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[en] BACKGROUND: The current state of the science regarding the care and prognosis of patients with disorders of consciousness is limited. Scientific advances are needed to improve the accuracy, relevance, and approach to prognostication, thereby providing the foundation to develop meaningful and effective interventions. METHODS: To address this need, an interdisciplinary expert panel was created as part of the Coma Science Working Group of the Neurocritical Care Society Curing Coma Campaign. RESULTS: The panel performed a gap analysis which identified seven research needs for prognostic modeling and trajectory analysis ("recovery science") in patients with disorders of consciousness: (1) to define the variables that predict outcomes; (2) to define meaningful intermediate outcomes at specific time points for different endotypes; (3) to describe recovery trajectories in the absence of limitations to care; (4) to harness big data and develop analytic methods to prognosticate more accurately; (5) to identify key elements and processes for communicating prognostic uncertainty over time; (6) to identify health care delivery models that facilitate recovery and recovery science; and (7) to advocate for changes in the health care delivery system needed to advance recovery science and implement already-known best practices. CONCLUSION: This report summarizes the current research available to inform the proposed research needs, articulates key elements within each area, and discusses the goals and advances in recovery science and care anticipated by successfully addressing these needs.