[en] In this article, the authors argue that the res- ponse to the COVID-19 pandemic is primarily focused exclusively on the virus, and would benefit from a broade- ning of perspective to a more systemic approach. After presenting, in a deliberately caricatural way, the opposition between the Pasteurian and holistic paradigms, they pre- sent some limitations of the Pasteurian approach, which is still dominant in the medical community. They put forward two explanations for the perpetuation of this dominance, relating to research methods and medical training. They then apply their analysis to the COVID-19 response stra- tegy, arguing that the “neglect” of social determinants and of the role of co-morbidities - which play an essential role in the severity of the disease - constitutes a clear failure of public health. It is thus deprived of a whole range of pre- vention and health promotion tools, and even of early holis- tic care. They conclude by suggesting that the COVID-19 crisis reveals the limits of the Pasteurian model and calls for a paradigm shift, allowing for a more complex, systemic and coherent approach to COVID-19 - and all other health problems.