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18 August 2021
Article (Scientific journals)
Survey and synthesis of state of the art in driver monitoring
Halin, Anaïs  ; Verly, Jacques  ; Van Droogenbroeck, Marc 
2021 • In Sensors, 21 (16), p. 1-49
Peer Reviewed verified by ORBi
 

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Keywords :
Survey; Review; Driver monitoring; Driver state; Sensor; Indicator; Drowsiness; Mental workload; Distraction; Emotions; Under the influence
Abstract :
[en] Road vehicle accidents are mostly due to human errors, and many such accidents could be avoided by continuously monitoring the driver. Driver monitoring (DM) is a topic of growing interest in the automotive industry, and it will remain relevant for all vehicles that are not fully autonomous, and thus for decades for the average vehicle owner. The present paper focuses on the first step of DM, which consists of characterizing the state of the driver. Since DM will be increasingly linked to driving automation (DA), this paper presents a clear view of the role of DM at each of the six SAE levels of DA. This paper surveys the state of the art of DM, and then synthesizes it, providing a unique, structured, polychotomous view of the many characterization techniques of DM. Informed by the survey, the paper characterizes the driver state along the five main dimensions—called here “(sub)states”—of drowsiness, mental workload, distraction, emotions, and under the influence. The polychotomous view of DM is presented through a pair of interlocked tables that relate these states to their indicators (e.g., the eye-blink rate) and the sensors that can access each of these indicators (e.g., a camera). The tables factor in not only the effects linked directly to the driver, but also those linked to the (driven) vehicle and the (driving) environment. They show, at a glance, to concerned researchers, equipment providers, and vehicle manufacturers (1) most of the options they have to implement various forms of advanced DM systems, and (2) fruitful areas for further research and innovation.
Research center :
Montefiore Institute - Montefiore Institute of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science - ULiège
Telim
Disciplines :
Electrical & electronics engineering
Author, co-author :
Halin, Anaïs  ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Dép. d'électric., électron. et informat. (Inst.Montefiore) > Télécommunications
Verly, Jacques ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Dép. d'électric., électron. et informat. (Inst.Montefiore) > Dép. d'électric., électron. et informat. (Inst.Montefiore)
Van Droogenbroeck, Marc  ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Dép. d'électric., électron. et informat. (Inst.Montefiore) > Télécommunications
Language :
English
Title :
Survey and synthesis of state of the art in driver monitoring
Publication date :
18 August 2021
Journal title :
Sensors
ISSN :
1424-8220
eISSN :
1424-3210
Publisher :
Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI), Switzerland
Volume :
21
Issue :
16
Pages :
1-49
Peer reviewed :
Peer Reviewed verified by ORBi
Funders :
Commission Européenne. Fonds européen de Développement régional \u003d European Commission. European Regional Development Fund - FEDER - ERDF

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