Reference : The nature of the TRAPPIST-1 exoplanets
Scientific journals : Article
Physical, chemical, mathematical & earth Sciences : Space science, astronomy & astrophysics
http://hdl.handle.net/2268/228507
The nature of the TRAPPIST-1 exoplanets
English
Grimm, S. L. [University of Bern, Center for Space and Habitability, Gesellschaftsstrasse 6, Bern, Switzerland]
Demory, B.-O. [University of Bern, Center for Space and Habitability, Gesellschaftsstrasse 6, Bern, Switzerland]
Gillon, Michaël [Université de Liège - ULiège > Département d'astrophys., géophysique et océanographie (AGO) > Origines Cosmologiques et Astrophysiques (OrCa) >]
Dorn, C. [University of Bern, Center for Space and Habitability, Gesellschaftsstrasse 6, Bern, Switzerland, University of Zurich, Institute of Computational Sciences, Winterthurerstrasse 190, Zurich, Switzerland]
Agol, E. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States, NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory, Seattle, WA, United States, Guggenheim, United States, Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, Paris, France]
Burdanov, Artem [Université de Liège - ULiège > Département d'astrophys., géophysique et océanographie (AGO) > Origines Cosmologiques et Astrophysiques (OrCa) >]
Delrez, L. [Space Sciences, Technologies and Astrophysics Research (STAR) Institute, Université de Liège, Allée du 6 août 19C, Liège, Belgium, Cavendish Laboratory, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, United Kingdom]
Sestovic, M. [University of Bern, Center for Space and Habitability, Gesellschaftsstrasse 6, Bern, Switzerland]
Triaud, A. H. M. J. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, United Kingdom, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom]
Turbet, M. [Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, IPSL, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS, 4 place Jussieu, Paris, France]
Bolmont, E. [Université Paris Diderot, AIM, Sorbonne Paris Cité, CEA, CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette, France]
Caldas, A. [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Bordeaux, Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N, Allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Pessac, France]
Wit, J. D. [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA, United States]
Jehin, Emmanuel [Université de Liège - ULiège > Département d'astrophys., géophysique et océanographie (AGO) > Origines Cosmologiques et Astrophysiques (OrCa) >]
Leconte, J. [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Bordeaux, Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N, Allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Pessac, France]
Raymond, S. N. [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Bordeaux, Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N, Allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Pessac, France]
Van Grootel, Valérie mailto [Université de Liège - ULiège > Département d'astrophys., géophysique et océanographie (AGO) > Astrophysique stellaire théorique et astérosismologie >]
Burgasser, A. J. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States]
Carey, S. [IPAC, Mail Code 314-6, Calif. Inst. of Technology, 1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA, United States]
Fabrycky, D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Univ. of Chicago, 5640 S Ellis Ave, Chicago, IL, United States]
Heng, K. [University of Bern, Center for Space and Habitability, Gesellschaftsstrasse 6, Bern, Switzerland]
Hernandez, D. M. [Department of Physics, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics, Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA, United States]
Ingalls, J. G. [IPAC, Mail Code 314-6, Calif. Inst. of Technology, 1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA, United States]
Lederer, S. [NASA Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, TX, United States]
Selsis, F. [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Bordeaux, Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N, Allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Pessac, France]
Queloz, D. [Cavendish Laboratory, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, United Kingdom]
2018
Astronomy and Astrophysics
EDP Sciences
613
Yes (verified by ORBi)
International
0004-6361
1432-0746
[en] Methods: numerical ; Planets and satellites: detection ; Planets and satellites: individual: TRAPPIST-1 ; Chains ; Extrasolar planets ; Genetic algorithms ; Numerical methods ; Satellites ; Convergence issues ; Formation and evolutions ; Inversion problems ; Methods: numericals ; Planets and satellites: detections ; Planets and satellites: individual ; Protoplanetary disks ; Terrestrial planets ; Orbits
[en] Context. The TRAPPIST-1 system hosts seven Earth-sized, temperate exoplanets orbiting an ultra-cool dwarf star. As such, it represents a remarkable setting to study the formation and evolution of terrestrial planets that formed in the same protoplanetary disk. While the sizes of the TRAPPIST-1 planets are all known to better than 5% precision, their densities have significant uncertainties (between 28% and 95%) because of poor constraints on the planet's masses. Aims. The goal of this paper is to improve our knowledge of the TRAPPIST-1 planetary masses and densities using transit-timing variations (TTVs). The complexity of the TTV inversion problem is known to be particularly acute in multi-planetary systems (convergence issues, degeneracies and size of the parameter space), especially for resonant chain systems such as TRAPPIST-1. Methods. To overcome these challenges, we have used a novel method that employs a genetic algorithm coupled to a full N-body integrator that we applied to a set of 284 individual transit timings. This approach enables us to efficiently explore the parameter space and to derive reliable masses and densities from TTVs for all seven planets. Results. Our new masses result in a five- to eight-fold improvement on the planetary density uncertainties, with precisions ranging from 5% to 12%. These updated values provide new insights into the bulk structure of the TRAPPIST-1 planets. We find that TRAPPIST-1 c and e likely have largely rocky interiors, while planets b, d, f, g, and h require envelopes of volatiles in the form of thick atmospheres, oceans, or ice, in most cases with water mass fractions less than 5%. © ESO 2018.
ARC, Australian Research Council; 679030/WHIPLASH; 336480; FP/2007; PP00P2-163967, SNF, Schweizerischer Nationalfonds zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung; JPL, Jet Propulsion Laboratory; Caltech, California Institute of Technology; Ub, Universität Bern; NASA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration; ERC, European Research Council; ERC, European Research Council; NNX14AK26G, NSF, National Science Foundation; AST-1615315, NSF, National Science Foundation; NNH12ZDA002C, NAI, NASA Astrobiology Institute; ANR-13-BS05-0003-002, ANDRS, Agence Nationale pour le Développement de la Recherche en Santé
http://hdl.handle.net/2268/228507
10.1051/0004-6361/201732233

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