Reference : Variabilité des concentrations cellulaires phytoplanctoniques de diméthylsulfonioprop...
Dissertations and theses : Doctoral thesis
Life sciences : Aquatic sciences & oceanology
Variabilité des concentrations cellulaires phytoplanctoniques de diméthylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) et de diméthylsulfoxyde (DMSO) en Baie Sud de la Mer du Nord
Speeckaert, Gaëlle mailto [Université de Liège - ULiège > > > Doct. sc. (océano. - paysage)]
Université de Liège, ​Liège, ​​Belgique
Doctorat en Sciences
[en] Dimethylsulfide ; Dimethylsulfoniopropionate ; Dimethylsulfoxide ; laboratory phytoplankton cultures ; Phaeocystis ; Southern North Sea ; Salinity stress ; oxidative stress
[en] The eutrophication of the Southern Bight of the North Sea has been benefitting to the prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis globosa (P. globosa). This species is a known high dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) producer whose bloom accounts for 95% of spring phytoplankton biomass. An increase in DMS(P) and its oxidation product dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) cellular contents have been frequently observed in cellular stress conditions. To test this, we have first analysed the natural distribution of DMS(P,O) cellular contents in the North Sea. Secondly, we have measured DMS(P,O) cellular contents in monospecific cultures of several key species of the North Sea and their responses to salinity variations. Our main working hypothesis is that DMSP acts as an osmoregulator and/or as an antioxidant, depending on the species. The DMS(P,O) annual cycle in the Southern Bight of the North Sea revealed a seasonality linked to the spring phytoplankton communities succession: (1) colonial diatoms (reappearing in autumn), (2) Chaetoceros spp., (3) P. globosa, (4) large-size summer diatoms (mainly Guinardia spp.), and (5) dinoflagellates. Spatial gradients of DMS(P) were related to those of phytoplankton biomass, itself related to the inputs of nutrients from the Scheldt estuary. It also discharges suspended matter in which DMSO may have been produced by anaerobic oxidation of DMS. Laboratory measurements confirmed a large variability in DMSP cellular contents between the six studied diatoms (Nitzschia closterium, Skeletonema costatum, Thalassiosira rotula, Chaetoceros socialis, Chaetoceros debilis, and Guinardia delicatula), low producers in comparison with P. globosa and even more with Heterocapsa triquetra (Dinoflagellate). In particular, communities 2 and 4 have lower DMSP cellular contents than community 1 (N. closterium, S. costatum and T. rotula). Senescence induces a decrease in DMSP/DMSO suggesting an oxidative stress caused by nutrients and/or light limitation in DMSP producers. In S. costatum, DMSP seems to play an osmoregulatory role and is oxidised into DMSO in hyposaline conditions. In P. globosa and H. triquetra, an oxidative stress appears in hypo- and hypersaline conditions diverging from their salinity optimum.
Freshwater and OCeanic science Unit of reSearch - FOCUS
Fonds pour la formation à la Recherche dans l'Industrie et dans l'Agriculture (Communauté française de Belgique) - FRIA

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