Article (Scientific journals)
European society of cardiology: Cardiovascular disease statistics 2019
Timmis, A.; Townsend, N.; Gale, C. P. et al.
2020In European Heart Journal, 41 (1), p. 12-85
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Keywords :
Cardiovascular disease; European society of cardiology; Health infrastructure; Mortality • morbidity; Risk factors; Service provision; Statistics; Article; Europe; World Health Organization
Abstract :
[en] Aims The 2019 report from the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Atlas provides a contemporary analysis of cardiovascular disease (CVD) statistics across 56 member countries, with particular emphasis on international inequalities in disease burden and healthcare delivery together with estimates of progress towards meeting 2025 World Health Organization (WHO) non-communicable disease targets. Methods In this report, contemporary CVD statistics are presented for member countries of the ESC. The statistics are and results drawn from the ESC Atlas which is a repository of CVD data from a variety of sources including the WHO, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, and the World Bank. The Atlas also includes novel ESC sponsored data on human and capital infrastructure and cardiovascular healthcare delivery obtained by annual survey of the national societies of ESC member countries. Across ESC member countries, the prevalence of obesity (body mass index >_30 kg/m2) and diabetes has increased two- to three-fold during the last 30 years making the WHO 2025 target to halt rises in these risk factors unlikely to be achieved. More encouraging have been variable declines in hypertension, smoking, and alcohol consumption but on current trends only the reduction in smoking from 28% to 21% during the last 20 years appears sufficient for the WHO target to be achieved. The median age-standardized prevalence of major risk factors was higher in middle-income compared with high-income ESC member countries for hypertension {23.8% [interquartile range (IQR) 22.523.1%] vs. 15.7% (IQR 14.521.1%)}, diabetes [7.7% (IQR 7.110.1%) vs. 5.6% (IQR 4.87.0%)], and among males smoking [43.8% (IQR 37.448.0%) vs. 26.0% (IQR 20.931.7%)] although among females smoking was less common in middle-income countries [8.7% (IQR 3.010.8) vs. 16.7% (IQR 13.919.7%)]. There were associated inequalities in disease burden with disability-adjusted life years per 100 000 people due to CVD over three times as high in middle-income [7160 (IQR 56558115)] compared with high-income [2235 (IQR 18963602)] countries. Cardiovascular disease mortality was also higher in middle-income countries where it accounted for a greater proportion of potential years of life lost compared with high-income countries in both females (43% vs. 28%) and males (39% vs. 28%). Despite the inequalities in disease burden across ESC member countries, survey data from the National Cardiac Societies of the ESC showed that middle-income member countries remain severely under-resourced compared with high-income countries in terms of cardiological person-power and technological infrastructure. Under-resourcing in middle-income countries is associated with a severe procedural deficit compared with high-income countries in terms of coronary intervention, device implantation and cardiac surgical procedures. Conclusion A seemingly inexorable rise in the prevalence of obesity and diabetes currently provides the greatest challenge to achieving further reductions in CVD burden across ESC member countries. Additional challenges are provided by inequalities in disease burden that now require intensification of policy initiatives in order to reduce population risk and prioritize cardiovascular healthcare delivery, particularly in the middle-income countries of the ESC where need is greatest. © The Author(s) 2019.
Disciplines :
Cardiovascular & respiratory systems
Author, co-author :
Timmis, A.;  Barts Heart Centre, Queen Mary University London, London, United Kingdom
Townsend, N.;  Department for Health, University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom
Gale, C. P.;  Medical Research Council Bioinformatics Centre, Leeds Institute for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom
Torbica, A.;  Centre for Research on Health and Social Care Management (CERGAS), Bocconi University, Milan, Italy
Lettino, M.;  San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy
Petersen, S. E.;  Barts Heart Centre, Queen Mary University London, London, United Kingdom
Mossialos, E. A.;  Department of Health Policy, London School of Economics, London, United Kingdom
Maggioni, A. P.;  Research Center of Italian Association of Hospital Cardiologists (ANMCO), Florence, Italy
Kazakiewicz, D.;  Barts Heart Centre, Queen Mary University London, London, United Kingdom
May, H. T.;  Barts Heart Centre, Queen Mary University London, London, United Kingdom
De Smedt, D.;  Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium
Flather, M.;  Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom
Zuhlke, L.;  Red Cross Children's Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
Beltrame, J. F.;  University of Adelaide, Central Adelaide Local Health Network, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Adelaide, Australia
Huculeci, R.;  European Society of Cardiology Health Policy Unit European Heart Health Institute, European Heart Agency, Brussels, Belgium
Tavazzi, L.;  Maria Cecilia Hospital-GVM Care&Research, Cotignola, Italy
Hindricks, G.;  University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
Bax, J.;  Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands
Casadei, B.;  Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Level 6, West Wing, Oxford, United Kingdom
Achenbach, S.;  Friedrich-Alexander-Universitat Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Erlangen, Germany
Wright, L.;  Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Headington, Oxford, United Kingdom
Vardas, P.;  European Society of Cardiology Health Policy Unit European Heart Health Institute, European Heart Agency, Brussels, Belgium
Mimoza, L.;  Albania
Artan, G.;  Albania
Aurel, D.;  Albania
Chettibi, M.;  Algeria
Hammoudi, N.;  Algeria
Sisakian, H.;  Armenia
Pepoyan, S.;  Armenia
Metzler, B.;  Austria
Siostrzonek, P.;  Austria
Weidinger, F.;  Austria
Jahangirov, T.;  Azerbaijan
Aliyev, F.;  Azerbaijan
Rustamova, Y.;  Azerbaijan
Mrochak, N. M. A.;  Belarus
Lancellotti, Patrizio  ;  Université de Liège - ULiège > Département des sciences cliniques > Cardiologie - Pathologie spéciale et réhabilitation
Pasquet, A.;  Belgium
Claeys, M.;  Belgium
Kusljugic, Z.;  Bosnia and Herzegovina
Hudic, L. D.;  Bosnia and Herzegovina
Smajic, E.;  Bosnia and Herzegovina
Tokmakova, M. P.;  Bulgaria
Gatzov, P. M.;  Bulgaria
Milicic, D.;  Croatia
Bergovec, M.;  Croatia
Christou, C.;  Cyprus
Moustra, H. H.;  Cyprus
Christodoulides, T.;  Cyprus
Linhart, A.;  Czech Republic
Taborsky, M.;  Czech Republic
Abdelhamid, M.;  Egypt
Shokry, K.;  Egypt
Kampus, P.;  Estonia
Viigimaa, M.;  Estonia
Ryödi, E.;  Finland
Niemela, M.;  Finland
Rissanen, T. T.;  Finland
Le Heuzey, J.-Y.;  France
Gilard, M.;  France
Aladashvili, A.;  Georgia
Gamkrelidze, A.;  Georgia
Kereselidze, M.;  Georgia
Zeiher, A.;  Intermountain Medical Center Heart Institute, Salt Lake City, UT, United States
Katus, H.;  Intermountain Medical Center Heart Institute, Salt Lake City, UT, United States
Bestehorn, K.;  Intermountain Medical Center Heart Institute, Salt Lake City, UT, United States
Tsioufis, C.;  Greece
Goudevenos, J.;  Greece
Csanádi, Z.;  Hungary
Becker, D.;  Hungary
Tóth, K.;  Hungary
Hrafnkelsdóttir, P. J.;  Iceland
Crowley, J.;  Ireland
Kearney, P.;  Ireland
Dalton, B.;  Ireland
Zahger, D.;  Israel
Wolak, A.;  Israel
Gabrielli, D.;  Italy
Indolfi, C.;  Italy
Urbinati, S.;  Italy
Imantayeva, G.;  Kazakhstan
Berkinbayev, S.;  Kazakhstan
Bajraktari, G.;  Kosovo, Serbia
Ahmeti, A.;  Kosovo, Serbia
Berisha, G.;  Kosovo, Serbia
Erkin, M.;  Kyrgyzstan
Saamay, A.;  Kyrgyzstan
Erglis, A.;  Latvia
Bajare, I.;  Latvia
Jegere, S.;  Latvia
Mohammed, M.;  Lebanon
Sarkis, A.;  Lebanon
Saadeh, G.;  Lebanon
Zvirblyte, R.;  Lithuania
Sakalyte, G.;  Lithuania
Slapikas, R.;  Lithuania
Ellafi, K.;  Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
El Ghamari, F.;  Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Banu, C.;  Luxembourg
Beissel, J.;  Luxembourg
Felice, T.;  Malta
Buttigieg, S. C.;  Malta
Xuereb, R. G.;  Malta
Popovici, M.;  Moldova
Boskovic, A.;  Montenegro
Rabrenovic, M.;  Montenegro
Ztot, S.;  Morocco
Abir-Khalil, S.;  Morocco
Van Rossum, A. C.;  Netherlands
Mulder, B. J. M.;  Netherlands
Elsendoorn, M. W.;  Netherlands
Srbinovska-Kostovska, E.;  North Macedonia
Kostov, J.;  North Macedonia
Marjan, B.;  North Macedonia
Steigen, T.;  Norway
Mjølstad, O. C.;  Norway
Ponikowski, P.;  Poland
Witkowski, A.;  Poland
Jankowski, P.;  Poland
Gil, V. M.;  Portugal
Mimoso, J.;  Portugal
Baptista, S.;  Portugal
Vinereanu, D.;  Romania
Chioncel, O.;  Romania
Popescu, B. A.;  Romania
Shlyakhto, E.;  Russian Federation
Oganov, R.;  Russian Federation
Foscoli, M.;  San Marino
Zavatta, M.;  San Marino
Dikic, A. D.;  Serbia
Beleslin, B.;  Serbia
Radovanovic, M. R.;  Serbia
Hlivak, P.;  Slovakia
Hatala, R.;  Slovakia
Kaliska, G.;  Slovakia
Kenda, M.;  Slovenia
Fras, Z.;  Slovenia
Anguita, M.;  Spain
Cequier, A.;  Spain
Muniz, J.;  Spain
James, S.;  Sweden
Johansson, B.;  Sweden
Platonov, P.;  Sweden
Zellweger, M. J.;  Switzerland
Pedrazzini, G. B.;  Switzerland
Carballo, D.;  Switzerland
Shebli, H. E.;  Syrian Arab Republic
Kabbani, S.;  Syrian Arab Republic
Abid, L.;  Tunisia
Addad, F.;  Tunisia
Bozkurt, E.;  Turkey
Kayikçioǧlu, M.;  Turkey
Erol, M. K.;  Turkey
Kovalenko, V.;  Ukraine
Nesukay, E.;  Ukraine
Wragg, A.;  United Kingdom
Ludman, P.;  United Kingdom
Ray, S.;  United Kingdom
Kurbanov, R.;  Uzbekistan
Boateng, D.;  Atlas
Daval, G.;  Atlas
De Benito Rubio, V.;  Atlas
Sebastiao, D.;  Atlas
De Courtelary, P. T.;  Atlas
Bardinet, I.;  Atlas
The ESC Atlas of Cardiology is a compendium of cardiovascular statistics compiled by the European Heart Agency, A Department Of The European Society Of Cardiology
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Title :
European society of cardiology: Cardiovascular disease statistics 2019
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European Heart Journal
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Oxford University Press
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Peer reviewed :
Peer Reviewed verified by ORBi
Funders :
NRF - Neurosciences Research Foundation [GB]
BSC - Boston Scientific Corporation [US-MA] [US-MA]
SJM - St. Jude Medical
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