed :
Peer Reviewed verified by ORBi
Available on ORBi :
since 22 April 2022

Statistics


Number of views
519 (19 by ULiège)
Number of downloads
617 (9 by ULiège)

Scopus citations®
 
13
Scopus citations®
without self-citations
13
OpenCitations
 
1

Bibliography


Similar publications



Contact ORBi