Reference : Sur la diffusion de la lumière par les solutions
Scientific journals : Article
Physical, chemical, mathematical & earth Sciences : Chemistry
Sur la diffusion de la lumière par les solutions
[en] Diffusion of Light by Solutions
Spring, Walthère [Université de Liège - ULiège]
Recueil des Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas et de la Belgique
[en] Light scattering ; Solutions ; Diffusion de la lumière ; Solutions
[en] Spring, W. Chemiker-Zeitung (1899), 23, 375-77; SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts Service: Columbus, OH); (accessed Jully 15, 2010).

Following its studies over the color water(see p. 1011) reports authors over experiments concerning so-called shining of the liquids was examined particularly to solutions, D. hot liquids, those from molecules with different forces of attraction combined law. The used solutions disintegrate after their behavior into three groups: asymmetrical those of the alkali metal salts, education those of the ground compound/connection and heavy metal salts and C. those of the
actual colloidal solutions only the solutions of the group of asymmetrical - were examined chlorides,bromides, chlorates and nitrates of sodium, potassium, ammonium, calcium and barium - can be represented without special difficulty optically empty(Tyndall), by distillation to one with usual water solution of these salts some drops of a colloidal iron, zinc or a cadmium oxide hydrate solution prepared add, the well jelly precipitation tear then all for portion cups with itself and leave an optically empty liquid. A similar clarifying of the solutions from the second group could not be accomplished because of the chemical reactions occurring thereby and the formation of basic salts. Author was content to compare a shining of the filtered solutions with that distilled water also filtered solutions the zinc, cadmium, manganese, cobalt, nickel old person behaved completely like distilled water, on the other hand solutions of aluminum, chrome,
a, copper, mercury and lead salts made the electrical light bundle strongly visible. In by the dissociated
effect water is formed for the latter trap on the salts a metal oxide hydrate, which, equal the colloids, which
reflects light laterally. Addition decreased from HCl to the solutions(lead solution except for) corresponding
shining, with the help of a strong light bundle one can recognize therefore the character of a solution. Clear
one aqueous solutions of really colloidal substances such as gelatin, rubber arabicum, dextrine, alcoholic of
colophony, sandarac, mastic, lacquer, furthermore stagnant Selfen solutions, diluted Solutions of alkali
silicates, of different coloring materials as citizen of Berlin blue, Phenyl blue etc. show a constant strong
light cone in each concentration. The past experiments could not decide the question, whether this light
diffusion depends dissolved substances on the imperfect type of the solution or however on the molecular
size, yet. From its observations author concludes that the clear can be separated solutions, which appear
alike with usual lighting in intensive light into such asymmetrical, which behave as optically empty, and in
education such, which reflects the light laterally. Only the first are chemically completely homogeneous, in
them are an intimate mutual compound gel to assume with the solvent. That light-ether is closer in such a
solution than everywhere in the empty area, but from same condensation. Those optically empty solutions
are all also Electrolyte, the ions cause therefore no unequal condensation of light ether. In that it already
cause the electrostatic forces before the light of a stream a regular distribution of the ions, so that these
probably affect the refractive indexes, but the continuous light in its straight-line run cannot disturb.
Although solutions that To group of education as electrolytes seem, steps the diffusion of the light only after
suitable Diluted the solution up. Furthermore the salts of the metals concerned do not suffer an hydrolytic
Dissociation, absolute homogeneity can any more exist, and consequently the hydrolysis is to be
differentiated from the electrolytic Dissociation with respect to the light bundle. Finally come the solutions
as really not electrolytic, i.e. as colloidal forwards, then they cause the diffusion of the light in each degrees
of the Diluted u.7 can be never regarded as true transparent liquids. Substances with complicated
molecules behave in an intensive light beam, similarly a molecular complex, therefore the majority of the
organic bodies causes a light diffusion similarly colloidal solutions, but becomes shining organic liquids still
more complicated by the occurrence of fluorescence features.

Reprinted with the permission of the American Chemical Society. Copyright © 2010. American Chemical Society (ACS). All Rights Reserved.
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