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See detailPB 8783: the first sdO star suitable for asteroseismic modeling?
Van Grootel, Valérie ULiege; Randall, Suzanna K.; Latour, Marilyn et al

E-print/Working paper (in press)

Pulsating hot B subdwarfs (sdB) have become one of the showcases of asteroseismology. Thanks to the combination of rich observed pulsation spectra and state-of-the-art modeling tools it is possible to ... [more ▼]

Pulsating hot B subdwarfs (sdB) have become one of the showcases of asteroseismology. Thanks to the combination of rich observed pulsation spectra and state-of-the-art modeling tools it is possible to tightly constrain fundamental parameters such as the stellar mass for these compact, evolved objects in the core He-burning phase of evolution. In comparison, the exploitation of sdO pulsators - hotter stars thought to be in a more advanced evolutionary stage - is still in its infancy. While a small number have been identified in Globular Clusters (GCs), they are extremely rare among the field population. It was recently suggested that PB8783, one of the very first sdB pulsators discovered in 1997, may in fact be an unrecognized hot sdO star with very similar properties to the GC sdO pulsators. Here, we present new very high-quality spectroscopy as well as an asteroseismic analysis of this star with the aim of solving the mystery of its nature. [less ▲]

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See detailPer un Dante dappertutto e fuori posto, encore que...
Curreri, Luciano ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailLes sources orales, un apport précieux pour l'histoire des polices
Teicher, Elie ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailTruncated Marginal Neural Ratio Estimation
Kurt Miller, Benjamin; Cole, Alex; Forré, Patrick et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Parametric stochastic simulators are ubiquitous in science, often featuring high-dimensional input parameters and/or an intractable likelihood. Performing Bayesian parameter inference in this context can ... [more ▼]

Parametric stochastic simulators are ubiquitous in science, often featuring high-dimensional input parameters and/or an intractable likelihood. Performing Bayesian parameter inference in this context can be challenging. We present a neural simulator-based inference algorithm which simultaneously offers simulation efficiency and fast empirical posterior testability, which is unique among modern algorithms. Our approach is simulation efficient by simultaneously estimating low-dimensional marginal posteriors instead of the joint posterior and by proposing simulations targeted to an observation of interest via a prior suitably truncated by an indicator function. Furthermore, by estimating a locally amortized posterior our algorithm enables efficient empirical tests of the robustness of the inference results. Such tests are important for sanity-checking inference in real-world applications, which do not feature a known ground truth. We perform experiments on a marginalized version of the simulation-based inference benchmark and two complex and narrow posteriors, highlighting the simulator efficiency of our algorithm as well as the quality of the estimated marginal posteriors. Implementation on GitHub. [less ▲]

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See detailVittorio Frigerio : Nous nous reverrons aux barricades
Curreri, Luciano ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailLEGACCETTI. Recensioni come ricordi: Io (2021) di Massimo Parizzi.
Curreri, Luciano ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailHandlungsbedarfe für die Raumentwicklung der Großregion aus Sicht der Forschung
Caesar, Beate; Pallagst, Karina; Belkacem, Rachid et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

The policy paper 'Action Needs for Spatial Development in the Greater Region from a Re-search Perspective' summarises key findings of researchers from the UniGR-Center for Border Studies in five areas ... [more ▼]

The policy paper 'Action Needs for Spatial Development in the Greater Region from a Re-search Perspective' summarises key findings of researchers from the UniGR-Center for Border Studies in five areas relevant to the Greater Region (demography and migration, transport, employment and economic development, energy landscapes, cross-border governance) and formulates options for action for planning practice and political decision-makers. In addition, it addresses the exchange of knowledge between re-search and politics. [less ▲]

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See detailDistribution spatiale de l’emploi et des modes de transport des travailleurs actifs au Grand-Duché de Luxembourg – Analyse des données de l’enquête Luxmobil 2017
Lambotte, Jean-Marc ULiege; Marbehant, Sylvain ULiege; Rouchet, Hélène ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Analysing the database of the Luxmobil 2017 survey, this article presents the main outcomes concerning the spatial distributions of employment and modal choices related to commuting of both resident and ... [more ▼]

Analysing the database of the Luxmobil 2017 survey, this article presents the main outcomes concerning the spatial distributions of employment and modal choices related to commuting of both resident and cross-border workers within the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. This analysis highlights the significant disparities regarding these distributions, the predominant car dependency and the required conditions to achieve a high modal share of public transport. Confronted with the challenging European objective of decarbonisation by the year 2050 and considering the national and supra-regional strategic documents, in order to coordinate urban development with the public transport offer, a voluntarist cross-border ‘transit-oriented development’ policy appears to be necessary. [less ▲]

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See detaile-Note
Dumoulin, André ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

The return of the notion of high-intensity warfare in the defence literature is intriguing. It is part of a new perception of possible threats associated with Chinese power policy. It is about determining ... [more ▼]

The return of the notion of high-intensity warfare in the defence literature is intriguing. It is part of a new perception of possible threats associated with Chinese power policy. It is about determining which factors should be taken into account in order to justify, weigh up or invalidate a belligerent vision of this country, but also understanding the meaning of the words ‘challenges’, ‘adversary’, ‘risk’ and ‘enemy’. And, in the end, it is about always seeking to identify the elements that constitute the creation of an external enemy, whether real or imagined. [less ▲]

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See detailDeep generative modeling for probabilistic forecasting in power systems
Dumas, Jonathan ULiege; Wehenkel, Antoine ULiege; lanaspeze, damien et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Greater direct electrification of end-use sectors with a higher share of renewables is one of the pillars to power a carbon-neutral society by 2050. This study uses a recent deep learning technique, the ... [more ▼]

Greater direct electrification of end-use sectors with a higher share of renewables is one of the pillars to power a carbon-neutral society by 2050. This study uses a recent deep learning technique, the normalizing flows, to produce accurate probabilistic forecasts that are crucial for decision-makers to face the new challenges in power systems applications. Through comprehensive empirical evaluations using the open data of the Global Energy Forecasting Competition 2014, we demonstrate that our methodology is competitive with other state-of-the-art deep learning generative models: generative adversarial networks and variational autoencoders. The models producing weather-based wind, solar power, and load scenarios are properly compared both in terms of forecast value, by considering the case study of an energy retailer, and quality using several complementary metrics. [less ▲]

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See detailSong of Walt Whitman, Song of Hope?
Lombard, David ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Walt Whitman was a Long-Island born poet who is most notably known for Leaves of Grass (1855), a work that was inspired by Ralph Waldo Emerson’s call for great poets to render the genuine American ... [more ▼]

Walt Whitman was a Long-Island born poet who is most notably known for Leaves of Grass (1855), a work that was inspired by Ralph Waldo Emerson’s call for great poets to render the genuine American experience. In this collection, Whitman takes the voice of a democratic poet on and “prepares us for the perception of a single, universal truth and for our subsequent transformation into the kind of people we need to be” (Brink 2013, xv). Whitman was always close to US pop culture and its (anti)heroes. The nineteenth-century American poet is at the heart of America’s culture, which is shown by, for example, John Keating and his rebellious schoolboys chanting Whitman’s eponymous line of “O Captain! My Captain!” in Peter Weir’s Dead Poets Society (1989) and the many references to Whitman’s work in Breaking Bad (2008-2013) (Bolonik 2013). To the question “Who is the quintessential American?,” Elisabeth Panttaja Brinke, writer, editor and educator who taught literature at Harvard University, Tufts University and Boston College, argues it is “Whitman” (2013, xxii), mainly because of the poet’s representations of both democracy and nature. [less ▲]

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See detailTranslating Witchbroom
Pagnoulle, Christine ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Surveying various aspects of Scott's novel I paid special attention to as a translator: creole features, the rhythm and music that prevades this Carnival novel, sound effects.

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See detailRadiation pressure on a multi-level atom: an exact analytical approach
Podlecki, Lionel ULiege; Martin, John ULiege; Bastin, Thierry ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Nowadays, the mechanical action of laser light is a tool used ubiquitously in cold atom physics, leading to the control of atomic motion with extreme precision. In a recent work, we provided a ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, the mechanical action of laser light is a tool used ubiquitously in cold atom physics, leading to the control of atomic motion with extreme precision. In a recent work, we provided a standardized and exact analytical formalism for computing in the semiclassical regime the radiationforce experienced by a two-level atom interacting with an arbitrary number of plane waves with arbitrary intensities, frequencies, phases, and directions [J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 35, 127-132 (2018)]. Here, we extend this treatment to the multi-level atom case, where degeneracy of the atomic levels is considered and polarization of light enters into play. [less ▲]

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See detailLAGACCETTI. Recensioni come ricordi: Napoleone in venti parole
Curreri, Luciano ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailLEGACCETTI. Recensioni come ricordi: Poesia come ossigeno.
Curreri, Luciano ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailLEGACCETTI. Recensioni come ricordi: Scritti su Leopardi
Curreri, Luciano ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailL'érable sycomore: une espèce d'érables toxique
Genoux, Nelly; Votion, Dominique ULiege; Marcillaud-Pitel, Christel

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Très commun dans nos campagnes, l’érable sycomore est un arbre toxique pour les chevaux. L’ingestion des fruits et plantules de l’arbre est à l’origine d’une maladie grave affectant les muscles ... [more ▼]

Très commun dans nos campagnes, l’érable sycomore est un arbre toxique pour les chevaux. L’ingestion des fruits et plantules de l’arbre est à l’origine d’une maladie grave affectant les muscles respiratoires, posturaux et le myocarde, à l’issue souvent mortelle : la myopathie atypique. L’intoxication est saisonnière, avec deux principales périodes à risque au pâturage : la levée des plantules au printemps et la chute des fruits (samares) à l’automne. Comment limiter les risques sans systématiquement abattre les érables ? [less ▲]

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See detailInterdiction de la mendicité : une atteinte au droit à la vie privée selon Strasbourg
Franssen, Mathilde ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Le 19 janvier dernier, la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme a condamné la Suisse, qui avait infligé à une personne rom démunie une amende suivie par un emprisonnement de cinq jours pour avoir mendié ... [more ▼]

Le 19 janvier dernier, la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme a condamné la Suisse, qui avait infligé à une personne rom démunie une amende suivie par un emprisonnement de cinq jours pour avoir mendié de manière inoffensive. Quelle est la portée de cet arrêt ? Qu’implique-t-il pour la Belgique ? [less ▲]

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See detailCamera Calibration and Player Localization in SoccerNet-v2 and Investigation of their Representations for Action Spotting
Cioppa, Anthony ULiege; Deliège, Adrien ULiege; Magera, Floriane ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Soccer broadcast video understanding has been drawing a lot of attention in recent years within data scientists and industrial companies. This is mainly due to the lucrative potential unlocked by ... [more ▼]

Soccer broadcast video understanding has been drawing a lot of attention in recent years within data scientists and industrial companies. This is mainly due to the lucrative potential unlocked by effective deep learning techniques developed in the field of computer vision. In this work, we focus on the topic of camera calibration and on its current limitations for the scientific community. More precisely, we tackle the absence of a large-scale calibration dataset and of a public calibration network trained on such a dataset. Specifically, we distill a powerful commercial calibration tool in a recent neural network architecture on the large-scale SoccerNet dataset, composed of untrimmed broadcast videos of 500 soccer games. We further release our distilled network, and leverage it to provide 3 ways of representing the calibration results along with player localization. Finally, we exploit those representations within the current best architecture for the action spotting task of SoccerNet-v2, and achieve new state-of-the-art performances. [less ▲]

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See detailDe la Commune de Paris à l’Europe de la Communauté : bribes pour un imaginaire
Curreri, Luciano ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Comment la Commune de Paris peut-elle inciter à repenser l'Europe ? Dans ce texte érudit, qui construit des points de liaison entre Victor Hugo et Denis de Rougemont, entre le Paris de 1871 et la ... [more ▼]

Comment la Commune de Paris peut-elle inciter à repenser l'Europe ? Dans ce texte érudit, qui construit des points de liaison entre Victor Hugo et Denis de Rougemont, entre le Paris de 1871 et la Catalogne d'aujourd'hui, Luciano Curreri trace un chemin qui révèle toute l'actualité des concepts mis en avant par la Commune à l'occasion de son 150e anniversaire. [less ▲]

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See detailBetween Self-Reliance and Responsibility: Rereading the Emersonian Sublime in an Age of Crisis
Lombard, David ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

What if the Emersonian Sublime was still an invitation? I want to believe that the Emersonian Sublime is more than a plea for self-reliance. It is an uplifting call to reexplore our inner self and to ... [more ▼]

What if the Emersonian Sublime was still an invitation? I want to believe that the Emersonian Sublime is more than a plea for self-reliance. It is an uplifting call to reexplore our inner self and to develop a genuine sense of broader responsibility toward nonhumans and humans alike. In the light of the global ecological crisis and pandemic, the Emersonian Sublime urges us not to repeat our “failures and follies” but to deeply reflect upon their severe consequences, to learn from them, and to turn them into “justice” for all. Reconsidering our actions and lifestyle also compels us to redefine our relationship with what we have so far viewed as beautiful or sublime. The “nonconformist” individual is not exactly a social outcast, or one who renounces any interactions with other beings. Emersonian nonconformism highlights the urgency to stop blindly embracing everything that our society has thrown at us and to constantly question the legitimacy and utility of both our and others’ actions. After all, the “transparent eye-ball” metaphor itself might also be an invitation to start unveiling the appearances that were designed to conceal and protect injustices, and to begin to find problems where we had always seen solutions. [less ▲]

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See detailHanan v. Germany: applying the ECHR to United Nations international military operation without affecting States’ willingness and ability to engage in such operations?
Bouhon, Frédéric ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

This short article is a comment of the Hanan v. Germany ECtHR Judgment. On 16 January 2021, the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) rendered an important judgment that adds new ... [more ▼]

This short article is a comment of the Hanan v. Germany ECtHR Judgment. On 16 January 2021, the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) rendered an important judgment that adds new insights to its already complex case law regarding the extraterritorial applicability of the European Convention on Human Rights (the ‘Convention’). In the case Hanan v. Germany (application no. 4871/16), the Strasbourg-based Court confirmed the application of the Convention to German prosecution authorities in the context of an extraterritorial military operation within the framework of a mandate given by a resolution of the United Nations Security Council. This is therefore a particularly sensitive case, dealing both with the limits of the scope of the Convention and the effect it may have on military and geopolitical issues. [less ▲]

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See detailChunking by social relationship in working memory
Paparella, Ilenia ULiege; Papeo, Liuba

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Working memory (WM) uses knowledge and relations to organize and store multiple individual items in a smaller set of structured units, or chunks. We investigated whether a crowd of individuals that ... [more ▼]

Working memory (WM) uses knowledge and relations to organize and store multiple individual items in a smaller set of structured units, or chunks. We investigated whether a crowd of individuals that exceeds the WM is retained and, therefore, recognized more accurately, if individuals are represented as interacting with one another –i.e., they form social chunks. Further, we asked what counts as a social chunk in WM: two individuals involved in a meaningful interaction or just spatially close and face-to-face. In three experiments with a delayed change-detection task, participants had to report whether a probe-array was the same of, or different from a sample-array featuring two or three dyads of bodies either face-to-face (facing array) or back-to-back (non-facing array). In Experiment 1, where facing dyads depicted coherent, meaningful interactions, participants were more accurate to detect changes in facing (vs. non-facing) arrays. A similar advantage was found in Experiment 2, even though facing dyads depicted no meaningful interaction. In Experiment 3, we introduced a secondary task (verbal shadowing) to increase WM load. This manipulation abolished the advantage of facing (vs. non-facing) arrays, only when facing dyads depicted no meaningful interactions. These results show that WM uses representation of interaction to chunk crowds in social groups. The mere facingness of bodies is sufficient on its own to evoke representation of interaction, thus defining a social chunk in WM; although the lack of semantic anchor makes chunking fainter and more susceptible to interference of a secondary task [less ▲]

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See detailLeveraging Global Parameters for Flow-based Neural Posterior Estimation
Rodrigues, Pedro; Moreau, Thomas; Louppe, Gilles ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Inferring the parameters of a stochastic model based on experimental observations is central to the scientific method. A particularly challenging setting is when the model is strongly indeterminate, i.e ... [more ▼]

Inferring the parameters of a stochastic model based on experimental observations is central to the scientific method. A particularly challenging setting is when the model is strongly indeterminate, i.e., when distinct sets of parameters yield identical observations. This arises in many practical situations, such as when inferring the distance and power of a radio source (is the source close and weak or far and strong?) or when estimating the amplifier gain and underlying brain activity of an electrophysiological experiment. In this work, we present a method for cracking such indeterminacy by exploiting additional information conveyed by an auxiliary set of observations sharing global parameters. Our method extends recent developments in simulation-based inference(SBI) based on normalizing flows to Bayesian hierarchical models. We validate quantitatively our proposal on a motivating example amenable to analytical solutions, and then apply it to invert a well known non-linear model from computational neuroscience. [less ▲]

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See detailJournalism students in internship and deontology in French-speaking Belgium
Krywicki, Boris ULiege; Tixier, Florian; Fierens, Marie et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

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See detailAutomatic sequences: from rational bases to trees
Rigo, Michel ULiege; Stipulanti, Manon ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

The nth term of an automatic sequence is the output of a deterministic finite automaton fed with the representation of n in a suitable numeration system. In this paper, instead of considering automatic ... [more ▼]

The nth term of an automatic sequence is the output of a deterministic finite automaton fed with the representation of n in a suitable numeration system. In this paper, instead of considering automatic sequences built on a numeration system with a regular numeration language, we consider these built on languages associated with trees having periodic labeled signatures and, in particular, rational base numeration systems. We obtain two main characterizations of these sequences. The first one is concerned with r-block substitutions where r morphisms are applied periodically. In particular, we provide examples of such sequences that are not morphic. The second characterization involves the factors, or subtrees of finite height, of the tree associated with the numeration system and decorated by the terms of the sequence. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamical behavior of alternate base expansions
Charlier, Emilie ULiege; Cisternino, Célia ULiege; Dajani, Karma

E-print/Working paper (2021)

We generalize the greedy and lazy β-transformations for a real base β to the setting of alternate bases β = (β0, . . . , βp−1), which were recently introduced by the first and second authors as a ... [more ▼]

We generalize the greedy and lazy β-transformations for a real base β to the setting of alternate bases β = (β0, . . . , βp−1), which were recently introduced by the first and second authors as a particular case of Cantor bases. As in the real base case, these new transformations, denoted Tβ and Lβ respectively, can be iterated in order to generate the digits of the greedy and lazy β-expansions of real numbers. The aim of this paper is to describe the dynamical behaviors of Tβ and Lβ. We first prove the existence of a unique absolutely continuous (with respect to an extended Lebesgue measure, called the p-Lebesgue measure) Tβ-invariant measure. We then show that this unique measure is in fact equivalent to the p-Lebesgue measure and that the corresponding dynamical system is ergodic and has entropy 1/p log(βp−1 · · · β0). We then express the density of this p measure and compute the frequencies of letters in the greedy β-expansions. We obtain the dynamical properties of Lβ by showing that the lazy dynamical system is isomorphic to the greedy one. We also provide an isomorphism with a suitable extension of the β- shift. Finally, we show that the β-expansions can be seen as (βp−1 · · · β0 )-representations over general digit sets and we compare both frameworks. [less ▲]

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See detailFoucault auditeur: les études de philosophie et de psychologie à Paris, 1946-1953.
Dassonneville, Gautier ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

In the vast collection of documents made available to the public by the Foucault Reading Records project, many of the manuscripts have a very special status, since they are in fact lecture notes taken ... [more ▼]

In the vast collection of documents made available to the public by the Foucault Reading Records project, many of the manuscripts have a very special status, since they are in fact lecture notes taken during the years of study in Paris where Foucault obtained his degrees in philosophy and psychology, at the end of a double course of study carried out between 1946 and 1953, at the ENS and the Sorbonne. Placed side by side, these documents reveal the portrait of a Foucault who, between the ages of twenty and twenty-seven, trained with some of the new masters of the University at the Liberation, took part in the age-old and prestigious game of the Agrégation in philosophy and enrolled among the very first students of the new psychology course at the University of Paris. Translated with www.DeepL.com/Translator (free version) [less ▲]

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See detailTreatment using chalybs, according to Johannes Hartmann and Eberhard Gockel: A remedy against diseases of the liver and the spleen in 17th century Germany
Droixhe, Daniel ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

This short and prospective article deals with Johannes Hartmann (1568-1631), who is reputed as having been the first professor of chemistry at the University of Marburg. ‘For Hartmann’, Bruce T. Moran has ... [more ▼]

This short and prospective article deals with Johannes Hartmann (1568-1631), who is reputed as having been the first professor of chemistry at the University of Marburg. ‘For Hartmann’, Bruce T. Moran has written, ‘the road to the laboratory of chemical medicine in Marburg began in Kassel, at the court of the university’s protector, the Landgrave Moritz of Hesse (1572-1632)’. Having studied at Wittenberg, Hartmann was appointed as a mathematician in Kassel and was chosen to fill the chair of mathematics when the incumbent died. He received a medical degree in 1606 and ‘began a brief correspondence with the French Paracelsian, Joseph Duchesne (Quercetanus) (c. 1544-1609), who had visited Kassel in 1604’. Moritz had become captivated by the study of occult philosophy, especially in relation to alchemy, and was well on his way to amassing an extensive collection of alchemical, Cabbalistic, and Paracelsian manuscripts, and to fashioning a court circle of alchemical and medical adepts. Thus, ‘in 1608, he enthusiastically received a suggestion from Hartmann for founding a collegium chymicum at Marburg’ and he ‘chose to invest Hartmann with a new university role and a new title – Professor publicus chymiatriae’. [less ▲]

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See detailPolitique commerciale extérieure : quel rôle pour les assemblées parlementaires ? Le cas des États-Unis et de l’Union Européenne
Bricart, Vincent ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Depuis le début des années 2010, une série de nouveaux accords ou de processus de négociations commerciaux entre de grands blocs géographiques ont émergé dans le monde. L’Union Européenne (UE) et les ... [more ▼]

Depuis le début des années 2010, une série de nouveaux accords ou de processus de négociations commerciaux entre de grands blocs géographiques ont émergé dans le monde. L’Union Européenne (UE) et les États-Unis ont à ce titre joué un rôle de premier plan dans ces initiatives et dans leurs proliférations. Face à l’impact grandissant de la globalisation sur le quotidien des citoyens, les assemblées législatives tendent à s’impliquer progressivement dans ces processus diplomatiques et à gagner en importance et en visibilité dans leur fonction vis-à-vis de ces accords. Si bien qu’aujourd’hui, toute personne s’intéressant de près ou de loin à l’étude des accords commerciaux ne peut plus ignorer le rôle qu’y jouent les parlements des États impliqués dans ces processus. Les négociations du Partenariat Transatlantique de Commerce et d’Investissement (TTIP), de l’Accord Économique et Commercial Global (CETA) et de l’Accord de Partenariat Transpacifique (TPP) représentent ainsi de bons indicateurs du rôle, des atouts et des limites que les interventions d’un parlement dans un processus de négociation peuvent rencontrer en fonction du contexte politique ou institutionnel et de l’appui de l’opinion publique. Le Parlement européen et le Congrès américain constituent respectivement des assemblées législatives relativement puissantes, représentant un nombre de citoyens conséquent et ayant d’importantes prérogatives constitutionnelles ou institutionnelles en matière commerciale, mais évoluant dans des cadres significativement différents. Via leurs outils institutionnels et à travers des pressions formelles et informelles de la part de ces deux pouvoirs législatifs, les exécutifs se retrouvent souvent contraints de prendre en compte certaines revendications des parlementaires faisant voix aux revendications d’une partie de la société civile. À défaut, le risque de voir une négociation échouer faute de ratification de l’accord par le pouvoir législatif est important. Néanmoins, l’influence du pouvoir législatif n’est pas la même pour chaque négociation et le contexte de celle-ci va dès lors jouer un rôle important pour en déterminer l’amplitude et la visibilité d’une assemblée dans ces différents processus. [less ▲]

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See detailshamo: A tool for electromagnetic modelling, simulation and sensitivity analysis of the head
Grignard, Martin ULiege; Geuzaine, Christophe ULiege; Phillips, Christophe ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Accurate electromagnetic modelling of the head of a subject is of main interest in the fields of source reconstruction and brain stimulation. Those processes rely heavily on the quality of the model and ... [more ▼]

Accurate electromagnetic modelling of the head of a subject is of main interest in the fields of source reconstruction and brain stimulation. Those processes rely heavily on the quality of the model and, even though the geometry of the tissues can be extracted from magnetic resonance images (MRI) or computed tomography (CT), their physical properties such as the electrical conductivity are hard to measure with non intrusive techniques. In this paper, we propose a tool to assess the uncertainty in the model parameters as well as compute a parametric electroencephalography (EEG) forward solution and current distribution for transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). [less ▲]

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See detailDepth of sedation with dexmedetomidine modulates cortical excitability non-linearly
Cardone, Paolo ULiege; Bodart, Olivier; Kirsch, Murielle et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Background Cortical excitability changes across conscious states, being higher in unconsciousness compared to normal wakefulness. Anaesthesia offers controlled manipulation to investigate conscious ... [more ▼]

Background Cortical excitability changes across conscious states, being higher in unconsciousness compared to normal wakefulness. Anaesthesia offers controlled manipulation to investigate conscious processes and underlying brain dynamics. Among commonly used anaesthetic agents, dexmedetomidine (DEX) effects are not completely known. In this study, we investigated cortical excitability as a function of DEX sedation depth.Methods Transcranial magnetic stimulation coupled with electroencephalography was recorded in 20 healthy subjects undergoing DEX sedation in four conditions (baseline, light sedation, deep sedation, recovery). Frontal and parietal cortices were stimulated using a neuronavigation system. Cortical excitability was inferred by slope, amplitude, positive and negative peak latencies of the first component (0-30 ms) of the TMS-evoked potential. Four Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) were used to test the effect of condition and brain region over cortical excitability.Results Dexmedetomidine modulated amplitude (P\<0.001), slope (P=0.0001) and positive peak (P=0.042), while the targeted brain region affected amplitude (P\<0.001), slope (P\<0.001), and negative peak (P=0.001). The interaction between dexmedetomidine and region had an effect over amplitude (P=0.004), and slope (P=0.009) such that cortical excitability was higher during all conditions where DEX was present as compared to the baseline.Conclusions Cortical excitability changes non-linearly as a function of the depth of DEX sedation, with a paradoxical non dose-dependent increase. The effect is region-specific, being present in the frontal but not in the parietal region. Future research should extend the current results with other anaesthetics to better understand the link between cortical excitability and depth of sedation.Competing Interest StatementVB declares that he has received a research grant from Orion Pharma and honoraria for consultancy from Medtronic for the past 6 years. PC, OB, MK, JS, AV, CM, JS, SW, RS, SL, MM \& OG declare that they have no conflict of interest. [less ▲]

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See detailLes trois « C » du succès pour une exposition d’art et d’histoire. L’expérience liégeoise
George, Philippe ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Les expositions d'art et d'histoire à Liège

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See detailLa rivière ‘Khauraha’, médiatrice entre non-humains et villageois (Népal)
Vouiller, Nolwen ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Cet article est un court et très accessible aperçu de mon terrain de master et de thèse, la rivière Khauraha de la Bufferzone de Bardia, au Népal. J'y aborde, à partir de trois premiers mois de terrain, l ... [more ▼]

Cet article est un court et très accessible aperçu de mon terrain de master et de thèse, la rivière Khauraha de la Bufferzone de Bardia, au Népal. J'y aborde, à partir de trois premiers mois de terrain, l'importance de la rivière dans les interactions entre humains et non-humains. [less ▲]

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See detailLes tessères onomastiques de Deir el-Médina : recherche en cours dans les collections de l’Institut français d’archéologie orientale du Caire
Pietri, Renaud ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Short presentation of a work in progress on the 'name stones' from Deir el-Medina now kept in the IFAO's archives.

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See detailThe Scholcomm Chronicles #1. Rambling about Misconceptions of Open Access
Dony, Christophe ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2021)

This is a short essay/opinion-like article in comics form on some misconceptions of Open Access. "Rambling about Misconceptions of Open Access" is also the first installment of "The ScholComm Chronicles ... [more ▼]

This is a short essay/opinion-like article in comics form on some misconceptions of Open Access. "Rambling about Misconceptions of Open Access" is also the first installment of "The ScholComm Chronicles", which will hopefully develop into an ongoing series. [less ▲]

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See detailDistributional Reinforcement Learning with Unconstrained Monotonic Neural Networks
Théate, Thibaut ULiege; Wehenkel, Antoine ULiege; Bolland, Adrien ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

The distributional reinforcement learning (RL) approach advocates for representing the complete probability distribution of the random return instead of only modelling its expectation. A distributional RL ... [more ▼]

The distributional reinforcement learning (RL) approach advocates for representing the complete probability distribution of the random return instead of only modelling its expectation. A distributional RL algorithm may be characterised by two main components, namely the representation and parameterisation of the distribution and the probability metric defining the loss. This research considers the unconstrained monotonic neural network (UMNN) architecture, a universal approximator of continuous monotonic functions which is particularly well suited for modelling different representations of a distribution (PDF, CDF, quantile function). This property enables the decoupling of the effect of the function approximator class from that of the probability metric. The paper firstly introduces a methodology for learning different representations of the random return distribution. Secondly, a novel distributional RL algorithm named unconstrained monotonic deep Q-network (UMDQN) is presented. Lastly, in light of this new algorithm, an empirical comparison is performed between three probability quasimetrics, namely the Kullback-Leibler divergence, Cramer distance and Wasserstein distance. The results call for a reconsideration of all probability metrics in distributional RL, which contrasts with the dominance of the Wasserstein distance in recent publications. [less ▲]

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See detailRestoring statistical validity in group analyses of motion-corrupted MRI data
Lutti, Antoine; Corbin, Nadège; Ashburner, John et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Motion during the acquisition of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data degrades image quality, hindering our capacity to characterize disease in patient populations. Quality control procedures allow the ... [more ▼]

Motion during the acquisition of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data degrades image quality, hindering our capacity to characterize disease in patient populations. Quality control procedures allow the exclusion of the most affected images from analysis. However, the criterion for exclusion is difficult to determine objectively and exclusion can lead to a suboptimal compromise between image quality and sample size. We provide an alternative, data-driven solution that assigns weights to each image, computed from an index of image quality using restricted maximum likelihood. We illustrate this method through the analysis of brain MRI data. The proposed method restores the validity of statistical tests, and performs near optimally in all brain regions, despite local effects of head motion. This method is amenable to the analysis of a broad type of MRI data and can accommodate any measure of image quality. [less ▲]

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See detailSe rétablir des excès de table selon Oribase, médecin grec de l’empereur Julien (milieu du IVe siècle)
Marganne, Marie-Hélène ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Recommandations thérapeutiques du médecin grec Oribase de Pergame pour se rétablir des excès de table et de boisson.

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (6 ULiège)
Peer Reviewed
See detailScientists for Future empfiehlt eine repräsentative Klima-Bürger:innenversammlung im Jahr 2021 (Version 1.0)
Hagedorn, Gregor; Pfennig, Andreas ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (3 ULiège)
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See detailSpin-orbit-assisted electron pairing in 1D waveguides
Damanet, François ULiege; Mansfield, Elliott; Briggeman, Megan et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Understanding and controlling the transport properties of interacting fermions is a key forefront in quantum physics across a variety of experimental platforms. Motivated by recent experiments in 1D ... [more ▼]

Understanding and controlling the transport properties of interacting fermions is a key forefront in quantum physics across a variety of experimental platforms. Motivated by recent experiments in 1D electron channels written on the $\mathrm{LaAlO_3}$/$\mathrm{SrTiO_3}$ interface, we analyse how the presence of different forms of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) can enhance electron pairing in 1D waveguides. We first show how the intrinsic Rashba SOC felt by electrons at interfaces such as $\mathrm{LaAlO_3}$/$\mathrm{SrTiO_3}$ can be reduced when they are confined in 1D. Then, we discuss how SOC can be engineered, and show using a mean-field Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov model that SOC can generate and enhance spin-singlet and triplet electron pairing. Our results are consistent with two recent sets of experiments [Briggeman et al., arXiv:1912.07164; Sci. Adv. 6, eaba6337 (2020)] that are believed to engineer the forms of SOC investigated in this work, which suggests that metal-oxide heterostructures constitute attractive platforms to control the collective spin of electron bound states. However, our findings could also be applied to other experimental platforms involving spinful fermions with attractive interactions, such as cold atoms. [less ▲]

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See detailRegular sequences and synchronized sequences in abstract numeration systems
Charlier, Emilie ULiege; Cisternino, Célia ULiege; Stipulanti, Manon ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

The notion of b-regular sequences was generalized to abstract numeration systems by Maes and Rigo in 2002. Their definition is based on a notion of S-kernel that extends that of b-kernel. However, this ... [more ▼]

The notion of b-regular sequences was generalized to abstract numeration systems by Maes and Rigo in 2002. Their definition is based on a notion of S-kernel that extends that of b-kernel. However, this definition does not allow us to generalize all of the many characterizations of b-regular sequences. In this paper, we present an alternative definition of S-kernel, and hence an alternative definition of S-regular sequences, which enables us to use recognizable formal series in order to generalize most (if not all) known characterizations of b-regular sequences to abstract numeration systems. We then give two characterizations of S-automatic sequences as particular S-regular sequences. Next, we present a general method to obtain various families of S-regular sequences by enumerating S-recognizable properties of S-automatic sequences. As an example of the many possible applications of this method, we show that, provided that addition is S-recognizable, the factor complexity of an S-automatic sequence defines an S-regular sequence. In the last part of the paper, we study S-synchronized sequences. Along the way, we prove that the formal series obtained as the composition of a synchronized relation and a recognizable series is recognizable. As a consequence, the composition of an S-synchronized sequence and a S-regular sequence is shown to be S-regular. All our results are presented in an arbitrary dimension d and for an arbitrary semiring K. [less ▲]

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See detailSoccerNet-v2: A Dataset and Benchmarks for Holistic Understanding of Broadcast Soccer Videos
Deliège, Adrien ULiege; Cioppa, Anthony ULiege; Giancola, Silvio et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Understanding broadcast videos is a challenging task in computer vision, as it requires generic reasoning capabilities to appreciate the content offered by the video editing. In this work, we propose ... [more ▼]

Understanding broadcast videos is a challenging task in computer vision, as it requires generic reasoning capabilities to appreciate the content offered by the video editing. In this work, we propose SoccerNet-v2, a novel large-scale corpus of manual annotations for the SoccerNet video dataset, along with open challenges to encourage more research in soccer understanding and broadcast production. Specifically, we release around 300k annotations within SoccerNet's 500 untrimmed broadcast soccer videos. We extend current tasks in the realm of soccer to include action spotting, camera shot segmentation with boundary detection, and we define a novel replay grounding task. For each task, we provide and discuss benchmark results, reproducible with our open-source adapted implementations of the most relevant works in the field. SoccerNet-v2 is presented to the broader research community to help push computer vision closer to automatic solutions for more general video understanding and production purposes. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 79 (8 ULiège)
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See detailOpto-electronic properties and solar cell efficiency modelling of Cu2ZnXS4 (X=Sn,Ge,Si) kesterites
Ratz, Thomas ULiege; Raty, Jean-Yves ULiege; Brammertz, Guy et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

In this work, first principle calculations of Cu2 ZnSnS4 (CZTS), Cu2 ZnGeS4 (CZGS) and Cu2 ZnSiS4 (CZSS) are performed to highlight the impact of the cationic substitution on the structural, electronic ... [more ▼]

In this work, first principle calculations of Cu2 ZnSnS4 (CZTS), Cu2 ZnGeS4 (CZGS) and Cu2 ZnSiS4 (CZSS) are performed to highlight the impact of the cationic substitution on the structural, electronic and optical properties of kesterite compounds. Direct bandgaps are reported with values of 1.32, 1.89 and 3.06 eV respectively for CZTS, CZGS and CZSS. In addition, absorption coefficient values of the order of 10^4 cm^{−1} are obtained, indicating the applicability of these materials as absorber layer for solar cell applications. In the second part of this study, ab initio results (absorption coefficient, refractive index and reflectivity) are used as input data to model the electrical power conversion efficiency of kesterite-based solar cell. In that perspective, we used an improved version of the Shockley-Queisser theoretical model including non-radiative recombination via an external parameter defined as the internal quantum efficiency. Based on predicted optimal absorber layer thicknesses, the variation of the solar cell maximal efficiency is studied as a function of the non-radiative recombination rate. Maximal efficiencies of 25.88 %, 19.94 % and 3.11 % are reported respectively for Cu2ZnSnS4, Cu2ZnGeS4 and Cu2ZnSiS4 for vanishing non-radiative recombination rate. Using a realistic internal quantum efficiency which provides 𝑉OC values comparable to experimental measurements, solar cell efficiencies of 15.88, 14.98 and 2.66 % are reported respectively for Cu2ZnSnS4, Cu2ZnGeS4 and Cu2ZnSiS4 (for an optimal thickness of 1.15 𝜇m). With this methodology we confirm the suitability of Cu2ZnSnS4 in single junction solar cells, with a possible efficiency improvement of 10% enabled through the reduction of the non-radiative recombination rate. In addition, Cu2ZnGeS4 appears to be an interesting candidate as top cell absorber layer for tandem approaches whereas Cu2ZnSiS4 might be interesting for transparent photovoltaic windows. [less ▲]

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See detailCan AI Replace the FTC?
Massarotto, Giovanna; Ittoo, Ashwin ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (2 ULiège)
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See detailLes contours de la nouvelle taxe sur les comptes-titres
Nollet, Aymeric ULiege; Philippe, Denis-Emmanuel ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (0 ULiège)
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See detailTowards constraining warm dark matter with stellar streams through neural simulation-based inference
Hermans, Joeri ULiege; Banik, Nilanjan; Weniger, Christophe et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

A statistical analysis of the observed perturbations in the density of stellar streams can in principle set stringent contraints on the mass function of dark matter subhaloes, which in turn can be used to ... [more ▼]

A statistical analysis of the observed perturbations in the density of stellar streams can in principle set stringent contraints on the mass function of dark matter subhaloes, which in turn can be used to constrain the mass of the dark matter particle. However, the likelihood of a stellar density with respect to the stream and subhaloes parameters involves solving an intractable inverse problem which rests on the integration of all possible forward realisations implicitly defined by the simulation model. In order to infer the subhalo abundance, previous analyses have relied on Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) together with domain-motivated but handcrafted summary statistics. Here, we introduce a likelihood-free Bayesian inference pipeline based on Amortised Approximate Likelihood Ratios (AALR), which automatically learns a mapping between the data and the simulator parameters and obviates the need to handcraft a possibly insufficient summary statistic. We apply the method to the simplified case where stellar streams are only perturbed by dark matter subhaloes, thus neglecting baryonic substructures, and describe several diagnostics that demonstrate the effectiveness of the new method and the statistical quality of the learned estimator. [less ▲]

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See detailLa preuve par l'image. "En Vie ?" : une inscription urbaine
Lansmans, Alexandre ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Contribution à la première édition belge de l'exposition en ligne "La Preuve par l'image", du 23 novembre au 6 décembre 2020, organisée par Réjouisciences dans le cadre de la Nuit européenne des ... [more ▼]

Contribution à la première édition belge de l'exposition en ligne "La Preuve par l'image", du 23 novembre au 6 décembre 2020, organisée par Réjouisciences dans le cadre de la Nuit européenne des Chercheur·e·s, réunissant des images commentées issues de travaux de recherche. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (2 ULiège)
See detailLutte contre la furiose du bananier
Massart, Sébastien ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (1 ULiège)
See detailModels of Law and Regulation for AI
De Cooman, Jérôme ULiege; Petit, Nicolas

E-print/Working paper (2020)

This paperdiscusses models of law and regulation of Artificial Intelligence (“AI”). The discussion focuses on four models: the black letter model, the emergent model, the ethical model, and the risk ... [more ▼]

This paperdiscusses models of law and regulation of Artificial Intelligence (“AI”). The discussion focuses on four models: the black letter model, the emergent model, the ethical model, and the risk regulation model. All four models currently inform, individually or jointly, integrally or partially, consciously or unconsciously, law and regulatory reform towards AI. We describe each model’s strengths and weaknesses, discuss whether technological evolution deserves to be accompanied by existing or new laws, and propose a fifth model based on externalities with a moral twist. [less ▲]

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See detailThe political economic of financing climate policy : evidence from the solar PV subsidy programs
De Groote, Olivier; Gautier, Axel ULiege; Verboven, Frank

E-print/Working paper (2020)

To combat climate change, governments are taking an increasing number of technology-specific measures to support green technologies. In this paper, we look at the very generous subsidy policies to solar ... [more ▼]

To combat climate change, governments are taking an increasing number of technology-specific measures to support green technologies. In this paper, we look at the very generous subsidy policies to solar PVs in the three regions of Belgium to ask the question of how voters responded to these programs. We provide evidence that voters did not reward the incumbent government that was responsible for the program, as predicted by the ‘buying-votes’ hypothesis. Instead, we find that voters punish the incumbent government because of the increasing awareness of the high financing costs. These did not only affectt he non-adopting electricity consumers who did not benefit from the programs, but also the adopting prosumers, who saw unannounced new costs such as the introduction of prosumer fees to get access to the grid. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 72 (3 ULiège)
See detailCeramica comune da mensa e da dispensa di Roma
Dienst, Simon ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (3 ULiège)
See detailCeramica da cucina di Roma
Dienst, Simon ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 32 (2 ULiège)
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See detailEquipedia: La myopathie atypique
Votion, Dominique ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (1 ULiège)
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See detailI want to be an Open Scientist! Research evaluation and incentives to boost Open Science and research careers
Tanlongo, Federica; O’Neill, Gareth; Kurapati, Shalini et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Everybody is talking about Open Science and FAIR data but can you really make a living (and a good career) out of it? Will my career get better if I FAIRify my data? Or will it just make my head ache ... [more ▼]

Everybody is talking about Open Science and FAIR data but can you really make a living (and a good career) out of it? Will my career get better if I FAIRify my data? Or will it just make my head ache? When someone will evaluate my research, will the fact that my data complies with all the Open Science best practices matter? Or am I just losing time I should rather spend publishing on whatever journal I can lay hands on? And where am I supposed to learn how to be fair and open anyway? The right answer to these questions is crucial to the career choices and expectations of many students and young researchers, yes, but it is also the point which can make the difference between succeeding or failing in establishing Open Science (and ultimately Good Science). To be able to shift the research evaluation system in Europe in order to produce quality and reliable data, to set up a working incentive system for individual researchers and organisations is one of the keys to a widespread uptake of Open Science and FAIR practices. And being so crucial a point, we believe that researchers, Research Infrastructures, scientific organisations should have a say in this. That’s why we proposed an interactive session where good ideas, innovative pilots, proposed policies from all across Europe were presented and discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailConversation japonaise sur les bienfaits de la sémiotique
Badir, Sémir ULiege; Leone, Massimo

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (1 ULiège)
See detailLa terre sigillée africaine - productions C, C/E et E
Dienst, Simon ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (4 ULiège)
See detailLa céramique à vernis noir
Dienst, Simon ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (3 ULiège)
See detailLa terre sigillée africaine - productions A, A/D et D
Dienst, Simon ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (4 ULiège)
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See detailAllocation of locally generated electricity in renewable energy communities
Manuel de Villena Millan, Miguel ULiege; Mathieu, Sébastien ULiege; Vermeulen, Eric et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

This paper introduces a methodology to perform an ex-post allocation of locally generated electricity among the members of a renewable energy community. Such an ex-post allocation takes place in a ... [more ▼]

This paper introduces a methodology to perform an ex-post allocation of locally generated electricity among the members of a renewable energy community. Such an ex-post allocation takes place in a settlement phase where the financial exchanges of the community are based on the production and consumption profiles of each member. The proposed methodology consists of an optimisation framework which (i) minimises the sum of individual electricity costs of the community members, and (ii) can enforce minimum self-sufficiency rates –proportion of electricity consumption covered by local production– on each member, enhancing the economic gains of some of them. The latter capability aims to ensure that members receive enough incentives to participate in the renewable energy community. This framework is designed so as to provide a practical approach that is ready to use by community managers, which is compliant with current legislation on renewable energy communities. It computes a set of optimal repartition keys, which represent the percentage of total local production given to each member – one key per metering period per member. These keys are computed based on an initial set of keys provided in the simulation, which are typically contractual i.e., agreed upon between the member and the manager the renewable energy community. This methodology is tested in a broad range of scenarios, illustrating its ability to optimise the operational costs of a renewable energy community. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 299 (12 ULiège)
See detailThe European Commission adopts White Paper on foreign subsidies: a trend towards protectionism on a global level?
Derenne, Jacques ULiege; Dombek, Curtis; Barbu-O'Connor, Ciara

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (1 ULiège)
Peer Reviewed
See detailLes migrations environnementales : un nouvel objet d’enseignement
Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

À partir d'idées reçues sur les migrants climatiques et environnementaux, l'autrice examine la difficulté à nommer et à quantifier ce phénomène avant de faire le point sur l'état actuel des connaissances ... [more ▼]

À partir d'idées reçues sur les migrants climatiques et environnementaux, l'autrice examine la difficulté à nommer et à quantifier ce phénomène avant de faire le point sur l'état actuel des connaissances. Elle montre ensuite comment cette question peut s'insérer dans les programmes de géographie de l'enseignement secondaire. Une place particulière est accordée aux documents, aux outils et aux démarches possibles. [less ▲]

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See detailCOVID-19 and ethnic-oriented shopping
El Boujjoufi, Mohamed ULiege; Mustafa, Ahmed; Benkorichi, Oualid et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

The novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) impacted daily life for residents of the majority of countries worldwide. In this this research note, we explore how the pandemic is changing religious-oriented shopping ... [more ▼]

The novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) impacted daily life for residents of the majority of countries worldwide. In this this research note, we explore how the pandemic is changing religious-oriented shopping with a focus on Muslim shopping. While supermarkets provided online shopping and home delivery services, Islamic store, as small business, could not opt for such services in Belgium and many other countries. Therefore, we designed and conducted a consumer survey with a special target of Muslim shoppers between April 27 and May 6 2020 in all Belgium regions. We found that despite stay-at-home directives that is effective since early March 2020, Muslims are still leaving their homes to buy Islamic groceries “Halal”. Most importantly, the daily pattern of shopping has significantly been changed, which helped in reducing the density of shoppers in the stores [less ▲]

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See detailLa lutte contre les maladies nouvelles dans le monde gréco-romain
Marganne, Marie-Hélène ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Review of methods used to combat epidemics in the Graeco-Roman world.

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See detailFermeture des frontières nationales : récits en territoire transfrontalier
Caesar, Beate; Dorkel, Nicolas; Marbehant, Sylvain ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 60 (15 ULiège)
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See detail新型コロナウィルス時代の情熱とは
Badir, Sémir ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Detailed reference viewed: 65 (1 ULiège)
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Peer Reviewed
See detailLearning optimal environments using projected stochastic gradient ascent
Bolland, Adrien ULiege; Boukas, Ioannis ULiege; Cornet, François ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

In this work, we propose a new methodology for jointly sizing a dynamical system and designing its control law. First, the problem is formalized by considering parametrized reinforcement learning ... [more ▼]

In this work, we propose a new methodology for jointly sizing a dynamical system and designing its control law. First, the problem is formalized by considering parametrized reinforcement learning environments and parametrized policies. The objective of the optimization problem is to jointly find a control policy and an environment over the joint hypothesis space of parameters such that the sum of rewards gathered by the policy in this environment is maximal. The optimization problem is then addressed by generalizing the direct policy search algorithms to an algorithm we call Direct Environment Search with (projected stochastic) Gradient Ascent (DESGA). We illustrate the performance of DESGA on two benchmarks. First, we consider a parametrized space of Mass-Spring-Damper (MSD) environments and control policies. Then, we use our algorithm for optimizing the size of the components and the operation of a small-scale autonomous energy system, i.e. a solar off-grid microgrid, composed of photovoltaic panels, batteries, etc. On both benchmarks, we compare the results of the execution of DESGA with a theoretical upper-bound on the expected return. Furthermore, the performance of DESGA is compared to an alternative algorithm. The latter performs a grid discretization of the environment's hypothesis space and applies the REINFORCE algorithm to identify pairs of environments and policies resulting in a high expected return. The choice of this algorithm is also discussed and motivated. On both benchmarks, we show that DESGA and the alternative algorithm result in a set of parameters for which the expected return is nearly equal to its theoretical upper-bound. Nevertheless, the execution of DESGA is much less computationally costly. [less ▲]

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See detailA phylodynamic workflow to rapidly gain insights into the dispersal history and dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 lineages
Dellicour, Simon; Durkin, Keith ULiege; Hong, Samuel et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, an unprecedented number of genomic sequences of the causative virus (SARS-CoV-2) have been publicly released. The resulting volume of available genetic data ... [more ▼]

Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, an unprecedented number of genomic sequences of the causative virus (SARS-CoV-2) have been publicly released. The resulting volume of available genetic data presents a unique opportunity to gain real-time insights into the pandemic, but also a daunting computational hurdle if analysed with gold-standard phylogeographic methods. We here describe and apply an analytical pipeline that is a compromise between fast and rigorous analytical steps. As a proof of concept, we focus on Belgium, one of the countries with the highest spatial density of sequenced SARS-CoV-2 genomes. At the global scale, our analyses confirm the importance of external introduction events in establishing transmission chains in the country. At the country scale, our spatially-explicit phylogeographic analyses highlight an impact of the national lockdown of mid-March on the dispersal velocity of viral lineages. Our pipeline has the potential to be quickly applied to other countries or regions, with key benefits in complementing epidemiological analyses in assessing the impact of intervention measures or their progressive easement. [less ▲]

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See detailWhen and How Does Law Effectively Reduce the Practice of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A crossborder Study in Burkina Faso and Mali [Policy Brief]
Wouango, Joséphine ULiege; Ostermann, L. Susan; Mwanga, Daniel

E-print/Working paper (2020)

This policy brief summarises key findings from a cross-border study of two neighbouring countries: Burkina Faso, which has a strong FGM/C law, and Mali, which has no specific FGM/C law (Wouango, Ostermann ... [more ▼]

This policy brief summarises key findings from a cross-border study of two neighbouring countries: Burkina Faso, which has a strong FGM/C law, and Mali, which has no specific FGM/C law (Wouango, Ostermann, and Mwanga 2020). The aim of the cross-border study was to explore and compare attitudes and tendencies towards obeying the law and continuing FGM/C practises and to understand the effectiveness of criminal law in combatting FGM/C in both countries. [less ▲]

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See detailDans quelles conditions la loi est-elle efficace pour réduire la pratique des mutilations génitales féminines/excision: Une étude transfrontalière au Burkina Faso et au Mali [Policy Brief]
Wouango, Joséphine ULiege; Ostermann, Susan; Mwanga, Daniel

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Cette note de synthèse résume les principales conclusions d'une étude transfrontalière portant sur deux pays voisins : le Burkina Faso, qui dispose d'une loi forte sur les MGF/E, et le Mali, qui n'a pas ... [more ▼]

Cette note de synthèse résume les principales conclusions d'une étude transfrontalière portant sur deux pays voisins : le Burkina Faso, qui dispose d'une loi forte sur les MGF/E, et le Mali, qui n'a pas de loi spécifique sur les MGF/E (Wouango, Ostermann, et Mwanga 2020). Les objectifs de l'étude transfrontalière étaient d'explorer et de comparer les attitudes et les tendances en matière de respect de la loi et de poursuite de la pratique des MGF/E, et de comprendre l'efficacité du droit pénal dans la lutte contre les MGF/E dans les deux pays. [less ▲]

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See detailÉvaluer les effets des différentes mesures de lutte contre le Covid-19, mission impossible?
Paul, Elisabeth ULiege; Ridde, Valéry

E-print/Working paper (2020)

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See detailLong Way to Universal Health Coverage (UHC): Are Policy Dialogue Processes Appropriate to Negotiate Trade-Offs in Africa? The Cases of Benin and Senegal
Paul, Elisabeth ULiege; Fecher-Bourgeois, Fabienne ULiege; Deville, Céline ULiege et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

The numerous stakeholders involved in the development of universal health coverage (UHC) policies are likely to have diverging interests about which dimensions to prioritize, hence the importance of ... [more ▼]

The numerous stakeholders involved in the development of universal health coverage (UHC) policies are likely to have diverging interests about which dimensions to prioritize, hence the importance of ensuring an effective and transparent policy dialogue. This paper aims to investigate whether or not UHC policy dialogue processes are functioning well in Benin and Senegal. Based on a literature review, we have identified a number of characteristics guaranteeing the quality of policy dialogue processes, which we have integrated into an analytical grid. The quality criteria identified were classified along four dimensions: stakeholder participation, dialogue/negotiation process, quality of situation analysis and decision criteria, and results from the negotiation process. Based on data collected through documentary review, interviews, an electronic survey and the authors’ own experience, we applied that analytical grid to the cases of Benin and Senegal. In both countries, the policy dialogue processes are largely imperfect in terms of many of the quality criteria identified. Decisions were made under strong political leadership, ensuring government coordination and ownership, and strong emphasis has been put on expanding financial risk protection. Yet, both countries perform poorly in a number of dimensions, especially with regards to conflicts of interest, transparency and accountability. None of them has really institutionalized a UHC policy dialogue process, and the UHC policymaking processes have actually bypassed existing health sector coordination mechanisms. The two countries perform well regarding the quality of situation analysis. A small (in the case of Benin) or broader (in the case of Senegal) governmental coalition managed to impose its views, given insufficient stakeholder participation. Policy networks were particularly influential in Senegal. Overall, there are important gaps that reduce the quality of UHC policy dialogue processes, hence explaining the weaknesses in their results in terms of transparency and accountability. Our analytical framework enables us to identify rooms for improvement with regard to country-led negotiation processes relating to UHC. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailHigh Order Relaxation Methods for Co-simulation of Finite Element and Circuit Solvers
Nshimiyimana, Jean de Dieu ULiege; Plumier, Frédéric ULiege; Ndagije, Charles et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Coupled problems result in very stiff problems whose char- acteristic parameters differ with several orders in magni- tude. For such complex problems, solving them monolith- ically becomes prohibitive ... [more ▼]

Coupled problems result in very stiff problems whose char- acteristic parameters differ with several orders in magni- tude. For such complex problems, solving them monolith- ically becomes prohibitive. Since nowadays there are op- timized solvers for particular problems, solving uncoupled problems becomes easy since each can be solved indepen- dently with its dedicated optimized tools. Therefore the co-simulation of the sub-problems solvers is encouraged. The design of the transmission coupling conditions between solvers plays a fundamental role. The current paper applies the waveform relaxation methods for co-simulation of the finite element and circuit solvers, investigate the contribu- tion of higher order integration methods and also consid- ers the the theoretical modelling of a boost converter. The method is illustrated on a coupled finite element inductor and a boost converter and focuses on the comparison of the transmission coupling conditions based on the waveform iteration numbers between the two sub-solvers. We demon- strate that for lightly coupled systems the dynamic itera- tions between the sub-solvers depends much on the inter- nal integrators in individual sub-solvers whereas for tightly coupled systems it depends also to the kind of transmission coupling conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailLuciano Curreri e la letteratura
Curreri, Luciano ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

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See detailSPHERE+: Imaging young Jupiters down to the snowline
Boccaletti, A.; Chauvin, G.; Mouillet, D. et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

SPHERE (Beuzit et al,. 2019) has now been in operation at the VLT for more than 5 years, demonstrating a high level of performance. SPHERE has produced outstanding results using a variety of operating ... [more ▼]

SPHERE (Beuzit et al,. 2019) has now been in operation at the VLT for more than 5 years, demonstrating a high level of performance. SPHERE has produced outstanding results using a variety of operating modes, primarily in the field of direct imaging of exoplanetary systems, focusing on exoplanets as point sources and circumstellar disks as extended objects. The achievements obtained thus far with SPHERE (~200 refereed publications) in different areas (exoplanets, disks, solar system, stellar physics...) have motivated a large consortium to propose an even more ambitious set of science cases, and its corresponding technical implementation in the form of an upgrade. The SPHERE+ project capitalizes on the expertise and lessons learned from SPHERE to push high contrast imaging performance to its limits on the VLT 8m-telescope. The scientific program of SPHERE+ described in this document will open a new and compelling scientific window for the upcoming decade in strong synergy with ground-based facilities (VLT/I, ELT, ALMA, and SKA) and space missions (Gaia, JWST, PLATO and WFIRST). While SPHERE has sampled the outer parts of planetary systems beyond a few tens of AU, SPHERE+ will dig into the inner regions around stars to reveal and characterize by mean of spectroscopy the giant planet population down to the snow line. Building on SPHERE's scientific heritage and resounding success, SPHERE+ will be a dedicated survey instrument which will strengthen the leadership of ESO and the European community in the very competitive field of direct imaging of exoplanetary systems. With enhanced capabilities, it will enable an even broader diversity of science cases including the study of the solar system, the birth and death of stars and the exploration of the inner regions of active galactic nuclei. [less ▲]

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See detailNote relative à l’Agenda urbain de l’UE
Lejeune, Zoé ULiege; Claeys, Dorian ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Cette note explique le processus de l'Agenda urbain de l'UE pour toute personne ou autorité intéressée de mieux comprendre la dynamique.

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See detailSeraing, ville post-industrielle en pleine reconversion, se penche sur le défi de la réactivation de son bâti vacant
Lejeune, Zoé ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Interview avec la ville de Seraing dans le cadre de sa participation au réseau URBACT "AltBau" qui travaille à une stratégie de réactivation des immeubles inoccupés.

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See detailImmigration, Welfare and Inequality: How Much Does the Labor Market Specification Matter?
Docquier, Frédéric; Ikhenaode, Bright Isaac; Scheewel, Hendrik ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Macroeconomic models are increasingly used to quantify the welfare and inequality effects of immigration in the OECD countries. Existing studies differ in the way they formalize the labor market responses ... [more ▼]

Macroeconomic models are increasingly used to quantify the welfare and inequality effects of immigration in the OECD countries. Existing studies differ in the way they formalize the labor market responses for immigrants and natives, which in turn govern the strength of the other transmission channels (e.g., public finances, price index, or total factor productivity). In this paper, we build a general equilibrium model that allows to gauge the role of the labor market specification. We parameterize the model for 20 selected OECD member states and compare several specifications involving different assumptions concerning labor supply decisions, unemployment rates and wage formation, as well as different calibration strategies. Endogenizing unemployment and participation generates slightly more optimistic results. However, these labor market mechanisms do not reverse the findings of models based on simpler assumptions and have little effects on cross-country differences in responses to immigration. The labor market specification is less important than the calibration of the elasticity of substitution between immigrants and natives. [less ▲]

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See detailLa reconnaissance mutuelle des marchandises booste les exportations intra-européennes
Matray, Gautier ULiege; Geuzaine, Brieuc ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Short comment on Regulation 2019/515/UE

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See detailLe pouvoir poétique des images de cinéma
Badir, Sémir ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

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See detailUn savant dans l'Ouest : Jean-Charles Houzeau de Lehaie ou l'évolutionnisme nomade
Royen, Virgile ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Ce récit raconte l'exil de Jean-Charles Houzeau de Lehaie, astronome belge, dans le Nouveau Monde. Son esprit indépendant et son opposition à l'esclavage dans le contexte de la Guerre de Sécession le ... [more ▼]

Ce récit raconte l'exil de Jean-Charles Houzeau de Lehaie, astronome belge, dans le Nouveau Monde. Son esprit indépendant et son opposition à l'esclavage dans le contexte de la Guerre de Sécession le conduisirent régulièrement à arpenter ou vivre en terres sauvages. Au cours de ces pérégrinations exotiques, Houzeau réalisa de nombreuses observations sur la faune, qu'il compila en deux épais volumes, les Études sur les Facultés mentales des animaux comparées à celles de l’Homme. Un livre qui n'ambitionnait pas moins de devancer Darwin lui-même... [less ▲]

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See detailBlanche est la mort
Frankignoulle, Pierre ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Une nouvelle de 17 pages

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See detailInterstellar comet 2I/Borisov as seen by MUSE: C2, NH2 and red CN detections
Bannister, Michele T.; Opitom, Cyrielle; Fitzsimmons, Alan et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

We report the clear detection of C$_2$ and of abundant NH$_2$ in the first prominently active interstellar comet, 2I/Borisov. We observed 2I on three nights in November 2019 at optical wavelengths 4800 ... [more ▼]

We report the clear detection of C$_2$ and of abundant NH$_2$ in the first prominently active interstellar comet, 2I/Borisov. We observed 2I on three nights in November 2019 at optical wavelengths 4800--9300 Åwith the Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) integral-field spectrograph on the ESO/Very Large Telescope. These data, together with observations close in time from both 0.6-m TRAPPIST telescopes, provide constraints on the production rates of species of gas in 2I's coma. From the MUSE detection on all epochs of several bands of the optical emission of the C$_2$ Swan system, a rich emission spectrum of NH$_2$ with many highly visible bands, and the red (1-0) bandhead of CN, together with violet CN detections by TRAPPIST, we infer production rates of $Q$(C$_2$) = $1.1\times10^{24}$ mol s$^{-1}$, $Q$(NH$_2$) = $4.8\times10^{24}$ mol s$^{-1}$ and $Q$(CN) = $(1.8\pm0.2)\times 10^{24}$ mol s$^{-1}$. In late November at 2.03~au, 2I had a production ratio of C$_2$/CN$=0.61$, only barely carbon-chain depleted, in contrast to earlier reports measured further from the Sun of strong carbon-chain depletion. Thus, 2I has shown evolution in its C$_2$ production rate: a parent molecule reservoir has started sublimating. At $Q$(NH$_2$)/$Q$(CN) = 2.7, this second interstellar object is enriched in NH$_2$, relative to the known Solar System sample. [less ▲]

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See detailUn risque d'instrumentalisation de l'histoire
Franck, Thomas ULiege

E-print/Working paper (2020)

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See detailAlzheimer s disease genetic risk and sleep phenotypes: association with more slow-waves and daytime sleepiness
Muto, Vincenzo ULiege; Koshmanova, Ekaterina ULiege; Ghaemmaghami, Pouya  et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

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