Article (Scientific journals)
Seed Shadows of Northern Pigtailed Macaques within a Degraded Forest Fragment, Thailand
Gazagne, Eva; Pitance, Jean-Luc; Savini, Tommaso et al.
2020In Forests, 11 (1184), p. 1-24
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Keywords :
Large seeds; Seed shadows; Retention time; Macaca leonina; Forest regeneration
Abstract :
[en] Abstract: Research Highlights: Frugivores able to disperse large seeds over large distances are indispensable for seedling recruitment, colonization and regeneration of tropical forests. Understanding their effectiveness as seed dispersal agents in degraded habitat is becoming a pressing issue because of escalating anthropogenic disturbance. Although of paramount importance in the matter, animal behaviour’s influence on seed shadows (i.e., seed deposition pattern of a plant population) is difficult to evaluate by direct observations. Background and Objectives: We illustrated a modeling approach of seed shadows incorporating field-collected data on a troop of northern pigtailed macaques (Macaca leonina) inhabiting a degraded forest fragment in Thailand, by implementing a mechanistic model of seed deposition with random components. Materials and Methods: We parameterized the mechanistic model of seed deposition with macaque feeding behavior (i.e., consumed fruit species, seed treatments), gut and cheek pouch retention time, location of feeding and sleeping sites, monthly photoperiod and movement patterns based on monthly native fruit availability using Hidden Markov models (HMM). Results: We found that northern pigtailed macaques dispersed at least 5.5% of the seeds into plantation forests, with a majority of medium- to large-seeded species across large distances (mean > 500 m, maximum range of 2300 m), promoting genetic mixing and colonization of plantation forests. Additionally, the macaques produced complementary seed shadows, with a sparse distribution of seeds spat out locally (mean >50 m, maximum range of 870 m) that probably ensures seedling recruitment of the immediate plant populations. Conclusions: Macaques’ large dispersal distance reliability is often underestimated and overlooked; however, their behavioral flexibility places them among the last remaining dispersers of large seeds in disturbed habitats. Our study shows that this taxon is likely to maintain significant seed dispersal services and promote forest regeneration in degraded forest fragments.
Research Center/Unit :
Unité de Recherche SPHERES
Disciplines :
Environmental sciences & ecology
Environmental sciences & ecology
Author, co-author :
Gazagne, Eva ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département de Biologie, Ecologie et Evolution > UR SPHERES - Biologie du comportement
Pitance, Jean-Luc ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département de Biologie, Ecologie et Evolution > Biologie du comportement - Ethologie et psychologie animale
Savini, Tommaso ;  King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi (Bangkok) > Department of Natural Resources Management > Conservation Ecology Program
Huynen, Marie-Claude ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département de Biologie, Ecologie et Evolution > Biologie du comportement - Ethologie et psychologie animale
Poncin, Pascal ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département de Biologie, Ecologie et Evolution > UR FOCUS - Biologie du comportement - Ethologie et psychologie animale
Brotcorne, Fany  ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département de Biologie, Ecologie et Evolution > UR SPHERES - Biologie du comportement
Hambuckers, Alain  ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département de Biologie, Ecologie et Evolution > UR SPHERES - Biologie du comportement
Language :
English
Title :
Seed Shadows of Northern Pigtailed Macaques within a Degraded Forest Fragment, Thailand
Publication date :
10 November 2020
Journal title :
Forests
ISSN :
1999-4907
Publisher :
MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland
Special issue title :
Special Issue Plant-Animal Interactions in Forests
Volume :
11
Issue :
1184
Pages :
1-24
Peer reviewed :
Peer Reviewed verified by ORBi
Name of the research project :
Northern Pigtailed Macaque Project
Funders :
ULiège - Université de Liège [BE]
Available on ORBi :
since 19 January 2021

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