References of "Already available on another site"      in Complete repository Arts & humanities   Archaeology   Art & art history   Classical & oriental studies   History   Languages & linguistics   Literature   Performing arts   Philosophy & ethics   Religion & theology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Business & economic sciences   Accounting & auditing   Production, distribution & supply chain management   Finance   General management & organizational theory   Human resources management   Management information systems   Marketing   Strategy & innovation   Quantitative methods in economics & management   General economics & history of economic thought   International economics   Macroeconomics & monetary economics   Microeconomics   Economic systems & public economics   Social economics   Special economic topics (health, labor, transportation…)   Multidisciplinary, general & others Engineering, computing & technology   Aerospace & aeronautics engineering   Architecture   Chemical engineering   Civil engineering   Computer science   Electrical & electronics engineering   Energy   Geological, petroleum & mining engineering   Materials science & engineering   Mechanical engineering   Multidisciplinary, general & others Human health sciences   Alternative medicine   Anesthesia & intensive care   Cardiovascular & respiratory systems   Dentistry & oral medicine   Dermatology   Endocrinology, metabolism & nutrition   Forensic medicine   Gastroenterology & hepatology   General & internal medicine   Geriatrics   Hematology   Immunology & infectious disease   Laboratory medicine & medical technology   Neurology   Oncology   Ophthalmology   Orthopedics, rehabilitation & sports medicine   Otolaryngology   Pediatrics   Pharmacy, pharmacology & toxicology   Psychiatry   Public health, health care sciences & services   Radiology, nuclear medicine & imaging   Reproductive medicine (gynecology, andrology, obstetrics)   Rheumatology   Surgery   Urology & nephrology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Law, criminology & political science   Civil law   Criminal law & procedure   Criminology   Economic & commercial law   European & international law   Judicial law   Metalaw, Roman law, history of law & comparative law   Political science, public administration & international relations   Public law   Social law   Tax law   Multidisciplinary, general & others Life sciences   Agriculture & agronomy   Anatomy (cytology, histology, embryology...) & physiology   Animal production & animal husbandry   Aquatic sciences & oceanology   Biochemistry, biophysics & molecular biology   Biotechnology   Entomology & pest control   Environmental sciences & ecology   Food science   Genetics & genetic processes   Microbiology   Phytobiology (plant sciences, forestry, mycology...)   Veterinary medicine & animal health   Zoology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Physical, chemical, mathematical & earth Sciences   Chemistry   Earth sciences & physical geography   Mathematics   Physics   Space science, astronomy & astrophysics   Multidisciplinary, general & others Social & behavioral sciences, psychology   Animal psychology, ethology & psychobiology   Anthropology   Communication & mass media   Education & instruction   Human geography & demography   Library & information sciences   Neurosciences & behavior   Regional & inter-regional studies   Social work & social policy   Sociology & social sciences   Social, industrial & organizational psychology   Theoretical & cognitive psychology   Treatment & clinical psychology   Multidisciplinary, general & others     Showing results 1 to 100 of 694 1 2 3 4 5 6     PB 8783: the first sdO star suitable for asteroseismic modeling?Van Grootel, Valérie ; Randall, Suzanna K.; Latour, Marilyn et alE-print/Working paper (in press)Pulsating hot B subdwarfs (sdB) have become one of the showcases of asteroseismology. Thanks to the combination of rich observed pulsation spectra and state-of-the-art modeling tools it is possible to ... [more ▼]Pulsating hot B subdwarfs (sdB) have become one of the showcases of asteroseismology. Thanks to the combination of rich observed pulsation spectra and state-of-the-art modeling tools it is possible to tightly constrain fundamental parameters such as the stellar mass for these compact, evolved objects in the core He-burning phase of evolution. In comparison, the exploitation of sdO pulsators - hotter stars thought to be in a more advanced evolutionary stage - is still in its infancy. While a small number have been identified in Globular Clusters (GCs), they are extremely rare among the field population. It was recently suggested that PB8783, one of the very first sdB pulsators discovered in 1997, may in fact be an unrecognized hot sdO star with very similar properties to the GC sdO pulsators. Here, we present new very high-quality spectroscopy as well as an asteroseismic analysis of this star with the aim of solving the mystery of its nature. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (2 ULiège) Introducing neuromodulation in deep neural networks to learn adaptive behavioursVecoven, Nicolas ; Ernst, Damien ; Wehenkel, Antoine et alE-print/Working paper (2019)In this paper, we propose a new deep neural network architecture, called NMD net, that has been specifically designed to learn adaptive behaviours. This architecture exploits a biological mechanism called ... [more ▼]In this paper, we propose a new deep neural network architecture, called NMD net, that has been specifically designed to learn adaptive behaviours. This architecture exploits a biological mechanism called neuromodulation that sustains adaptation in biological organisms. This architecture has been introduced in a deep-reinforcement learning architecture for interacting with Markov decision processes in a meta-reinforcement learning setting where the action space is continuous. The deep-reinforcement learning architecture is trained using an advantage actor-critic algorithm. Experiments are carried on several test problems. Results show that the neural network architecture with neuromodulation provides significantly better results than state-of-the-art recurrent neural networks which do not exploit this mechanism. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 49 (14 ULiège) Classification of load forecasting studies by forecasting problem to select load forecasting techniques and methodologiesDumas, Jonathan ; Cornélusse, Bertrand E-print/Working paper (2018)This article proposes a two-dimensional classification methodology to select the relevant forecasting tools developed by the scientific community based on a classification of load forecasting studies. The ... [more ▼]This article proposes a two-dimensional classification methodology to select the relevant forecasting tools developed by the scientific community based on a classification of load forecasting studies. The inputs of the classifier are the articles of the literature and the outputs are articles classified into categories. The classification process relies on two couple of parameters that defines a forecasting problem. The temporal couple is the forecasting horizon and the forecasting resolution. The system couple is the system size and the load resolution. Each article is classified with key information about the dataset used and the forecasting tools implemented: the forecasting techniques (probabilistic or deterministic) and methodologies, the cleansing data techniques and the error metrics. This process is illustrated by reviewing and classifying thirty-four articles. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 26 (8 ULiège) Critical Time Windows for Renewable Resource Complementarity AssessmentBerger, Mathias ; Radu, David-Constantin ; Fonteneau, Raphaël et alE-print/Working paper (2018)This paper proposes a systematic framework to assess the complementarity of renewable resources over arbitrary geographical scopes and temporal scales which is particularly well-suited to exploit very ... [more ▼]This paper proposes a systematic framework to assess the complementarity of renewable resources over arbitrary geographical scopes and temporal scales which is particularly well-suited to exploit very large data sets of climatological data. The concept of critical time windows is introduced, and a spatio-temporal criticality indicator is proposed, consisting in a parametrised family of scalar indicators quantifying the complementarity between renewable resources in both space and time. The criticality indicator is leveraged to devise a family of optimisation problems identifying sets of locations with maximum complementarity under arbitrary geographical deployment constraints. The applicability of the framework is shown in a case study investigating the complementarity between the wind regimes in continental western Europe and southern Greenland, and its usefulness in a power system planning context is demonstrated. Besides showing that the occurrence of low wind power production events can be significantly reduced on a regional scale by exploiting diversity in local wind patterns, results highlight the fact that aggregating wind power production sites located on different continents may result in a lower occurrence of system-wide low wind power production events and indicate potential benefits of intercontinental electrical interconnections. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 526 (30 ULiège) Complementarity Assessment of South Greenland Katabatic Flows and West Europe Wind RegimesRadu, David-Constantin ; Berger, Mathias ; Fonteneau, Raphaël et alE-print/Working paper (2018)Current global environmental challenges require firm, yet diverse resolutions in the energy sector. One promising solution consists in harnessing high-quality variable renewable energy (VRE) resources in ... [more ▼]Current global environmental challenges require firm, yet diverse resolutions in the energy sector. One promising solution consists in harnessing high-quality variable renewable energy (VRE) resources in remote locations, while using transmission links to wheel the power towards end users. In this context, a comparison of western Europe and Greenland wind regimes is proposed. By leveraging a regional atmospheric model with proven results in polar conditions, local climate associated with southern Greenland is identified to exhibit specific characteristics that facilitate extensive VRE generation levels. A methodology to assess the added value of wind harnessing in remote locations is introduced and applied on the aforementioned case study, showing superior and complementary wind generation potential in this region of Greenland with respect to selected European sites. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 223 (41 ULiège) WASP-190b: Tomographic discovery of a transiting hot JupiterTemple, L. Y.; Hellier, C.; Anderson, D. R. et alE-print/Working paper (2018)We report the discovery of WASP-190b, an exoplanet on a 5.37-day orbit around an inflated F6 IV-V star with T_eff = 6400 $\pm$ 100 K, M$_{*}$ = 1.35 $\pm$ 0.05 M_sun and R$_{*}$ = 1.6 $\pm$ 0.1 R_sun. The ... [more ▼]We report the discovery of WASP-190b, an exoplanet on a 5.37-day orbit around an inflated F6 IV-V star with T_eff = 6400 $\pm$ 100 K, M$_{*}$ = 1.35 $\pm$ 0.05 M_sun and R$_{*}$ = 1.6 $\pm$ 0.1 R_sun. The planet has a radius of R_p = 1.15 $\pm$ 0.09 R_Jup and a mass of M_p = 1.0 $\pm$ 0.1 M_Jup, making it a mildly inflated hot Jupiter. The orbit is also marginally misaligned with respect to the stellar rotation, with $\lambda$ = 21 $\pm$ 6$^{\circ}$ measured using Doppler tomography. We compare a Rossiter-McLaughlin analysis (involving radial velocity measurements) with the Doppler tomography method, and find that the latter provides a better constraint on $vsini_{*}$ and $\lambda$. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 11 (2 ULiège) La tranquille pénétration chinoise en Amérique latine et CaraïbesKellner, Thierry; Wintgens, Sophie E-print/Working paper (2018)En 2008, la République populaire de Chine (RPC) publiait son premier Policy Paper définissant stratégiquement ses relations avec l’Amérique latine et les Caraïbes (ALC). Depuis, en l’espace d’une décennie ... [more ▼]En 2008, la République populaire de Chine (RPC) publiait son premier Policy Paper définissant stratégiquement ses relations avec l’Amérique latine et les Caraïbes (ALC). Depuis, en l’espace d’une décennie, elle s’est affirmée comme un partenaire commercial et financier incontournable dans cette zone longtemps considérée comme l’arrière-cour de Washington. Pourtant, vus d’Europe, les intérêts et l’action de Pékin dans le sous-continent latino-américain restent encore largement méconnus, voire ignorés. Cet article a pour but d'en livrer un petit éclairage. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 30 (5 ULiège) A low-density hot Jupiter in a near-aligned, 4.5-day orbit around a $V$ = 10.8, F5V starAnderson, D. R.; Bouchy, F.; Brown, D. J. A. et alE-print/Working paper (2018)We report the independent discovery and characterisation of a hot Jupiter in a 4.5-d, transiting orbit around the star TYC 7282-1298-1 ($V$ = 10.8, F5V). The planet has been pursued by the NGTS team as ... [more ▼]We report the independent discovery and characterisation of a hot Jupiter in a 4.5-d, transiting orbit around the star TYC 7282-1298-1 ($V$ = 10.8, F5V). The planet has been pursued by the NGTS team as NGTS-2b and by ourselves as WASP-179b. We characterised the system using a combination of photometry from WASP-South and TRAPPIST-South, and spectra from CORALIE (around the orbit) and HARPS (through the transit). We find the planet's orbit to be nearly aligned with its star's spin. From a detection of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, we measure a projected stellar obliquity of $\lambda = -19 \pm 6^\circ$. From line-profile tomography of the same spectra, we measure $\lambda = -11 \pm 5^\circ$. We find the planet to have a low density ($M_{\rm P}$ = 0.67 $\pm$ 0.09 $M_{\rm Jup}$, $R_{\rm P}$ = 1.54 $\pm$ 0.06 $R_{\rm Jup}$), which, along with its moderately bright host star, makes it a good target for transmission spectroscopy. We find a lower stellar mass ($M_*$ = $1.30 \pm 0.07$ $M_\odot$) than reported by the NGTS team ($M_*$ = $1.64 \pm 0.21$ $M_\odot$), though the difference is only $1.5$ $\sigma$. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 12 (1 ULiège) On the efficiency of decentralized decision-making in self-dispatch power systemsPetitet, Marie; Perrot, Marie; Mathieu, Sébastien et alE-print/Working paper (2018)This paper focuses on market design options for operational balancing management in self-dispatch electric power systems. In particular, it investigates the most relevant timing for the balancing gate ... [more ▼]This paper focuses on market design options for operational balancing management in self-dispatch electric power systems. In particular, it investigates the most relevant timing for the balancing gate closure, when competitors can no longer modify their decisions on the setting of controllable assets and when this responsibility is simultaneously transferred to the system operator. This discussion is central in the development and implementation of the European Electricity Balancing Guideline. Based on a multi-level simulation tool with a realistic modelling of short-term power system operations including informational asymmetry between market participants and the system operator, this paper proposes the first quantitative assessment of reducing the balancing gate closure time from one hour to 15 minutes ahead of the imbalance settlement period. For different environments (energy mix, power plant capabilities, outages, etc…), the results highlight that postponing the balancing gate closure time from one hour to 15 minutes increases the operational cost of the system. Based on robust and scalable results, we show that this difference is mainly due to a better coordination of the available resources by the central decision maker. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 195 (7 ULiège) Style de citation 'Université de Liège - Droit' : Guide d'utilisationCordier, Quentin ; Desseilles, François E-print/Working paper (2018)Detailed reference viewed: 82 (13 ULiège) Une petite collection de livres d’emblèmesDe Marco, Rosa E-print/Working paper (2018)Detailed reference viewed: 20 (5 ULiège) Likelihood-free inference with an improved cross-entropy estimatorStoye, Markus; Brehmer, Johann; Louppe, Gilles et alE-print/Working paper (2018)We extend recent work (Brehmer, et. al., 2018) that use neural networks as surrogate models for likelihood-free inference. As in the previous work, we exploit the fact that the joint likelihood ratio and ... [more ▼]We extend recent work (Brehmer, et. al., 2018) that use neural networks as surrogate models for likelihood-free inference. As in the previous work, we exploit the fact that the joint likelihood ratio and joint score, conditioned on both observed and latent variables, can often be extracted from an implicit generative model or simulator to augment the training data for these surrogate models. We show how this augmented training data can be used to provide a new cross-entropy estimator, which provides improved sample efficiency compared to previous loss functions exploiting this augmented training data. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (4 ULiège) Social Security Incentives in Belgium:An Analysis of Four Decades of ChangeFraikin, Anne-Lore ; Jousten, Alain ; Lefebvre, Mathieu E-print/Working paper (2018)The paper traces labor market reforms over the last four decades. It provides estimates of retirement incentives for a selected set of typical worker profiles across time and socioeconomic groups and ... [more ▼]The paper traces labor market reforms over the last four decades. It provides estimates of retirement incentives for a selected set of typical worker profiles across time and socioeconomic groups and links these series to the labor market performance in Belgium. The results show that the numerous retirement and social security program reforms have had a marked impact on incentives at the micro level. At the aggregate level, results are less clear-cut given the extreme diversity of programs and features in the Belgian institutional context. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 39 (7 ULiège) Efficient Probabilistic Inference in the Quest for Physics Beyond the Standard ModelGunes Baydin, Atilim; Heinrich, Lukas; Bhimji, Wahid et alE-print/Working paper (2018)We present a novel framework that enables efficient probabilistic inference in large-scale scientific models by allowing the execution of existing domain-specific simulators as probabilistic programs ... [more ▼]We present a novel framework that enables efficient probabilistic inference in large-scale scientific models by allowing the execution of existing domain-specific simulators as probabilistic programs, resulting in highly interpretable posterior inference. Our framework is general purpose and scalable, and is based on a cross-platform probabilistic execution protocol through which an inference engine can control simulators in a language-agnostic way. We demonstrate the technique in particle physics, on a scientifically accurate simulation of the tau lepton decay, which is a key ingredient in establishing the properties of the Higgs boson. High-energy physics has a rich set of simulators based on quantum field theory and the interaction of particles in matter. We show how to use probabilistic programming to perform Bayesian inference in these existing simulator codebases directly, in particular conditioning on observable outputs from a simulated particle detector to directly produce an interpretable posterior distribution over decay pathways. Inference efficiency is achieved via inference compilation where a deep recurrent neural network is trained to parameterize proposal distributions and control the stochastic simulator in a sequential importance sampling scheme, at a fraction of the computational cost of Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (1 ULiège) Deep generative models for fast shower simulation in ATLASThe ATLAS collaboration; Louppe, Gilles E-print/Working paper (2018)Detailed reference viewed: 90 (4 ULiège) Machine Learning in High Energy Physics Community White PaperAlbertsson, Kim; Altoe, Piero; Anderson, Dustin et alE-print/Working paper (2018)Machine learning is an important research area in particle physics, beginning with applications to high-level physics analysis in the 1990s and 2000s, followed by an explosion of applications in particle ... [more ▼]Machine learning is an important research area in particle physics, beginning with applications to high-level physics analysis in the 1990s and 2000s, followed by an explosion of applications in particle and event identification and reconstruction in the 2010s. In this document we discuss promising future research and development areas in machine learning in particle physics with a roadmap for their implementation, software and hardware resource requirements, collaborative initiatives with the data science community, academia and industry, and training the particle physics community in data science. The main objective of the document is to connect and motivate these areas of research and development with the physics drivers of the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider and future neutrino experiments and identify the resource needs for their implementation. Additionally we identify areas where collaboration with external communities will be of great benefit. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 32 (4 ULiège) La desconfianza es la peor antivacunasJamoulle, Marc ; Pizzanelli, MiguelE-print/Working paper (2018)La cuestión de la vacunación contra el virus del papiloma humano, es por el momento, objeto de intensas discusiones. Uno podría pensar a primera vista que se trata de una cuestión puramente médica y, por ... [more ▼]La cuestión de la vacunación contra el virus del papiloma humano, es por el momento, objeto de intensas discusiones. Uno podría pensar a primera vista que se trata de una cuestión puramente médica y, por lo tanto, científica. Sin embargo no lo es. Veremos que se trata en primer lugar de una pregunta o problema de tipo sociológico, luego económico y político y finalmente de tipo científico. Este asunto es tan urticante que se le ha llamado “la primera guerra de vacunas” (1,2) Nuestro objetivo no es detallar la historia reciente de la vacuna, sino recordar algunos hechos interesantes. La protección de la población y los individuos ha sido siempre una de las preocupaciones de la medicina. Como los médicos lidian permanentemente con el tiempo, llegar antes de un evento es el objetivo de la prevención, a pesar de que los pacientes aún no estén enfermos o aún no se vean afectados por un daño potencial. Estamos hablando de prevención primaria. Las vacunas y el descubrimiento de la higiene del agua han sido uno de los descubrimientos históricos más importantes contra los eventos que han trastornado la esperanza de vida de los humanos. Pero es la naturaleza médica de la vacunación, sus aspectos protectores y preventivos que han afectado más a la población. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 124 (2 ULiège) On the Stylized Fact of the Firm Size DistributionArtige, Lionel ; Reginster, Alexandre E-print/Working paper (2018)Detailed reference viewed: 42 (9 ULiège) Roland Barthes, moderne, antimoderne, postmoderne, après-moderne ?Demoulin, Laurent E-print/Working paper (2018)Tentative de réponse à Antoine Compagnon qui considère dans Les Antimodernes de Joseph de Maistre à Roland Barthes (Gallimard, coll. Bibliothèques des idées, 2005) que Roland Barthes est un penseur ... [more ▼]Tentative de réponse à Antoine Compagnon qui considère dans Les Antimodernes de Joseph de Maistre à Roland Barthes (Gallimard, coll. Bibliothèques des idées, 2005) que Roland Barthes est un penseur antimoderne. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 34 (1 ULiège) Gradient Energy Matching for Distributed Asynchronous Gradient DescentHermans, Joeri ; Louppe, Gilles E-print/Working paper (2018)Distributed asynchronous SGD has become widely used for deep learning in large-scale systems, but remains notorious for its instability when increasing the number of workers. In this work, we study the ... [more ▼]Distributed asynchronous SGD has become widely used for deep learning in large-scale systems, but remains notorious for its instability when increasing the number of workers. In this work, we study the dynamics of distributed asynchronous SGD under the lens of Lagrangian mechanics. Using this description, we introduce the concept of energy to describe the optimization process and derive a sufficient condition ensuring its stability as long as the collective energy induced by the active workers remains below the energy of a target synchronous process. Making use of this criterion, we derive a stable distributed asynchronous optimization procedure, GEM, that estimates and maintains the energy of the asynchronous system below or equal to the energy of sequential SGD with momentum. Experimental results highlight the stability and speedup of GEM compared to existing schemes, even when scaling to one hundred asynchronous workers. Results also indicate better generalization compared to the targeted SGD with momentum. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (1 ULiège) Mining gold from implicit models to improve likelihood-free inferenceBrehmer, Johann; Louppe, Gilles ; Pavez, Juan et alE-print/Working paper (2018)Simulators often provide the best description of real-world phenomena; however, they also lead to challenging inverse problems because the density they implicitly define is often intractable. We present a ... [more ▼]Simulators often provide the best description of real-world phenomena; however, they also lead to challenging inverse problems because the density they implicitly define is often intractable. We present a new suite of simulation-based inference techniques that go beyond the traditional Approximate Bayesian Computation approach, which struggles in a high-dimensional setting, and extend methods that use surrogate models based on neural networks. We show that additional information, such as the joint likelihood ratio and the joint score, can often be extracted from simulators and used to augment the training data for these surrogate models. Finally, we demonstrate that these new techniques are more sample efficient and provide higher-fidelity inference than traditional methods. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (2 ULiège) Large-Scale Land Acquisitions for Agricultural Development in Myanmar: A Review of Past and Current ProcessesSan Thein; Diepart, Jean-Christophe ; Hlwan Moe et alE-print/Working paper (2018)Detailed reference viewed: 28 (2 ULiège) Les révolutionnaires, protecteurs du système ? Le Grand Soir est reporté à demainNossent, Jérôme E-print/Working paper (2018)En 1969, Georges Lavau, constitutionaliste et sociologue français, propose une analyse de la fonction du parti communiste français (PCF) dans une perspective systémique. Pour construire son modèle ... [more ▼]En 1969, Georges Lavau, constitutionaliste et sociologue français, propose une analyse de la fonction du parti communiste français (PCF) dans une perspective systémique. Pour construire son modèle d’analyse, il s’inspire de l’approche de David Easton, notamment concernant la définition donnée de ce qu’est un système politique. Dans le prolongement de David Easton, Georges Lavau considère qu’un parti politique peut ou non contribuer au maintien du système politique en fonction des rôles qu’il endosse (volontairement ou indépendamment de sa volonté, voire inconsciemment). Partant, cette fois-ci de la typologie de Théodore Lowi qui assigne deux fonctions possibles à un parti politique, légitimation et stabilisation du système politique, d’une part, soutien des politiques publiques d’autre part, Georges Lavau propose une troisième fonction : la fonction tribunitienne. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 167 (1 ULiège) Constraining Effective Field Theories with Machine LearningBrehmer, Johann; Cranmer, Kyle; Louppe, Gilles et alE-print/Working paper (2018)We present powerful new analysis techniques to constrain effective field theories at the LHC. By leveraging the structure of particle physics processes, we extract extra information from Monte-Carlo ... [more ▼]We present powerful new analysis techniques to constrain effective field theories at the LHC. By leveraging the structure of particle physics processes, we extract extra information from Monte-Carlo simulations, which can be used to train neural network models that estimate the likelihood ratio. These methods scale well to processes with many observables and theory parameters, do not require any approximations of the parton shower or detector response, and can be evaluated in microseconds. We show that they allow us to put significantly stronger bounds on dimension-six operators than existing methods, demonstrating their potential to improve the precision of the LHC legacy constraints. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 28 (1 ULiège) A Guide to Constraining Effective Field Theories with Machine LearningBrehmer, Johann; Cranmer, Kyle; Louppe, Gilles et alE-print/Working paper (2018)We develop, discuss, and compare several inference techniques to constrain theory parameters in collider experiments. By harnessing the latent-space structure of particle physics processes, we extract ... [more ▼]We develop, discuss, and compare several inference techniques to constrain theory parameters in collider experiments. By harnessing the latent-space structure of particle physics processes, we extract extra information from the simulator. This augmented data can be used to train neural networks that precisely estimate the likelihood ratio. The new methods scale well to many observables and high-dimensional parameter spaces, do not require any approximations of the parton shower and detector response, and can be evaluated in microseconds. Using weak-boson-fusion Higgs production as an example process, we compare the performance of several techniques. The best results are found for likelihood ratio estimators trained with extra information about the score, the gradient of the log likelihood function with respect to the theory parameters. The score also provides sufficient statistics that contain all the information needed for inference in the neighborhood of the Standard Model. These methods enable us to put significantly stronger bounds on effective dimension-six operators than the traditional approach based on histograms. They also outperform generic machine learning methods that do not make use of the particle physics structure, demonstrating their potential to substantially improve the new physics reach of the LHC legacy results. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 25 (2 ULiège) Elite Taxi and Uber France : do Member States have free rein to prohibit and criminalise ridesharing activities?Van Cleynenbreugel, Pieter E-print/Working paper (2018)Detailed reference viewed: 26 (3 ULiège) Commuting within the EU? Take your Netflix content with you!Van Cleynenbreugel, Pieter E-print/Working paper (2018)Detailed reference viewed: 21 (1 ULiège) Customer ratings as a vector for discrimination in employment relations? Pathways and pitfalls for legal remediesDucato, Rossana; Kullmann, Miriam; Rocca, Marco E-print/Working paper (2018)The use of customer ratings to evaluate worker performance is increasingly worrisome because of its widespread use in the gig-economy. As scholars in computer and social sciences denounce, this practice ... [more ▼]The use of customer ratings to evaluate worker performance is increasingly worrisome because of its widespread use in the gig-economy. As scholars in computer and social sciences denounce, this practice entails the risk of producing discriminatory outcomes, by reproducing biases existing in society. By drawing an analogy with discriminatory practices adopted by an employer to satisfy its customers’ preferences, we propose a legal analysis of this phenomenon grounded in EU non-discrimination law. Thus, we first analyse the issues related to the application of non-discrimination law to (alleged) self-employed workers. Then, we address the lack of access for the individual worker to the data regarding customers’ ratings. We conclude by arguing that the use of customer ratings should be considered as a suspect criterion, while the current (EU) non-discrimination laws should be modernised through a clearer inclusion of (alleged) self-employed workers. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (2 ULiège) The effect of initial water distribution and spatial resolution on the interpretation of ERT monitoring of water infiltration in a landfill coverDumont, Gael; Pilaswki, Tamara; Hermans, Thomas et alE-print/Working paper (2018)Detailed reference viewed: 28 (7 ULiège) L’économie sur le sentier de la guerre : la bataille des normesWintgens, Sophie E-print/Working paper (2018)On entend souvent cette idée selon laquelle le monde se dérégularise mais en réalité, le monde a rarement connu une telle inflation de normes techniques, commerciales ou environnementales qui définissent ... [more ▼]On entend souvent cette idée selon laquelle le monde se dérégularise mais en réalité, le monde a rarement connu une telle inflation de normes techniques, commerciales ou environnementales qui définissent les règles de l'économie. Alors à quoi ressemble cette bataille entre puissances normatives? [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 42 (9 ULiège) Les politiques de mémoire, dans quels buts?Nossent, Jérôme E-print/Working paper (2018)Une large question, fondamentale dans le cadre de nos sociétés contemporaines[4], est à l’origine des réflexions développées dans l’ouvrage : « À quoi servent les politiques de mémoire ? ». Les auteurs ... [more ▼]Une large question, fondamentale dans le cadre de nos sociétés contemporaines[4], est à l’origine des réflexions développées dans l’ouvrage : « À quoi servent les politiques de mémoire ? ». Les auteurs définissent ces dernières comme des « actions qui, pour agir sur la société et ses membres, et les transformer, mobilisent le rappel du passé » (Gensburger et Lefranc, 2017, 15). Sont ainsi interrogées les intentions des initiateurs de politiques de mémoire, celles des porteurs de mémoire susceptibles de rejoindre ces initiatives et enfin, dans une certaine mesure, les effets de ces politiques. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 19 (3 ULiège) Schéma de Développement du Territoire: Contribution de la CPDT à l'analyse contextuelleBianchet, Bruno ; Hanin, Yves; Godart, Marie-Françoise et alE-print/Working paper (2018)This research note from the walloon Permanent Conference of Territorial Development (CPDT) presents the Conference's contributions to the territorial analysis prior to the implementation of the ... [more ▼]This research note from the walloon Permanent Conference of Territorial Development (CPDT) presents the Conference's contributions to the territorial analysis prior to the implementation of the Development Plan for the Territory of Wallonia. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (4 ULiège) Seeking to regulate Uber? Why not rely on Article 101 TFEU...Van Cleynenbreugel, Pieter E-print/Working paper (2018)Detailed reference viewed: 27 (3 ULiège) Equilibrium selection and stability in dynamic core-periphery models with heterogeneous preferencesDelloye, Justin; Peeters, Dominique; Tharakan, Joseph E-print/Working paper (2018)Detailed reference viewed: 19 (5 ULiège) Towards a Typology of Business Models in the Biotechnology IndustrySegers, Jean Pierre E-print/Working paper (2018)The purpose of this paper is to identify a selection of key business models - “typology” - applied in the biotechnology industry. The focus is on the differences between traditional/closed or stand-alone ... [more ▼]The purpose of this paper is to identify a selection of key business models - “typology” - applied in the biotechnology industry. The focus is on the differences between traditional/closed or stand-alone business models opposed to open or networked business models. A number of illustrative case studies and good practices are presented to show that new biotechnology firms are gradually adopting a “best of both worlds” strategy, with both closed business models and open, networked models as a way for gaining access to the market, in close collaboration with large global pharmaceutical companies. The case firms and good practices are taken from a recent country study for Belgium. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 38 (10 ULiège) The First Post-Kepler Brightness Dips of KIC 8462852Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Alonso, Roi; Ammerman, Alex et alE-print/Working paper (2018)We present a photometric detection of the first brightness dips of the unique variable star KIC 8462852 since the end of the Kepler space mission in 2013 May. Our regular photometric surveillance started ... [more ▼]We present a photometric detection of the first brightness dips of the unique variable star KIC 8462852 since the end of the Kepler space mission in 2013 May. Our regular photometric surveillance started in October 2015, and a sequence of dipping began in 2017 May continuing on through the end of 2017, when the star was no longer visible from Earth. We distinguish four main 1-2.5% dips, named "Elsie," "Celeste," "Skara Brae," and "Angkor", which persist on timescales from several days to weeks. Our main results so far are: (i) there are no apparent changes of the stellar spectrum or polarization during the dips; (ii) the multiband photometry of the dips shows differential reddening favoring non-grey extinction. Therefore, our data are inconsistent with dip models that invoke optically thick material, but rather they are in-line with predictions for an occulter consisting primarily of ordinary dust, where much of the material must be optically thin with a size scale <<1um, and may also be consistent with models invoking variations intrinsic to the stellar photosphere. Notably, our data do not place constraints on the color of the longer-term "secular" dimming, which may be caused by independent processes, or probe different regimes of a single process. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 23 (6 ULiège) Early 2017 observations of TRAPPIST-1 with $\textit{Spitzer}$Delrez, Laetitia; Gillon, Michaël ; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J. et alE-print/Working paper (2018)The recently detected TRAPPIST-1 planetary system, with its seven planets transiting a nearby ultracool dwarf star, offers the first opportunity to perform comparative exoplanetology of temperate Earth ... [more ▼]The recently detected TRAPPIST-1 planetary system, with its seven planets transiting a nearby ultracool dwarf star, offers the first opportunity to perform comparative exoplanetology of temperate Earth-sized worlds. To further advance our understanding of these planets' compositions, energy budgets, and dynamics, we are carrying out an intensive photometric monitoring campaign of their transits with the $\textit{Spitzer Space Telescope}$. In this context, we present 60 new transits of the TRAPPIST-1 planets observed with $\textit{Spitzer}$/IRAC in February and March 2017. We combine these observations with previously published $\textit{Spitzer}$ transit photometry and perform a global analysis of the resulting extensive dataset. This analysis refines the transit parameters and provides revised values for the planets' physical parameters, notably their radii, using updated properties for the star. As part of our study, we also measure precise transit timings that will be used in a companion paper to refine the planets' masses and compositions using the transit timing variations method. TRAPPIST-1 shows a very low level of low-frequency variability in the IRAC 4.5-$\mu$m band, with a photometric RMS of only 0.11$\%$ at a 123-s cadence. We do not detect any evidence of a (quasi-)periodic signal related to stellar rotation. We also analyze the transit light curves individually, to search for possible variations in the transit parameters of each planet due to stellar variability, and find that the $\textit{Spitzer}$ transits of the planets are mostly immune to the effects of stellar variations. These results are encouraging for forthcoming transmission spectroscopy observations of the TRAPPIST-1 planets with the $\textit{James Webb Space Telescope}$. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 79 (3 ULiège) D'un communisme hétérodoxe à un désengagement savant : trajectoire idéologique et revuiste de Gérard GenetteFranck, Thomas ; Lorent, Fanny E-print/Working paper (2018)Detailed reference viewed: 25 (2 ULiège) Afrique du Sud, les défis énergétiques et miniers d'un pays émergentMerenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette E-print/Working paper (2018)Premier pays du continent africain par son développement économique, l’Afrique du Sud n’en est pas moins confrontée à plusieurs défis économiques parmi lesquels les secteurs de l’énergie et du minier ... [more ▼]Premier pays du continent africain par son développement économique, l’Afrique du Sud n’en est pas moins confrontée à plusieurs défis économiques parmi lesquels les secteurs de l’énergie et du minier occupent une place de choix. En effet, le pays est fortement dépendant du charbon qui engendre différents problèmes économiques, sociaux et environnementaux. Le premier défi est de diversifier le mix énergétique et de réussir la transition énergétique nationale. Le second défi est économique et social : alors que le secteur minier joue un rôle majeur (2016 : 7,3 % du PIB national, plus de 455 000 emplois directs), il est en difficulté depuis trois ans. Sa relance est d’autant plus importante que le pays est menacé par la récession et que le taux de chômage progresse et dépasse actuellement 27 %. A travers l’analyse des défis énergétiques et miniers du pays, l’article tente non seulement de dresser un bilan des problèmes rencontrés par les deux secteurs mais encore de leurs potentialités et de pistes pour l’avenir. Le cas de l’Afrique du Sud est ainsi assez exemplaire des défis auxquels doit faire face un pays émergent, même si celui-ci est un BRICS. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 31 (1 ULiège) Afgelopen decennium 21% meer Waalse leerlingen in het Vlaamse secundair onderwijsProesmans, Maxim E-print/Working paper (2018)Detailed reference viewed: 32 (5 ULiège) Antoinette DesmoulinsPiront, Julie E-print/Working paper (2018)Detailed reference viewed: 16 (1 ULiège) L’Histoire: un déterminant des comportements électorauxNossent, Jérôme E-print/Working paper (2018)Dans son « Étude électorale de certaines structure ou caractéristiques historiques », Marcel Hotterbeex propose une analyse des relations pouvant être établies entre les caractéristiques historiques ou ... [more ▼]Dans son « Étude électorale de certaines structure ou caractéristiques historiques », Marcel Hotterbeex propose une analyse des relations pouvant être établies entre les caractéristiques historiques ou cultuelles de certaines communes belges et les résultats électoraux dans celles-ci. Cette étude s’inscrit dans une réflexion plus large concernant les résultats de partis régionaux et la conscience régionaliste des populations. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 155 (18 ULiège) "L'enfance d'Ivan" d'Andrei Tarkovski: premier germe d'une dissidence?Thirion, Nicolas E-print/Working paper (2018)Detailed reference viewed: 44 (14 ULiège) Decidability of the isomorphism and the factorization between minimal substitution subshiftsDurand, F.; Leroy, Julien E-print/Working paper (2018)Detailed reference viewed: 17 (2 ULiège) Stein characterizations for linear combinations of gamma random variablesArras, Benjamin; Azmoodeh, Ehsan; Poly, Guillaume et alE-print/Working paper (2018)Detailed reference viewed: 17 (1 ULiège) Stein operators, kernels and discrepancies for multivariate continuous distributionsMijoule, Guillaume; Reinert, Gesine; Swan, Yvik E-print/Working paper (2018)Detailed reference viewed: 22 (2 ULiège) La Couverture universelle en santé au Sahel : la situation au Mali et au Sénégal en 2018Deville, Céline ; Hane, Fatoumata; Ridde, Valéry et alE-print/Working paper (2018)Detailed reference viewed: 18 (1 ULiège) Decreased integration of EEG source-space networks in disorders of consciousnessRizkallah, Jennifer; Annen, Jitka ; Modolo, Julien et alE-print/Working paper (2018)Detailed reference viewed: 18 (1 ULiège) Édition de l’Inventaire des livres trouvés chez les libraires montois le 16 mars 1569 (n.s.)Adam, Renaud E-print/Working paper (2018)Detailed reference viewed: 17 (2 ULiège) Farming Systems Analysis: A guidebook for researchers and development practitioners in MyanmarDiepart, Jean-Christophe ; Allaverdian, CélineE-print/Working paper (2018)This guidebook was written for students, researchers and development practitioners engaged in supporting family farmers in Myanmar and other areas of Southeast Asia. It provides detailed methodological ... [more ▼]This guidebook was written for students, researchers and development practitioners engaged in supporting family farmers in Myanmar and other areas of Southeast Asia. It provides detailed methodological guidance to carry out farming systems analyses. The guidebook provides key concepts and tools for a better understanding of farmers’ decisions and practices. The guidebook helps nurture a professional dialogue between farmers and rural development practitioners, to effectively support family farmers’ productive activities and their future aspirations. The guidebook was developed by GRET in partnership with Yezin Agricultural University. It is based on 18 months of experience conducting farming systems research in five States and Regions of Myanmar. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (1 ULiège) Improvements to Inference Compilation for Probabilistic Programming in Large-Scale Scientific SimulatorsLezcano Casado, Mario; Gunes Baydin, Atilim; Martinez Rubio, David et alE-print/Working paper (2017)We consider the problem of Bayesian inference in the family of probabilistic models implicitly defined by stochastic generative models of data. In scientific fields ranging from population biology to ... [more ▼]We consider the problem of Bayesian inference in the family of probabilistic models implicitly defined by stochastic generative models of data. In scientific fields ranging from population biology to cosmology, low-level mechanistic components are composed to create complex generative models. These models lead to intractable likelihoods and are typically non-differentiable, which poses challenges for traditional approaches to inference. We extend previous work in "inference compilation", which combines universal probabilistic programming and deep learning methods, to large-scale scientific simulators, and introduce a C++ based probabilistic programming library called CPProb. We successfully use CPProb to interface with SHERPA, a large code-base used in particle physics. Here we describe the technical innovations realized and planned for this library. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 12 (1 ULiège) Recovery of unlawful tax advantages remains a thorny EU State aid law issueVan Cleynenbreugel, Pieter E-print/Working paper (2017)A blogpost on State aid and tax rulings, as a contribution to the Regulating for Globalization blogDetailed reference viewed: 23 (0 ULiège) The Excitements & Penniman RecordsSacré, Robert E-print/Working paper (2017)Interviews des membres des Excitements , de Koko Jean Davis et d'Enric Bosser ( Penniman Records) - Record reviewsDetailed reference viewed: 16 (1 ULiège) Le chemin de Jacques STOTZEMSacré, Robert E-print/Working paper (2017)Interview de Jacques Stotzem au sujet de son 15è album "The Way To Go" ; toutes les compositions sont originales.Detailed reference viewed: 14 (0 ULiège) Neural Message Passing for Jet PhysicsHenrion, Isaac; Brehmer, Johann; Bruna, Joan et alE-print/Working paper (2017)Detailed reference viewed: 11 (1 ULiège) China’s new relations with Panama and Costa Rica are another step towards a Beijing Consensus in Central AmericaWintgens, Sophie E-print/Working paper (2017)Increased trade, aid, investment, and diplomatic engagement between China and both Costa Rica and Panama signal a more general projection of Chinese economic and political standards in international trade ... [more ▼]Increased trade, aid, investment, and diplomatic engagement between China and both Costa Rica and Panama signal a more general projection of Chinese economic and political standards in international trade policy. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 58 (5 ULiège) Velléités d’indépendance, remise en question par les armes, guerres civiles : l’État semble de plus en plus contesté et menacé. Qu’en est-il vraiment ?Wintgens, Sophie ; Weerts, Audrey E-print/Working paper (2017)Dans un grand nombre d’études menées depuis plus d’une vingtaine d’années, la question de la place et du contrôle de l’État est formulée en termes de « crise ». Comment l’État du XXIe siècle fait-il face ... [more ▼]Dans un grand nombre d’études menées depuis plus d’une vingtaine d’années, la question de la place et du contrôle de l’État est formulée en termes de « crise ». Comment l’État du XXIe siècle fait-il face aux pressions internationales (terrorisme, mondialisation, flux migratoires) et aux menaces internes (référendums d’indépendance, guerres civiles, ingérence étrangère)? "L’État dans tous ses états", un ouvrage collectif (publié chez Peter Lang en Belgique) dirigé par deux chercheuses belges, Sophie Wintgens et Audrey Weerts, essaie de répondre aux questions soulevées par l’actualité par des réflexions théoriques et des études de cas. Sophie Wintgens est chargée de recherches du Fonds de la recherche scientifique (FRS-FNRS) au Centre d’étude de la vie politique (CEVIPOL) de l’Université libre de Bruxelles, maître de conférences au département de science politique de l’Université de Liège et chercheuse associée au Center for International Relations Studies (CEFIR). Audrey Weerts est assistante et chargée de recherches au sein de la Cellule d’appui politologique Afrique-Caraïbes et de l’unité d’étude des systèmes politiques belges à l’Université de Liège. Toutes les deux expliquent à Middle East Eye que loin d’être une entité statique et figée, l’État se développe et se transforme, et reste encore pour l’instant un acteur central du système international. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 17 (6 ULiège) SiSTEM, a Model for the Simulation of Short-Term Electricity MarketsMathieu, Sébastien; Petitet, Marie; Perrot, Marie et alE-print/Working paper (2017)The aim of this document is to present SiSTEM, a multi-level simulation model of European short-term electricity markets, covering day-ahead and intraday exchanges to balancing activations in real-time ... [more ▼]The aim of this document is to present SiSTEM, a multi-level simulation model of European short-term electricity markets, covering day-ahead and intraday exchanges to balancing activations in real-time, and imbalance settlement. In this model, power companies interact by making offers, notifying their positions to the system operator and impacting the balance of the electric system. The system operator activates balancing energy to restore the balance of the system, using all balancing activation offers, including from balancing reserves. Imbalance settlement implies bidirectional transactions between the system operator and power companies depending on the direction of their imbalance. A simulation of the model is performed by sequentially considering each time step and simulating actors’ decisions. The objective of this model is to understand the problems behind decisions of the actors within the short-term electrical system operation, to provide insights on how these problems can be solved through market design and to see how the decisions are linked together to shape a coherent system. This paper presents different simulation cases of an illustrative system in order to portray main features of the model in a practical and effective manner. In particular, the results show the importance of considering steady-state constraints and notice delays of generation units when looking at short-term issues. Future works could use this model to provide quantitative assessments of short-term market designs. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 739 (21 ULiège) The Science Case for an Extended Spitzer MissionYee, Jennifer C.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Benjamin, Robert et alE-print/Working paper (2017)Although the final observations of the Spitzer Warm Mission are currently scheduled for March 2019, it can continue operations through the end of the decade with no loss of photometric precision. As we ... [more ▼]Although the final observations of the Spitzer Warm Mission are currently scheduled for March 2019, it can continue operations through the end of the decade with no loss of photometric precision. As we will show, there is a strong science case for extending the current Warm Mission to December 2020. Spitzer has already made major impacts in the fields of exoplanets (including microlensing events), characterizing near Earth objects, enhancing our knowledge of nearby stars and brown dwarfs, understanding the properties and structure of our Milky Way galaxy, and deep wide-field extragalactic surveys to study galaxy birth and evolution. By extending Spitzer through 2020, it can continue to make ground-breaking discoveries in those fields, and provide crucial support to the NASA flagship missions JWST and WFIRST, as well as the upcoming TESS mission, and it will complement ground-based observations by LSST and the new large telescopes of the next decade. This scientific program addresses NASA's Science Mission Directive's objectives in astrophysics, which include discovering how the universe works, exploring how it began and evolved, and searching for life on planets around other stars. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 29 (1 ULiège) SPECULOOS exoplanet search and its prototype on TRAPPISTBurdanov, Artem ; Delrez, Laetitia; Gillon, Michaël et alE-print/Working paper (2017)One of the most significant goals of modern science is establishing whether life exists around other suns. The most direct path towards its achievement is the detection and atmospheric characterization of ... [more ▼]One of the most significant goals of modern science is establishing whether life exists around other suns. The most direct path towards its achievement is the detection and atmospheric characterization of terrestrial exoplanets with potentially habitable surface conditions. The nearest ultracool dwarfs (UCDs), i.e. very-low-mass stars and brown dwarfs with effective temperatures lower than 2700 K, represent a unique opportunity to reach this goal within the next decade. The potential of the transit method for detecting potentially habitable Earth-sized planets around these objects is drastically increased compared to Earth-Sun analogs. Furthermore, only a terrestrial planet transiting a nearby UCD would be amenable for a thorough atmospheric characterization, including the search for possible biosignatures, with near-future facilities such as the James Webb Space Telescope. In this chapter, we first describe the physical properties of UCDs as well as the unique potential they offer for the detection of potentially habitable Earth-sized planets suitable for atmospheric characterization. Then, we present the SPECULOOS ground-based transit survey, that will search for Earth-sized planets transiting the nearest UCDs, as well as its prototype survey on the TRAPPIST telescopes. We conclude by discussing the prospects offered by the recent detection by this prototype survey of a system of seven temperate Earth-sized planets transiting a nearby UCD, TRAPPIST-1. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 31 (1 ULiège) Affaires C-168/16 & C-169/16 : for compétent dans le secteur du transport aérien de passagersCordier, Quentin E-print/Working paper (2017)Detailed reference viewed: 40 (8 ULiège) The EP’s ‘European Standards’ Resolution in the wake of James Elliott Construction: carving ever more holes in Pandora’s Box?Van Cleynenbreugel, Pieter ; Demoulin, Iris E-print/Working paper (2017)This blogpost analyses a recent Parliamentary resolution against the background of the Court of Justice's James Elliott Construction judgment, dealing with the legal nature of harmonised technical ... [more ▼]This blogpost analyses a recent Parliamentary resolution against the background of the Court of Justice's James Elliott Construction judgment, dealing with the legal nature of harmonised technical standards in EU free movement law. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 33 (0 ULiège) Contribution of the β-glucosidase BglC to the Onset of the Pathogenic Lifestyle of Streptomyces scabiesJourdan, Samuel; Francis, Isolde M.; Deflandre, Benoit et alE-print/Working paper (2017)Common scab disease on root and tuber plants is caused by Streptomyces scabies and related species which use the cellulose synthase inhibitor thaxtomin A as main phytotoxin. Thaxtomin production is ... [more ▼]Common scab disease on root and tuber plants is caused by Streptomyces scabies and related species which use the cellulose synthase inhibitor thaxtomin A as main phytotoxin. Thaxtomin production is primarily triggered by the import of cello-oligosaccharides. Once inside the cell, the fate of the cello-oligosaccharides is dichotomized into i) fueling glycolysis with glucose for the saprophytic lifestyle through the action of β-glucosidase(s) (BG), and ii) eliciting the pathogenic lifestyle by inhibiting the CebR-mediated transcriptional repression of thaxtomin biosynthetic genes. Here we investigated the role of scab57721 encoding a putative BG (BglC) in the onset of the pathogenicity of S. scabies. Enzymatic assays showed that BglC was able to release glucose from cellobiose, cellotriose and all other cello-oligosaccharides tested. Its inactivation resulted in a phenotype opposite to what was expected as we monitored reduced production of thaxtomin when the mutant was cultivated on media containing cello-oligosaccharides as unique carbon source. This unexpected phenotype could be attributed to the highly increased activity of alternative intracellular BGs, probably as a compensation of bglC inactivation, which then prevented cellobiose and cellotriose accumulation to reduce the activity of CebR. In contrast, when the bglC null mutant was cultivated on media devoid of cello-oligosaccharides it instead constitutively produced thaxtomin. This observed hypervirulent phenotype does not fit with the proposed model of the cello-oligosaccharide-mediated induction of thaxtomin production and suggests that the role of BglC in the route to the pathogenic lifestyle of S. scabies is more complex than currently presented. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 41 (10 ULiège) ‘Once Upon A Time’ ou le contrôle de la narrationClaisse, Frédéric ; Huppe, Justine E-print/Working paper (2017)Ce billet de blog analyse les liens entre "ELIPSIA", une série de court-métrages réalisée par Frédéric DARRAS entre 2012 et 2016, et le projet de recherche STORYFIC, consacré aux effets du storytelling ... [more ▼]Ce billet de blog analyse les liens entre "ELIPSIA", une série de court-métrages réalisée par Frédéric DARRAS entre 2012 et 2016, et le projet de recherche STORYFIC, consacré aux effets du storytelling sur l'écriture de fiction contemporaine, et plus particulièrement aux pouvoirs de la fiction. Après avoir décrit les enjeux posés par la série, l'article développe une série de parallèles avec les préoccupations d'auteurs français contemporains (C. Delaume, C. de Toledo, P. Vasset, A. Damasio), qui nourrissent le même rapport ambivalent à la fiction: à la fois dénoncée pour son emprise sur nos existences et son caractère aliénant, mais aussi valorisée pour ses promesses de réappropriation et d'émancipation. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 56 (1 ULiège) Adversarial Variational Optimization of Non-Differentiable SimulatorsLouppe, Gilles ; Cranmer, KyleE-print/Working paper (2017)Complex computer simulators are increasingly used across fields of science as generative models tying parameters of an underlying theory to experimental observations. Inference in this setup is often ... [more ▼]Complex computer simulators are increasingly used across fields of science as generative models tying parameters of an underlying theory to experimental observations. Inference in this setup is often difficult, as simulators rarely admit a tractable density or likelihood function. We introduce Adversarial Variational Optimization (AVO), a likelihood-free inference algorithm for fitting a non-differentiable generative model incorporating ideas from generative adversarial networks, variational optimization and empirical Bayes. We adapt the training procedure of Wasserstein GANs by replacing the differentiable generative network with a domain-specific simulator. We solve the resulting non-differentiable minimax problem by minimizing variational upper bounds of the two adversarial objectives. Effectively, the procedure results in learning a proposal distribution over simulator parameters, such that the Wasserstein distance between the marginal distribution of the synthetic data and the empirical distribution of observed data is minimized. We present results of the method with simulators producing both discrete and continuous data. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 12 (1 ULiège) Vers une Politique de la Ville en Wallonie : recommandation pour la mise en oeuvre d'une politique transversale et intégrée de dynamisation des quartiers urbainsMercenier, Chloé ; Ruelle, Christine ; Bastin, Florine et alE-print/Working paper (2017)La note de recherche propose les principaux résultats de la recherche CPDT 2015-2016 sur la Politique de la Ville en Wallonie. Elle concerne, plus précisément, les constats et recommandations pour le ... [more ▼]La note de recherche propose les principaux résultats de la recherche CPDT 2015-2016 sur la Politique de la Ville en Wallonie. Elle concerne, plus précisément, les constats et recommandations pour le développement des quartiers urbains selon trois grandes catégories de difficultés : le cadre de vie dégradé, le contexte social défavorable et le contexte économique défavorable. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 122 (19 ULiège) The EU-Latin American Strategic Partnership: state of play and ways forwardSantander, Sébastian ; Müller, Gustavo; Defraigne, Jean-Christophe et alE-print/Working paper (2017)By looking at the current social, economic and political trends in Latin America and the Caribbean and at recent developments in the EU’s relation with the region, this study explores windows of ... [more ▼]By looking at the current social, economic and political trends in Latin America and the Caribbean and at recent developments in the EU’s relation with the region, this study explores windows of opportunity for advancing the EU-Latin American strategic partnership. It is argued that, although asymmetries between Europe and Latin America might impact and diminish the bi-regional relationship, the EU is wellpositioned to play a more active role in Latin America by strengthening existing institutional links, such as the strategic bi-regional partnership between the EU and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) and the Euro-Latin America Parliamentary Assembly (EuroLat). The study concludes with tailor-made recommendations in order to advance the EU’s engagement and cooperation with individual Latin American countries and with the region as a whole, both through traditional cooperative channels and through closer parliamentary links within the framework of EuroLat. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 55 (12 ULiège) Une serve sur le trône de France. Trahison et imposture politique en jupon (dans la Chanson de Berte aus grans piés)Henrard, Nadine E-print/Working paper (2017)La chanson de Berte aus grans piés raconte la trahison fomentée envers leur maîtresse par deux servantes et leur cousin. En exploitant une ressemblance physique entre les deux femmes, la vieille Margiste ... [more ▼]La chanson de Berte aus grans piés raconte la trahison fomentée envers leur maîtresse par deux servantes et leur cousin. En exploitant une ressemblance physique entre les deux femmes, la vieille Margiste parvient à placer sur le trône de France sa fille Aliste et à chasser la Berte, fille du roi de Hongrie que le roi Pépin venait tout juste d'épouser. Au terme de plusieurs années de mauvaise gouvernance, Aliste sera démasquée, et Berte enfin réhabilitée. Après une rapide présentation de la chanson de geste (tradition manuscrite, analyse de l'œuvre), un commentaire s'attache au mécanisme de la trahison pour envisager, en se référant au droit de l'époque, le problème de l'usurpation d'identité et de l'imposture politique au féminin telles que les traite un poète épique du XIIIe siècle. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 17 (2 ULiège) Green Biotechnology in Belgium: The Ghent Innovation District.Segers, Jean Pierre E-print/Working paper (2017)This contribution explores the long-standing evolution of the green biotechnology cluster in the bioRegion of Flanders (Belgium), in particular in the Ghent innovation district.Detailed reference viewed: 91 (5 ULiège) Development of an HPTLC method for determination of hypoglycin A in aqueous extracts of seedlings and samaras of Acer species.Habyarimana, Jean Belt Adélite ; Baise, Etienne; Douny, Caroline et alE-print/Working paper (2017)Hypoglycin A (HGA) is a toxin contained in seeds of the sycamore maple tree (Acer pseudoplatanus). Ingestion of this amino acid causes equine atypical myopathy (AM) in Europe. Another variety, A. negundo ... [more ▼]Hypoglycin A (HGA) is a toxin contained in seeds of the sycamore maple tree (Acer pseudoplatanus). Ingestion of this amino acid causes equine atypical myopathy (AM) in Europe. Another variety, A. negundo, is claimed to be present where AM cases were reported in the US. For unknown reasons, occurrence of this disease has increased. It is important to define environmental key factors that may influence toxicity of samaras from Acer species. In addition, the content of HGA in seedlings needs to be determined since AM outbreaks, during autumn period when the seeds fall but also during spring when seeds are germinating. The present study aims to validate a reliable method using high performance thin layer chromatography for determination and comparison of HGA in samaras and seedlings. The working range of the method was between 20 μg HGA to 408 μg HGA per ml water, corresponding to 12 - 244 mg/kg fresh weight or 40 - 816 mg/kg dry weight, taking into account of an arbitrary average dry matter content of 30%. Instrumental limit of detection and limit of quantification were of 10 µg HGA/ml and 20 µg HGA/ml water, respectively. Instrumental precision was 4% (RSD on 20 repeated measurements) while instrumental accuracy ranged between 86% and 121% of expected value. The HGA recovery of the analytical method estimated from spiked samaras and seedlings samples ranged between 63 and 103%. The method was applied to 9 samples of samaras from Acer pseudoplatanus, A. platanoides and A. campestre and 5 seedlings samples from A. pseudoplatanus. The results confirm detection of HGA in samaras from A. pseudoplatanus and the absence of detection in samaras of other tested species. They also suggest that detected levels of HGA are highly variable. This confirmed the suitability of the method for HGA detection in samaras or seedling. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 78 (35 ULiège) Raman Hyperspectral Imaging: An essential tool in the pharmaceutical fieldSacre, Pierre-Yves ; Netchacovitch, Lauranne ; Dumont, Elodie et alE-print/Working paper (2017)Resulting from the combination of Raman spectroscopy and optical microscopy, Raman hyperspectral imaging has proven to be an indispensable tool in the pharmaceutical field. This article will broach a ... [more ▼]Resulting from the combination of Raman spectroscopy and optical microscopy, Raman hyperspectral imaging has proven to be an indispensable tool in the pharmaceutical field. This article will broach a number of Raman hyperspectral imaging applications that were developed in our laboratory, in order to demonstrate the significance of the technique. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 39 (11 ULiège) L'Open Access en Belgique francophone : bientôt une réalité ?Desseilles, François ; Thys, Laurence E-print/Working paper (2017)Detailed reference viewed: 133 (23 ULiège) Clap 48- Le 48è NO Jazz & Heritage Festival 2017 - Le festival de la démesureSacré, Robert E-print/Working paper (2017)Compte rendu du 48è Festival de la Nouvelle OrleansDetailed reference viewed: 14 (1 ULiège) What should be forgotten? Time to make sense of Article 17 GDPR from the point of view of data controllersVan Cleynenbreugel, Pieter E-print/Working paper (2017)This blog post highlights a key gap in the interpretation and envisaged application of the EU's right to be forgotten, as introduced in the General Data Protection Regulation.Detailed reference viewed: 102 (16 ULiège) Participative Management as a Key Success Factor in Merger and AcquisitionSouply-Pierrard, Fernand; Robert, Jocelyne E-print/Working paper (2017)In this working paper, we will examine in which way the participative management can be a key success factor in a context of organizational change. We tried to determine whether the use/implementation of ... [more ▼]In this working paper, we will examine in which way the participative management can be a key success factor in a context of organizational change. We tried to determine whether the use/implementation of participative management and its tools is perceived as an increasing success factor of the mergers and acquisitions process. One of the interest of this study is to bring back a managerial aspect, nearly forgot in Europe but yet still relevant in Canada, that has proven is great interest within different studies over last decades and to apply the previous researches to a specific event in the life of a company, but also to a really particular context which is the one of a SME employing people with disabilities. To perform this research, we focused on the perception of participation, and its tools, that have workers and managers though a qualitative and a quantitative survey. The perspectives of this study open the way to more in depth researches in order to define audit processes and advises about the implementation of participative management (tools) to influence positively the probabilities of success for mergers and acquisitions. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 63 (8 ULiège) Le New orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival 2017Sacré, Robert E-print/Working paper (2017)Compte rendu de la 48è édition du N.O. Jazz & Heritage Festival 2017 avec photosDetailed reference viewed: 7 (0 ULiège) Défense citoyenne et citoyen de la défense : l'Armée belge et la nationDumoulin, André E-print/Working paper (2017)Certains observateurs peuvent considérer que l’esprit de défense reste un objet non identifié en Belgique. Il peut aussi être un objectif à renforcer en tenant compte des spécificités politiques ... [more ▼]Certains observateurs peuvent considérer que l’esprit de défense reste un objet non identifié en Belgique. Il peut aussi être un objectif à renforcer en tenant compte des spécificités politiques, communautaires, historiques et sociologiques du Royaume. La Belgique n’est pas la France, la Finlande ou le Royaume-Uni et leur culture de défense, leur culture stratégique. Cette étude a pour objet d’interroger en ces moments troublés par les attentats en Belgique sur les liens entre l’armée belge et la nation. Il sera question d’aborder les rapports entre les citoyens et l’institution militaire, les valeurs de légitimation de l’institution militaire et l’éthique qui doit y être associée, le niveau de confiance et de soutien, l’esprit de défense, le degré de résilience, l’image du militaire dans la société, y inclus celle autour de la présence du militaire en rue. Cela impose synergies civilo-militaires, prises de responsabilités politiques, ouverture de l’armée professionnelle au monde civil, partage de valeurs éthiques et meilleure résilience. Il s’agira également de prendre en compte le malaise du militaire déjà perceptible à propos des missions de sécurisation dans les rues tout comme celle qui apparaît autour du dossier des pensions des militaires aux tâches très spécifiques, le militaire n’étant pas un fonctionnaire comme les autres. Seront aussi examinés l’état de l’enseignement des matières de défense auprès des citoyens civils et les ballons d’essai autour des parcours civiques, de la relance d’une réserve et la question d’un retour du service militaire en Belgique actuellement suspendu. Enfin, nous formulerons quelques recommandations spécifiques au positionnement de la politique belge de sécurité et de défense dans le champ politique, sociologique et communautaire dans ses rapports entre l’armée et la société. L’objectif étant d’améliorer les liens entre le citoyen, le politique et la Défense ; sachant que le destin commun des Belges en matière de sécurité se doit d’être aussi pensé en « poupées gigognes » avec, par superposition, le rôle de l’UE et de l’OTAN. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 96 (5 ULiège) Price Discrimination and Dispersion under Asymmetric Profiling of ConsumersLam, Wing Man Wynne ; Belleflamme, Paul; Vergote, WouterE-print/Working paper (2017)Detailed reference viewed: 34 (2 ULiège) The Borders of Nord-Pas-de-Calais: Camps, Actors and InsecurityDa Silva, Amanda Carolina E-print/Working paper (2017)I explore the securitization of the immigration process developed between France and the UK as units of the EU regional security complex. My main intention was to not only identify how both countries ... [more ▼]I explore the securitization of the immigration process developed between France and the UK as units of the EU regional security complex. My main intention was to not only identify how both countries securitized immigration together, but also to identify the social consequences its produces for the city of Calais. The FR-UK immigration policy has been implemented in the city of Calais since 2002, and over time security apparatus has become more sophisticated, which sums up the transposition of the UK border and construction of refugee camps and jungles. As a result of this process, it was possible to identify the appearance of self-established camps, emergence of new actors, and rise of nationalism. I aim to highlight the relevance of bilateral policies developed between both countries and its impacts in Calais. From this, policies’ and migrants’ representations of emerging camps, new actors and nationalism will produce considerable changes in the city. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (3 ULiège) Russie – Venezuela : l’alliance stratégique à l’épreuve des faitsRegnier, Cindy E-print/Working paper (2017)Detailed reference viewed: 35 (10 ULiège) Music 4 A While - entretien avec deux des musiciens de ce projetSacré, Robert E-print/Working paper (2017)Entretien avec Jean François Foliez ( clarinette) et Johan Dupont, pianiste, arrangeur et concepteur du projet Music 4 A While paru chez Igloo RecordsDetailed reference viewed: 22 (0 ULiège) Corde à Corde - Le duo Philippe AERTS ( contrebasse) - Raphaëlle BROCHET (chant) - interviewSacré, Robert E-print/Working paper (2017)Interview des 2 musiciens sur leur carrière et sur la sortie de l'album KALAMAMBA chez Igloo Records ( IGL282)Detailed reference viewed: 12 (1 ULiège) Creative Playground ( Jean François Foliez) - vidéo "Home" ( composition Johan Dupont)Sacré, Robert E-print/Working paper (2017)Spectacle "Creative Playground 2017" Théâtre de Liège, 4 mars 2017; en vidéo "Home" une composition du pianiste Johan DupontDetailed reference viewed: 17 (2 ULiège) Chris BEARD - The Prince of the BluesSacré, Robert E-print/Working paper (2017)Interview de Chris BEARD + record reviewsDetailed reference viewed: 20 (0 ULiège) QCD-Aware Recursive Neural Networks for Jet PhysicsLouppe, Gilles ; Cho, Kyunghyun; Becot, Cyril et alE-print/Working paper (2017)Recent progress in applying machine learning for jet physics has been built upon an analogy between calorimeters and images. In this work, we present a novel class of recursive neural networks built ... [more ▼]Recent progress in applying machine learning for jet physics has been built upon an analogy between calorimeters and images. In this work, we present a novel class of recursive neural networks built instead upon an analogy between QCD and natural languages. In the analogy, four-momenta are like words and the clustering history of sequential recombination jet algorithms is like the parsing of a sentence. Our approach works directly with the four-momenta of a variable-length set of particles, and the jet-based tree structure varies on an event-by-event basis. Our experiments highlight the flexibility of our method for building task-specific jet embeddings and show that recursive architectures are significantly more accurate and data efficient than previous image-based networks. We extend the analogy from individual jets (sentences) to full events (paragraphs), and show for the first time an event-level classifier operating on all the stable particles produced in an LHC event. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 13 (2 ULiège) Transparency Under Scrutiny. Information disclosure by the Parliamentary Land Investigation Commission in MyanmarSan Thein; Pyae Sone; Diepart, Jean-Christophe E-print/Working paper (2017)This case study presents a country-wide quantitative analysis of a Parliamentary Commission established in 2012 in Myanmar to examine ‘land grab’ cases considered and to propose solutions towards ... [more ▼]This case study presents a country-wide quantitative analysis of a Parliamentary Commission established in 2012 in Myanmar to examine ‘land grab’ cases considered and to propose solutions towards releasing the land to its original owners, in most cases smallholder farming families. The study analyses the information contained in four reports released to the public, but also aims to elicit information they do not reveal. First of all, the paper suggests the commission has failed to provide detailed information about land grabs by the military. Second, the Commission seems to have targeted urban areas and urbanization projects and has underestimated land grab cases in rural areas. Third, by contrasting the locations of land confiscation cases with those of agro-industrial concessions as of 2011, the paper also shows how the Commission has evaded, rather than tackled, some very critical land confiscation issues driven by these concessions. Eventually, the authors argue for a mechanism that gathers, manages and releases relevant data on land confiscation and redistribution in a manner that allows for full disclosure. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 46 (1 ULiège) Integrated approach for ethics in research for young researchers at the University of LiegeHalleux, Isabelle E-print/Working paper (2017)For ensuring good practices in research from the beginning and developing a culture of ethics, ULg developed an integrated approach focusing on young researchers. The objective is to instill, as soon as ... [more ▼]For ensuring good practices in research from the beginning and developing a culture of ethics, ULg developed an integrated approach focusing on young researchers. The objective is to instill, as soon as possible, a good perception of what is quality in research, considering methodology, project management and ethics as norms and moral positioning for solving dilemma. Actions, coordinated by the Council for Ethics and Scientific Integrity (CEIS), are developed simultaneously through 5 axes. Young researchers are involved at all levels of the process, directly or as representative of the PhD Association. 1. Training: Sensitization and education to ethics; development of professional capacities, incl. data analysis & open data; seminaries with supervisors and PhDs ("duos") 2. Forum: ethics on the public space – Seminaries, conference, round tables, intervision, discussion and exchange on questions, dilemma, case-studies, with the help of external experts 3. Research appraisal: requirement for an ethics appraisal of each research project, with a special focus on human and social sciences, with the help of disciplinary ethics committees 4. Ethics analysis: Analysis of special questions, complains, problems, and decision making in case of violation of integrity 5. Regulation: Writing of procedures, dissemination of documents, recommendations and case-studies, link to the HR Strategy for researchers and the Charter and Code. In 2016, successful activities took place : - about 500 PhDs (25%) participated directly in the "Go2thesis training" (incl. 1 day on project management and ethics), dedicated trainings (introduction, special questions) and forum-debates - all the research projects, incl. PhD grants, supported by ULg were requested to provide an ethical issue check list, based on the H2020 standards. The R&D Office helped to explain about the issues and resources, and to orient the applicant to the ad hoc ethics committee - special requests were analyzed by the CEIS for several PhD's sensitive projects - Information was provided to PhDs regarding authorship, crowdfunding, privacy, open data and security while travelling New projects will be developed for (1) strengthening the relation between CEIS-ethics committee-doctoral school-supervisor-PhD (2) involving all the new PhDs in the training and forum, and (3) ensure the ethics appraisal during the whole duration of the PhD thesis (i.e. special chapter in the annual report). This presentation aims to exchange about what was done, the actual and expected impact of actions, what is going right and wrong, and how ULg is managing this dynamics as part of the HR Strategy for researchers project. A discussion with participants is expected on results and new projects. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 64 (25 ULiège) Mario Vargas Llosa, Qui a tué Palomino Molero?Belleflamme, Clémence E-print/Working paper (2017)Résumé apéritif du roman de Vargas Llosa intitulé Qui a tué Palomino Molero? (1986), rédigé dans le cadre du dossier "Les lectures pour l'été 2017" de la revue Culture.Detailed reference viewed: 33 (1 ULiège) An intermediary's geographical expansion choice under uncertaintyLefevre, Mélanie ; Tharakan, Joseph E-print/Working paper (2017)Detailed reference viewed: 38 (6 ULiège) "On se débrouille". How to be a good judge when the state lets you downAndreetta, Sophie ; Kolloch, AnnalenaE-print/Working paper (2017)Over the last couple of years, Beninese magistrates have gone on multiple strikes. Most of them complain about their substantial workload, low pay, and poor working conditions. They also highlight the ... [more ▼]Over the last couple of years, Beninese magistrates have gone on multiple strikes. Most of them complain about their substantial workload, low pay, and poor working conditions. They also highlight the discrepancies between the magistrates’ social status and what their families expect from them. While there seems to be a professional malaise within the Beninese bench, judges and prosecutors also insist on the importance of their work and the ethics that goes together with it. This is why we will be looking at the discourses and representations of the social and professional status of Beninese judges. Why do young lawyers choose the path of being a magistrate over other legal careers? How do judges and prosecutors in the Republic of Benin balance professional ethos with practical work routine? [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 56 (4 ULiège) Study Protocol: Effect of prenatal wheel-running exercise (before and during gestation) on cocaine psychomotor sensitization expressed in the offspring in periadolescent females and males C57BL/6J miceLespine, Louis-Ferdinand ; Plenevaux, Alain ; Tirelli, Ezio E-print/Working paper (2017)The present study principally aims at determining to which extent prenatal exercise (before and during gestation) could affect the initiation (establishment) and the expression of psychomotor ... [more ▼]The present study principally aims at determining to which extent prenatal exercise (before and during gestation) could affect the initiation (establishment) and the expression of psychomotor sensitization induced by a representative dose of cocaine in young female and male mice. More specifically, we will assess cocaine-induced acute psychomotor-activating effects, psychomotor sensitization developing over 9 daily sessions (daily peritoneal injections of cocaine or saline) and the long-term expression of the sensitized response (30 days after the last sensitizing injection) in C57BL/6J mice born from mothers housed with or without a running wheel before and during gestation. Based on literature and on our prior results, the mice born from exercised mothers are expected to show significantly reduced levels of cocaine responsiveness in comparison with the control mice (born from unexercised mothers). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 77 (23 ULiège) IntroductionMasson, Christophe E-print/Working paper (2017)Introduction de l'Assemblée générale de Ménestrel – 35e journée d'étude du Réseau des Médiévistes belges de Langue française. Le Moyen Âge dans les (nouveaux) médias. Quelle place pour les médiévistes  ... [more ▼]Introduction de l'Assemblée générale de Ménestrel – 35e journée d'étude du Réseau des Médiévistes belges de Langue française. Le Moyen Âge dans les (nouveaux) médias. Quelle place pour les médiévistes ? Université de Liège, 7-8 octobre 2016 [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULiège) Joint analysis of area and thickness as a replacement for the analysis of cortical volumeWinkler, Anderson ; Greve, Douglas N.; Bjuland, Knut J. et alE-print/Working paper (2017)Cortical surface area is an increasingly popular brain morphology metric that is ontogenetically and phylogenetically distinct from cortical thickness and offers a separate index of neurodevelopment and ... [more ▼]Cortical surface area is an increasingly popular brain morphology metric that is ontogenetically and phylogenetically distinct from cortical thickness and offers a separate index of neurodevelopment and disease. However, the various existing methods for assessment of cortical surface area from magnetic resonance images have never been systematically compared. We show that the surface area method implemented in FreeSurfer corresponds closely to the exact, but computationally more demanding, mass-conservative (pycnophylactic) method, provided images are smoothed. Thus, the data produced by this method can be interpreted as estimates of cortical surface area, as opposed to areal expansion. In addition, focusing on the joint analysis of thickness and area, we compare an improved, analytic method for measuring cortical volume to a permutation based non-parametric combination (NPC) method. We analyze area, thickness and volume in young adults born preterm with very low birth weight, using both methods and show that NPC analysis is a more sensitive option for studying joint effects on area and thickness, giving equal weight to variation in both of these two morphological features. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 154 (1 ULiège) Agroecology in Action : réflexions et perspectives du groupe GIRAFHermesse, Julie; Stassart, Pierre M ; Dumont, Antoinette et alE-print/Working paper (2017)Une équipe de dix chercheurs membres du groupe de contact FNRS “GIRAF” a participé aux journées Agroecology in Action les 9 et 10 décembre 2016. Parmi ceux-ci, huit chercheurs ont conjugué leur ... [more ▼]Une équipe de dix chercheurs membres du groupe de contact FNRS “GIRAF” a participé aux journées Agroecology in Action les 9 et 10 décembre 2016. Parmi ceux-ci, huit chercheurs ont conjugué leur présence avec un travail d’observation et la rédaction d’une note individuelle qui en rend compte. La réflexion collective de GIRAF a été élaborée à partir de ces notes individuelles. L’intention de GIRAF en rédigeant cette note est double : permettre à la fois de mener un débat sur le sens et l’importance d’Agroecology in Action pour le groupe GIRAF et de rendre public nos réflexions dans le but de nourrir la réflexion sur le futur d’Agroecology in Action (AIA). Notre intention n’est pas d’évaluer le mouvement mais plutôt de le mettre en perspective et de le questionner. 1 Ce papier est publié sous la responsabilité des membres de GIRAF qui ont participer à l’évènement “Agroecology in Action” du 9-10 décembre. Ont contribué à ce papier: Hermesse J., Stassart P. M.(Editeurs) Dumont A. M., Louah, L., Hautier, L., Hecquet C. Visser, M. (co- auteurs). L’ordre des co-auteurs est une convention alphabétique. Il n’y a pas de lien avec l’importance des contribution respectives. Les auteurs suivants sont des scientifiques impliqués dans l’organisation du projet Agroecology in Action : Louah, L. et Visser, M. 1 futur d’Agroecology in Action (AIA). Notre intention n’est pas d’évaluer le mouvement mais plutôt de le mettre en perspective et de le questionner. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 51 (3 ULiège) How did EU Citizens Experience Belgium’s Policy of Expulsion and Removal?Lafleur, Jean-Michel ; Mescoli, Elsa E-print/Working paper (2017)The issue of experiencing illegality as EU citizens is here explored through analyzing the case study of Italians in Belgium who saw their residence permit removed by state authorities. This example shows ... [more ▼]The issue of experiencing illegality as EU citizens is here explored through analyzing the case study of Italians in Belgium who saw their residence permit removed by state authorities. This example shows how becoming undocumented is the result of “a legal production of illegality” and that social policies switch from being instruments of protection for groups at risk of social exclusion to being instruments incentivizing individuals to participate in the labour market and consequently rejecting “unproductive migrants” from the social system. EU citizenship and freedom of movement within member states is thus questioned and conditioned to some other socio-economic issues. The notion of “deservingness” highlights that the restriction of the mobility of the poor in general shapes here in terms of “undeserving” the right to freedom of movement and determines further stratifications among migrants. Strategies are developed within an emerging discourse of a “moral economy of deservingness” and they respond to the individuals’ precarious statuses. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 48 (4 ULiège) Les Archives de l'Université de LiègeHenneau, Marie-Elisabeth ; Oger, Cécile E-print/Working paper (2017)Detailed reference viewed: 35 (5 ULiège) Fiscal decentralization and the performance of higher education institutions: the case of EuropeJacqmin, Julien ; Lefebvre, Mathieu E-print/Working paper (2017)This paper empirically evaluates the impact of fiscal decentralization on the performance of higher education systems. To test this relationship,we build up a panel dataset composed of European countries ... [more ▼]This paper empirically evaluates the impact of fiscal decentralization on the performance of higher education systems. To test this relationship,we build up a panel dataset composed of European countries. Countrylevel performance is measured by an indicator using data from the Shanghai ranking. Using a dynamic panel approach, we find that a higher share of government spending coming from decentralized levels of governmentsleads to an improvement of the performance of research-intensive higher education institutions. This result is confirmed by the use of an instrumental variable approach. We argue that a more decentralized higher education system increases the ability to attract and retain top scholars. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (1 ULiège) The Bec Hellouin Organic Farm, reflections and perspective for research from the GIRAF communityDendoncker, Nicolas; Reheul, Dirk; Chapelle, Gauthier et alE-print/Working paper (2017)A team of 13 researchers, members of the FNRS contact group «GIRAF (www.agroecologie.be) », visited the Bec Hellouin Organic Farm (hereafter BHOF) for one day and a half on the 4th and 5th November 2016 ... [more ▼]A team of 13 researchers, members of the FNRS contact group «GIRAF (www.agroecologie.be) », visited the Bec Hellouin Organic Farm (hereafter BHOF) for one day and a half on the 4th and 5th November 2016. The visit consisted in an exchange with François Léger and Charles Hervé-Gruyer around the final report « Maraîchage biologique permaculture et performance économique », coordinated by Sacha Guéguan and François Léger (Institut Sylva and AgroParisTech – UMR SADAPT, INRA), followed by a guided visit of the farm with Charles Hervé-Gruyer, briefly in the afternoon of the 4th of November, but mainly on the morning of the 5th of November. Informal discussions also occurred outside these planned activities. This paper synthesizes the reflections of the GIRAF members that emerged during and after this visit. It represents a collective opinion, hence reporting both shared and diverging viewpoints of all attending GIRAF members. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 77 (3 ULiège) The structure and analytic properties of the scattering amplitude at LHC energiesSelyugin, Oleg V.; Cudell, Jean-René E-print/Working paper (2017)Detailed reference viewed: 19 (1 ULiège) Économie congolaise : entre une croissance en trompe-l’œil et un social déconnectéKambale Kapitene, Marcel Héritier E-print/Working paper (2016)Detailed reference viewed: 24 (2 ULiège)