[en] In this narrative review, different aspects of electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring during anesthesia are approached, with a special focus on cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia, from the basic principles to more sophisticated diagnosis and monitoring utilities. The available processed EEG-derived indexes of the depth of the hypnotic component of anesthesia have well-defined limitations and usefulness. They prevent intraoperative awareness with recall in specific patient populations and under a specific anesthetic regimen. They prevent intraoperative overdose, and they shorten recovery times. They also help to avoid lengthy intraoperative periods of suppression activity, which are known to be deleterious in terms of outcome. Other than those available indexes, the huge amount of information contained in the EEG currently is being used only partially. Several other areas of interest regarding EEG during anesthesia have emerged in terms of anesthesia mechanisms elucidation, nociception monitoring, and diagnosis or prevention of brain insults.