Wick EC, Grant MC, Wu CL,. Postoperative multimodal analgesia pain management with nonopioid analgesics and techniques: a review. JAMA Surg. 2017; 152: 691-697.
Vadivelu N, Kai AM, Tran D, Kodumudi G, Legler A, Ayrian E,. Options for perioperative pain management in neurosurgery. J Pain Res. 2016; 9: 37-47.
Lee EJ, Lee MY, Shyr MH,. Adjuvant bupivacaine scalp block facilitates stabilization of hemodynamics in patients undergoing craniotomy with general anesthesia: a preliminary report. J Clin Anesth. 2006; 18: 490-494.
Guilfoyle MR, Helmy A, Duane D, Hutchinson PJ,. Regional scalp block for postcraniotomy analgesia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Anesth Analg. 2013; 116: 1093-1102.
Nguyen A, Girard F, Boudreault D,. Scalp nerve blocks decrease the severity of pain after craniotomy. Anesth Analg. 2001; 93: 1272-1276.
Srivastava VK, Agrawal S, Kumar S, Khan S, Sharma S, Kumar R,. Comparative evaluation of dexmedetomidine and propofol along with scalp block on haemodynamic and postoperative recovery for chronic subdural haematoma evacuation under monitored anaesthesia care. Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim. 2018; 46: 51-56.
Papangelou A, Radzik BR, Smith T, Gottschalk A,. A review of scalp blockade for cranial surgery. J Clin Anesth. 2013; 25: 150-159.
Blumenfeld A, Ashkenazi A, Evans RW,. Occipital and trigeminal nerve blocks for migraine. Headache. 2015; 55: 682-689.
Burlacu CL, Buggy DJ,. Update on local anesthetics: focus on levobupivacaine. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2008; 4: 381-392.
Minto CF, Schnider TW, Egan TD,. Influence of age and gender on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of remifentanil. I. Model development. Anesthesiology. 1997; 86: 10-23.
Marsh B, White M, Morton N, Kenny GN,. Pharmacokinetic model driven infusion of propofol in children. Br J Anaesth. 1991; 67: 41-48.
Pinosky ML, Fishman RL, Reeves ST,. The effect of bupivacaine skull block on the hemodynamic response to craniotomy. Anesth Analg. 1996; 83: 1256-1261.
Pardey Bracho GF, Pereira de Souza Neto E, Grousson S, Mottolese C, Dailler F,. Opioid consumption after levobupivacaine scalp nerve block for craniosynostosis surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol Taiwan. 2014; 52: 64-69.
Brown EN, Pavone KJ, Naranjo M,. Multimodal general anesthesia: theory and practice. Anesth Analg. 2018; 127: 1246-1258.
Egan TD,. Are opioids indispensable for general anaesthesia? Br J Anaesth. 2019; 122: e127-e135.
Punjasawadwong Y, Chau-In W, Laopaiboon M, Punjasawadwong S, Pin-On P,. Processed electroencephalogram and evoked potential techniques for amelioration of postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction following non-cardiac and non-neurosurgical procedures in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018; 2018: CD011283.
Sieber F, Neufeld KJ, Gottschalk A,. Depth of sedation as an interventional target to reduce postoperative delirium: mortality and functional outcomes of the strategy to reduce the incidence of postoperative delirium in elderly patients randomised clinical trial. Br J Anaesth. 2019; 122: 480-489.
Kertai MD, White WD, Gan TJ,. Cumulative duration of "triple low" state of low blood pressure, low bispectral index, and low minimum alveolar concentration of volatile anesthesia is not associated with increased mortality. Anesthesiology. 2014; 121: 18-28.
de Hoogd S, Ahlers SJGM, van Dongen EPA,. Is intraoperative remifentanil associated with acute or chronic postoperative pain after prolonged surgery? An update of the literature. Clin J Pain. 2016; 32: 726-735.
de Hoogd S, Ahlers SJGM, van Dongen EPA,. Randomized controlled trial on the influence of intraoperative remifentanil versus fentanyl on acute and chronic pain after cardiac surgery. Pain Pract. 2018; 18: 443-451.
Geze S, Yilmaz AA, Tuzuner F,. The effect of scalp block and local infiltration on the haemodynamic and stress response to skull-pin placement for craniotomy. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2009; 26: 298-303.
Bithal PK, Pandia MP, Chouhan RS,. Hemodynamic and bispectral index changes following skull pin attachment with and without local anesthetic infiltration of the scalp. J Anesth. 2007; 21: 442-444.
Yang X, Ma J, Li K,. A comparison of effects of scalp nerve block and local anesthetic infiltration on inflammatory response, hemodynamic response, and postoperative pain in patients undergoing craniotomy for cerebral aneurysms: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Anesthesiol. 2019; 19: 91.
Hwang JY, Bang JS, Oh CW,. Effect of scalp blocks with levobupivacaine on recovery profiles after craniotomy for aneurysm clipping: a randomized, double-blind, and controlled study. World Neurosurg. 2015; 83: 108-113.
Tsaousi GG, Logan SW, Bilotta F,. Postoperative pain control following craniotomy: a systematic review of recent clinical literature. Pain Pract. 2017; 17: 968-981.
Costello TG, Cormack JR, Mather LE, LaFerlita B, Murphy MA, Harris K,. Plasma levobupivacaine concentrations following scalp block in patients undergoing awake craniotomy. Br J Anaesth. 2005; 94: 848-851.
Bloomfield EL, Schubert A, Secic M, Barnett G, Shutway F, Ebrahim ZY,. The influence of scalp infiltration with bupivacaine on hemodynamics and postoperative pain in adult patients undergoing craniotomy. Anesth Analg. 1998; 87: 579-582.
Hansen MS, Brennum J, Moltke FB, Dahl JB,. Pain treatment after craniotomy: where is the (procedure-specific) evidence? A qualitative systematic review. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2011; 28: 821-829.
Ban VS, Bhoja R, McDonagh DL,. Multimodal analgesia for craniotomy. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2019; 32: 592-599.
Heppolette CAA, Brunnen D, Bampoe S, Odor PM,. Clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of levobupivacaine. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2020; 59: 715-745.
Suresh S, Voronov P,. Head and neck blocks in children: an anatomical and procedural review. Paediatr Anaesth. 2006; 16: 910-918.
Bouillon TW, Bruhn J, Radulescu L,. Pharmacodynamic interaction between propofol and remifentanil regarding hypnosis, tolerance of laryngoscopy, bispectral index, and electroencephalographic approximate entropy. Anesthesiology. 2004; 100: 1353-1372.
Foster RH, Markham A,. Levobupivacaine: a review of its pharmacology and use as a local anaesthetic. Drugs. 2000; 59: 551-579.
Gristwood RW,. Cardiac and CNS toxicity of levobupivacaine: strengths of evidence for advantage over bupivacaine. Drug Saf. 2002; 25: 153-163.
Smith RH,. Safe dose of levobupivacaine (Chirocaine) in caudal analgesia in children. Br J Anaesth. 2003; 90: 400-401.