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We present a detailed analysis of a large outburst (∆m~3 mag) of comet 243P/NEAT that occurred in December 2018, at 2.55 au from the Sun. Our study combines photometry, imaging, and spectroscopy with dynamical and thermophysical models of dust and ice grains. Overall, the outburst ejected ~10[SUP]8[/SUP] kg of dust. We find no photometric or spectroscopic evidence for water ice in our data, which includes near-IR spectroscopy (1─2.5 μm) taken 4 days after the outburst. Nevertheless, this does not necessarily imply that water ice was not ejected by the outburst. Specifically, we consider the possibility that the ejecta from 243P had ice with the same properties as comet C/2013 US[SUB]10[/SUB] (Catalina): micrometer-sized grains mixed with a small fraction of low-albedo dust, ~0.5% by volume [2]. These physical properties can account for our 243P/NEAT observations on thermophysical and dynamical grounds, i.e., the icy grains are depleted in our spectroscopic slit due to ice sublimation and their expansion speed.

The lack of water ice absorption features in our near-IR spectrum is in stark contrast to the outbursts of comets 17P/Holmes and P/2010 H2 (Vales), which had the signatures of water ice 7 and 6 days post-outburst, respectively [3,4], despite occurring at similar heliocentric distances and spanning a wide range of ejected masses (10[SUP]8[/SUP] kg for Vales, 10[SUP]11[/SUP] kg for Holmes) [5]. We consider the dynamical and thermophysical properties of water ice grains in each event, and discuss three possibilities for the differences: (1) that the site of the 243P outburst has a low abundance of water ice caused by surface processing or natal heritage; (2) that ice observed at Holmes and/or Vales was not from the original outburst, but instead produced after the event; and/or, (3) that a diversity of water ice properties exists in the comet population. We conclude that further studies of cometary outbursts that combine dynamical, spectroscopic, and thermophysical considerations will help advance our general understanding of water ice in comets.

1: Hughes 1990, QJRAS, 31, 69 ; 2: Protopapa et al. 2018, ApJL, 862, 16 ; 3: Yang et al. 2009, AJ 137, 4538 ; 4: Yang and Sarid 2010, DPS 42, 5.09 ; 5: Ishiguro et al. 2016, AJ 152, 168 [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 30 (3 ULiège) Probing the chemical composition of interstellar comet 2I/Borisov using ALMACordiner, M.; Milam, S.; Biver, N. et alin Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society (2020, October 01), 52Interstellar comet 2I/Borisov originated from the direction of Cassiopeia, and passed through the inner Solar System, reaching perihelion on 2019-12-08, giving us an unprecedented opportunity to study an ... [more ▼]Interstellar comet 2I/Borisov originated from the direction of Cassiopeia, and passed through the inner Solar System, reaching perihelion on 2019-12-08, giving us an unprecedented opportunity to study an object from another planetary system in close-up. We used the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to observe coma gases from 2I/Borisov on 15th-16th December 2019, at high spectral and spatial resolution. Emission from HCN (J=4-3) and CO (J=3-2) was detected, peaking at the expected position (and velocity) of 2I/Borisov's nucleus. Molecular production rates were derived using a 3D non-LTE radiative transfer code, including excitation due to gas collisions and radiative pumping. The HCN abundance relative to water (~0.12%) was found to be similar to typical Solar System comets, but the CO abundance (~68%) was among the highest observed in any comet within 2 au of the Sun. The observed CO/HCN ratio is an order of magnitude larger than the average ratio in Solar System comets, which shows that 2I/Borisov must have formed in a relatively CO-rich environment. Either 2I/Borisov is intrinsically enriched in CO, or the outgassing of the less-volatile species (H2O and HCN) was more strongly inhibited than usual, relative to the more-volatile CO. Various explanations for the CO-richness of 2I/Borisov's coma will be examined, and the importance of interstellar objects for our understanding of protoplanetary disk midplane chemistry will be discussed. See Cordiner et al. (2020, Nature Astronomy, doi:10.1038/s41550-020-1087-2) for further details.

This research was supported by the National Science Foundation (under Grant No. AST-1614471), and by the NASA Planetary Science Division Internal Scientist Funding Program through the Fundamental Laboratory Research (FLaRe) work package. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 26 (1 ULiège) Heterogeneous surface of 1998 OR2Devogèle, M.; Virkki, A.; Marshall, S. E. et alin Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society (2020, October 01), 52We report observations of the H=15.8 mag potentially hazardous asteroid 52768 (1998 OR2) obtained during its 2020 apparition. On April 29th 2020, OR2 experienced its closest approach to Earth (16.4 Lunar ... [more ▼]We report observations of the H=15.8 mag potentially hazardous asteroid 52768 (1998 OR2) obtained during its 2020 apparition. On April 29th 2020, OR2 experienced its closest approach to Earth (16.4 Lunar distance) until 2079. Observations were obtained in polarimetry with the Torino Polarimeter at the Calern observatory (France; MPC 010) in February and April 2020, in radar with the Arecibo Radio telescope (Puerto Rico; MPC 251) Planetary Radar system from April 13th to 23rd 2020, and in photometry with the TRAPPIST-North and the Las Cumbres observatory (LCOGT) network of telescopes. One epoch was obtained by the NEOWISE mission.

Using the polarimetric albedo-polarization relation [1] we derived a visual albedo p[SUB]V[/SUB] = 0.16 ± 0.02 corresponding to an equivalent diameter of D=2.3 km based on its measured H=15.8 absolute magnitude. The NEOWISE observation provides other determinations of D=2.5 ± 0.5 km and p[SUB]V[/SUB] = 0.13 ± 0.04 consistent with the polarimetric data. Radar delay-Doppler images, with a resolution of 7.5 m per pixel in delay and 0.037 Hz in frequency, provide another independent size measurement and display a maximum extent of 2.16 km ± 0.05 km. Both radar and optical lightcurve observations confirm the rotation period of p=4.112 h [2], with a low amplitude lightcurve varying from single to double peaked, based on the phase angle and aspect angle variation throughout the apparition.

The polarimetric observations were conducted over more than one rotation period during each night and we observe a consistent phase-locked variation of the polarization. Asteroid polarization is independent of shape and is at first order dependent on the surface albedo. The observed variation of the polarization thus suggests that the surface of OR2 is heterogeneous. Such variation has only previously been observed for 4 Vesta [3], 1943 Anteros [4], and 3200 Phaethon [5,6].

The radar images of OR2 suggest the presence of a large concavity or crater near the radar sub-latitude (closest point of the object to the observer). Phasing the radar and polarimetric observations, we find that the maximum of polarization occurs when the radar concavity is directly facing the observer. Such correlation suggests that the polarimetric variations could be related to the presence of the concavity and that it possesses lower albedo or different scattering properties than the rest of the surface.

1: Cellino et al., 2015 MNRAS, 451, 3473 ; 2: Skiff et al, 2019, MPB, 46 ; 3: Cellino et al., 2016, MNRAS, 456, 248 ; 4: Masiero et al., 2010, Icarus, 207, 795 ; 5: Devogèle et al., 2018 MNRAS, 465, 4335 ; 6: Borisov et al., 2018 MNRAS, 480, L131 [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 30 (3 ULiège) Shape Model, Pole Solution Implications, and Refined Rotational Period of (155140) 2005 UDKueny, J. K.; Chandler, C. O.; Devogèle, M. et alin Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society (2020, October 01), 52(155140) 2005 UD is a Near-Earth Asteroid in a companion orbit with (3200) Phaethon, an active asteroid in a highly-elliptical orbit thought to be responsible for the Geminid meteor shower. Evidence ... [more ▼](155140) 2005 UD is a Near-Earth Asteroid in a companion orbit with (3200) Phaethon, an active asteroid in a highly-elliptical orbit thought to be responsible for the Geminid meteor shower. Evidence points to a genetic relationship between these two objects (Devogèle et al. 2020), but we have yet to fully understand how 2005 UD and Phaethon could have separated into this associated pair. Notably, 2005 UD is the extended mission target for the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency DESTINY+ mission scheduled to launch in 2024. Presented herein are new observations of 2005 UD using the Lowell Discovery Telescope, Nordic Optical Telescope, and TRAPPIST-North motivated by access to a previously unseen viewing geometry in October-November 2019. Lightcurve inversion using our new data, archival lightcurve data from an advantageous apparition in late 2018, and data from an epoch in late 2005 were used to derive a shape model of 2005 UD. Results pertaining to 2005 UD's mass loss from additional analyses involving these new data will also be discussed. We also determined a retrograde spin state, largely consistent with a previous thermophysical analysis, and a refined sidereal rotational period of P[SUB]sid[/SUB] = 5.2338 ± 0.0040 hours. Although a precise shape model is at present infeasible due to remaining gaps in lightcurve data at critical viewing aspects, we were able to leverage our results to help limit the range of formation scenarios and the link to Phaethon in the context of non-gravitational forces and timescales associated with the physical evolution of the system. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 31 (5 ULiège) P08.03 Combining PD-1/PD-L1 blockade and RANKL inhibitors to treat breast cancers unresponsive to standard therapyPilard, Charlotte ; RONCARATI, Patrick ; Hendrick, Elodie et alin Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer (2020, October 01), 8(Suppl 2), 50-51Detailed reference viewed: 33 (7 ULiège) Early liver transplantation for severe alcoholic hepatitis not responding to medical treatment: results of the French-Belgian prospective study QuickTransLouvet, A; Labreuche, J; Moreno, C et alin Hepatology (2020, October), 72(number 1 (suppl)), 4-5Detailed reference viewed: 48 (4 ULiège) Local adaptation of bone micro-structure and canal network to tendon insertion investigated by image-based micro-FE simulationsTits, Alexandra ; Varga, Peter; Volders, Timothy et alin Bone Reports (2020, October), 13Tendons anchor to bone through a multi-material region called enthesis, showing several strategies to cope with the challenging task of joining dissimilar tissues. Less understood is whether bone ... [more ▼]Tendons anchor to bone through a multi-material region called enthesis, showing several strategies to cope with the challenging task of joining dissimilar tissues. Less understood is whether bone microstructure also displays specific features to facilitate force transmission from tendon to bone. Such knowledge is of clinical relevance as local mechanical stresses play a crucial role in avulsion fractures and interface pathologies. Here we characterized the microstructure of bone close to tendon insertion in calcanei of adult rats (n=5) with micro-computed tomography (SkyScan, Bruker; 5 to 1.2 micrometer voxel size). After aligning the virtual bones along the main axes of inertia, we investigated a bony tuberosity connecting the Achilles tendon with the plantar fascia ligament. We performed a spatially resolved analysis of trabecular microstructure, indicating that trabecular network (BV/TV and anisotropy) is not significantly influenced by the tendon insertion (P = 0.69). Conversely, high resolution images revealed that bone beneath the attachment region exhibits a highly oriented canal network, aligned with the pulling direction of the tendon (P b 0.005). Image-based micro-finite element analysis was used to calculate stresses within the bone induced by tendon loading. Simulations highlighted a non-trivial stress pattern within the bone with high stresses mainly flowing within the tuberosity (27% higher than in the rest of the bone, P b 0.005). Our work suggests that not only the enthesis but also the underlying bone is well-adapted to accommodate tendon loading. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 73 (23 ULiège) SMA: REGISTRIES, BIOMARKERS & OUTCOME MEASURES: P.187 Systematic literature review of the economic burden and economic evaluations in spinal muscular atrophyDangouloff, Tamara ; Servais, Laurent ; Hiligsmann, Mickaël in Neuromuscular Disorders (2020, October)New treatments in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) have led to a complete change in the pattern in the use of health care resources in this disease. Through all over the world, the very high cost of ... [more ▼]New treatments in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) have led to a complete change in the pattern in the use of health care resources in this disease. Through all over the world, the very high cost of innovative medication has led to public debates largely expressed in mainstream medias. We have systematically reviewed studies evaluating the cost of SMA and economic evaluations of spinal muscular atrophy. The review was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines and included original articles published between January 1, 1998 and March 2020. Seven studies reporting the cost of SMA were identified. The average annual costs of untreated SMA1 (including early onset and SMA before one year), were relatively similar across the different studies, ranging from $106,000 to$140,000 per year. On the other hand, the costs for SMA 2, 3 and 4 were mainly presented together (ranging from $23,000 to$115,000), despite a high heterogenicity in clinical conditions leading to very different health care resource consumption. Five economic evaluations were published between 2017 and 2020 and included innovative disease modifying medications. Three assessed the cost-effectiveness of nusinersen against standards of care, one of them two treatments (nusinersen and zolgensma) against standards of care and one compared Nusinersen and Zolgensma. All studies used a decision-analytic model to assess the cost- effectiveness and are based on same clinical trials involving a limited number of patients. Due to the extremely high cost of treatment, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of drugs versus no treatment is generally above \$200,000, leading to no cost-effective results. In conclusion, all studies converge to demonstrate the significant economic cost of SMA, especially SMA1, but a better evaluation of the cost related to other forms is needed. A few economic evaluations suggest that drugs delivered in post-symptomatic phase at current prices are actually not cost-effective at commonly accepted cost-effectiveness threshold. No economic evaluation of newborn screening has yet been conducted. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 35 (4 ULiège) Are our Visions of the Future Development Realistic?Pfennig, Andreas in Chemie Ingenieur Technik (2020, September 24), 92(9), 1197The Grand Challenges of Humanity lying ahead also require behavioral changes. Thus, it is important that appropriate awareness on the influence is created, which each individual actually has. This can be ... [more ▼]The Grand Challenges of Humanity lying ahead also require behavioral changes. Thus, it is important that appropriate awareness on the influence is created, which each individual actually has. This can be achieved based on corresponding scenario simulations. Typically, the current scenarios for policymakers are generated with complex integrated assessment models (IAMs). Such complex simulations can fail to appropriately describe reality (H. Hasse, 2003: Thermodynamics of Reactive Separation. In: K. Sundmacher, A. Kienle (Eds.): Reactive Distillation Status and Future Directions. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim). It turns out, that major dependencies for future development can be described with global balances on materials and energy fluxes with only few assumptions. It was especially possible to include some of the major variables relevant for development of chemical industry like the variation between bio-based or CO2-based chemistry as well as including the option of direct air capture to obtain CO2 (DECHEMA, FutureCamp, 2019: Roadmap Chemie 2050, Auf dem Weg zu einer treibhausgasneutralen chemischen Industrie in Deutschland). Thus, the developed tool allows to question the published scenarios with respect to plausibility with unexpected outcome. The changes required in individual behavior are derived with a persuasive power similar to that of a limited carbon budget. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 24 (1 ULiège) Disparities in access to oncology clinical trials in Europe in the period 2009-2019Carneiro, Ana; Amaral, Teresa; Brandao, Mariana et alin Annals of Oncology (2020, September 19)Background: Clinical trials are essential for advancing cancer treatment. Yet, there is limited data on their distribution and access in Europe. To ascertain the extent of potential inequalities in access ... [more ▼]Background: Clinical trials are essential for advancing cancer treatment. Yet, there is limited data on their distribution and access in Europe. To ascertain the extent of potential inequalities in access to clinical trials in Europe, we compared their distribution among European countries. Methods: The Clinicaltrials.gov database was searched for interventional clinical trials in adults with neoplasms. Available data from phase I-III trials between 06/2009 to 06/2019 in Europe were retrieved. We considered the number of clinical trials registered in each country and one “trial-entry” was defined as one trial/country. Results: In total, 18454 trial-entries were identified, of which 12% were phase I, 10% phase I/II, 32% phase II, 2% phase II/III and 44% phase III; 74% were industry-sponsored, 15% were academic and 11% were an academic/industry partnership. The number of trials per country varied from 2.48 in Central/Eastern Europe to 5.33/100 000 inhabitants in Northern Europe. The proportion of phase I-II trials was higher in the Southern and Western regions (13-15%) compared to Central/Eastern and Northern regions (4-9%). The number of trial-entries/100 000 inhabitants/country ranged from 0.14 (Albania) to 10.7 (Belgium). Between 2010 and 2018, the total number of trials per country in Europe increased by 33%. The increase in early-phase trials was larger (phase I-II, 61%) than in late-phase trials (phase II-III, 7%). Portugal, Ireland, Finland, Greece and Norway registered the largest percentage increase in early-phase trials, while Ireland, Spain, Norway, Italy and Belgium led the largest percentage increase in late-phase trials. Five countries dominated in terms of an increase in the absolute number of total trial-entries in both early- and late-phase trials: Spain (90/40), France (45/16), UK (45/13), Italy (38/19) and Belgium (35/12). During this period there was no significant variation in the distribution of industry and academic sponsored trials but an increase in industry/academic partnerships was observed (= 8%). Conclusions: The number of clinical trials varies greatly among European regions resulting in potential asymmetries in patients’ access to clinical trials. The disparities in access to oncology trials need to be addressed by all the stakeholders. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 36 (4 ULiège) Expected medium and long term impact of the COVID-19 outbreak in oncologyJERUSALEM, Guy ; ONESTI, Concetta Elisa ; Generali, Daniele et alin Annals of Oncology (2020, September 19)Background: The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and ensuing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is challenging cancer care and services worldwide. Methods: A 95 items survey was distributed worldwide by 20 ... [more ▼]Background: The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and ensuing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is challenging cancer care and services worldwide. Methods: A 95 items survey was distributed worldwide by 20 oncologists from 10 of the most affected countries in order to evaluate the impact on organization of oncological care. Results: 109 representatives from oncology centers in 18 countries (62.4% academic hospitals) filled out the survey (June 17 e July 14, 2020). A swab or gargle test is systematically performed before day care unit or overnight stay admissions in 27.5% and 58.7% of the centers, respectively. A local registry (64.2%) and systematic tracing (77.1%) of infected patients was organized in many centers. Treatment modalities mostly affected by the pandemic (cancellation/delay) were surgery (44.1%) and chemotherapy (25.7%). Earlier cessation of palliative treatment was observed in 32.1% of centers, and 64.2 % of participants agree that under-treatment is a major concern. At the pandemic peak, teleconsultations were performed for follow-up (94.5%), for oral therapy (92.7%), but also for patients receiving immunotherapy (57.8%) or chemotherapy (55%). Approximately 82% of participants estimate that they will continue to use telemedicine. Most participants reported more frequent use of virtual tumor boards (82%) and oncological team meetings (92%), but 45% disagree that virtual meetings are an acceptable alternative to live international meetings. Although 60.9% report reduced clinical activity during the pandemic peak, only 28.4% had an increased scientific activity. Only 18% of participants estimate that their wellbeing will not recover to previous levels by the end of the year; 63% indicate easily accessible psychological support for caregivers, but only 10% used or planned to use it. All clinical trial activities are or will soon be reactivated in 72.5% of the centers. Major study protocol violations/deviations were observed in 27.5% and significant reductions of clinical trial activities are expected by 37% of centers this year. Conclusions: COVID-19 has a major impact on organization of patient care, well-being of caregivers, continued medical education and clinical trial activities in oncology. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 63 (8 ULiège) Unsupervised segmentation of indoor 3D point cloud: application to object-based classificationPoux, Florent ; Mattes, Christian; Kobbelt, Leifin International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (2020, September 03), XLIV-4(W1-2020), 111-118Abstract. Point cloud data of indoor scenes is primarily composed of planar-dominant elements. Automatic shape segmentation is thus valuable to avoid labour intensive labelling. This paper provides a ... [more ▼]Abstract. Point cloud data of indoor scenes is primarily composed of planar-dominant elements. Automatic shape segmentation is thus valuable to avoid labour intensive labelling. This paper provides a fully unsupervised region growing segmentation approach for efficient clustering of massive 3D point clouds. Our contribution targets a low-level grouping beneficial to object-based classification. We argue that the use of relevant segments for object-based classification has the potential to perform better in terms of recognition accuracy, computing time and lowers the manual labelling time needed. However, fully unsupervised approaches are rare due to a lack of proper generalisation of user-defined parameters. We propose a self-learning heuristic process to define optimal parameters, and we validate our method on a large and richly annotated dataset (S3DIS) yielding 88.1\% average F1-score for object-based classification. It permits to automatically segment indoor point clouds with no prior knowledge at commercially viable performance and is the foundation for efficient indoor 3D modelling in cluttered point clouds. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 234 (11 ULiège) 3D Viewpoint Optimization of Topological Relationships: Application to 3D Cadastre for Visual Easement ValidationNeuville, Romain ; Jacynthe, Pouliot; Billen, Roland in ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (2020, September 03), VI-4/W1-2020Offering optimum 3D viewpoint to user can be attractive in relieving occlusion in 3D scene. This could be much relevant for the visualization of 3D cadastral systems since they constitute complex datasets ... [more ▼]Offering optimum 3D viewpoint to user can be attractive in relieving occlusion in 3D scene. This could be much relevant for the visualization of 3D cadastral systems since they constitute complex datasets including both physical and legal objects while users are operating a number of visual tasks that require precise outlook. However, 3D viewpoint usability has yet to be evaluated to demonstrate its relevance in accomplishing given end user’s visual tasks. Hence, in this research project, the focus is set on visual identification of 3D topological relationships (disjoint and overlap) as it is one of the main users’ requirements in 3D cadastre. To this end, this paper addresses this issue using a virtual 3D model of the Planetarium Rio Tinto Alcan (Montreal city) in which property issues take place, especially regarding the easement validation procedure. Empirical tests have then been administrated in the form of interviews using an online questionnaire with university students who will specifically address such issues in their professional career. The results show that a 3D viewpoint that maximizes 3D disjoined or overlapped geometric objects’ view area within the viewport significantly outperforms traditional combined software points of view in visually identifying 3D topological relationship. This paper also suggests that user’s inexperience in 3D cadastre reduces visual task efficiency when visually identifying 3D topological relationship among overlapped geometric objects. Eventually, this study opens up new perspectives on 3D topological relationships modeling and visualization. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 62 (7 ULiège) Théâtre, tragédie et raison pure. Sur le §52 de la Critique de la faculté de juger de KantDubouclez, Olivier in Études de Lettres (2020, September)Kant traite du théâtre à la fin de la première partie de la Critique de la faculté de juger (1790), dans le §52 qui est consacré à «l’association des beaux-arts». Il y met en lumière une double précarité ... [more ▼]Kant traite du théâtre à la fin de la première partie de la Critique de la faculté de juger (1790), dans le §52 qui est consacré à «l’association des beaux-arts». Il y met en lumière une double précarité: celle du théâtre conçu comme éloquence (ce rapprochement le tirant du côté du simple divertissement) et celle de la tragédie, genre sublime, constamment menacée d’être réduite à une simple exaltation des forces vitales. Kant réfléchit alors sur les conditions historiques du surgissement du sentiment tragique: sa sublimité dépend en effet d’une double condition, subjective (du côté du spectateur comme sujet moral) et de l’artiste (en tant qu’il est capable de présenter l’infini), au sein d’un devenir culturel où s’accomplit la moralisation de l’être humain. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 54 (10 ULiège) Tool and Workflow for Systematic Design of Reactive Extraction for Separation and Purification of Valuable ComponentsBenkoussas, Hana ; Leleu, David ; Satpathy, Swagatika et alin Chemie Ingenieur Technik (2020, September)With reactive extraction, separation as well as purification can be realized for a wide palette of applications ranging from phosphorous recovery from sewage sludge to separation of rare-earth metals from ... [more ▼]With reactive extraction, separation as well as purification can be realized for a wide palette of applications ranging from phosphorous recovery from sewage sludge to separation of rare-earth metals from electronic waste in the context of urban mining. Goal of process design then has to be to find an optimal selection of reactive ex-tractant, diluent, possible additional components, as well as all process parameters. This requires a deep understanding of the chemistry of the underlying complexations as well as engineering expertise on extraction-process as well as equipment design. To solve this design task a tool was developed based on cascaded option trees (A. Bednarz, B. Rüngeler, A. Pfennig, Chem. Ing. Tech. 2014, 86(5), 611-620, DOI: 10.1002/cite.201300115), which combines the expertise from both sciences. The process design is on the one hand supported by a prototypic work flow and on the other hand by systematically structured and quantitative information on the underly-ing thermodynamics. The combination of these building blocks constitutes a design tool, which can guide through the systematic design of a reactive-extraction process for solving any of the separation tasks encountered in the areas mentioned in the introduction. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 59 (18 ULiège) SELF-LEARNING ONTOLOGY FOR INSTANCE SEGMENTATION OF 3D INDOOR POINT CLOUDPoux, Florent ; Ponciano, Jean-Jacquesin International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (2020, August 12), XLIII(B2), 309316Automation in point cloud data processing is central for efficient knowledge discovery. In this paper, we propose an instance segmentation framework for indoor buildings datasets. The process is built on ... [more ▼]Automation in point cloud data processing is central for efficient knowledge discovery. In this paper, we propose an instance segmentation framework for indoor buildings datasets. The process is built on an unsupervised segmentation followed by an ontology-based classification reinforced by self-learning. We use both shape-based features that only leverages the raw X, Y, Z attributes as well as relationship and topology between voxel entities to obtain a 3D structural connectivity feature describing the point cloud. These are then used through a planar-based unsupervised segmentation to create relevant clusters constituting the input of the ontology of classification. Guided by semantic descriptions, the object characteristics are modelled in an ontology through OWL2 and SPARQL to permit structural elements classification in an interoperable fashion. The process benefits from a self-learning procedure that improves the object description iteratively in a fully autonomous fashion. Finally, we benchmark the approach against several deep-learning methods on the S3DIS dataset. We highlight full automation, good performances, easy-integration and a precision of 99.99% for planar-dominant classes outperforming state-of-the-art deep learning. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 241 (7 ULiège) MARKER-LESS MOBILE AUGMENTED REALITY APPLICATION FOR MASSIVE 3D POINT CLOUDS AND SEMANTICSKharroubi, Abderrazzaq ; Billen, Roland ; Poux, Florent in International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (2020, August 12), XLIII(B2), 255261Mobile Augmented Reality (MAR) attracts significant research and development efforts from both the industry and academia, but rarely integrate massive 3D dataset’s interactions. The emergence of dedicated ... [more ▼]Mobile Augmented Reality (MAR) attracts significant research and development efforts from both the industry and academia, but rarely integrate massive 3D dataset’s interactions. The emergence of dedicated AR devices and powerful Software Development Kit (ARCore for android and ARKit for iOS) improves performance on mobile devices (Smartphones and tablets). This is aided by new sensor integration and advances in computer vision that fuels the development of MAR. In this paper, we propose a direct integration of massive 3D point clouds with semantics in a web-based marker-less mobile Augmented Reality (AR) application for real-time visualization. We specifically investigate challenges linked to point cloud data structure and semantic injection. Our solution consolidates some of the overarching principles of AR, of which pose estimation, registration and 3D tracking. The developed AR system is tested on mobile phones web-browsers providing clear insights on the performance of the system. Promising results highlight a number of frame per second varying between 27 and 60 for a real-time point budget of 4.3 million points. The point cloud tested is composed of 29 million points and shows how our indexation strategy permits the integration of massive point clouds aiming at the point budget. The results also gives research directions concerning the dependence and delay related to the quality of the network connection, and the battery consumption since portable sensors are used all the time. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 106 (11 ULiège) Automatic 3D Buildings Compact Reconstruction from LiDAR point cloudsNys, Gilles-Antoine ; Billen, Roland ; Poux, Florent in International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (2020, August 12), (XLIII-B2-2020), 473-478Point clouds generated from aerial LiDAR and photogrammetric techniques are great ways to obtain valuable spatial insights over large scale. However, their nature hinders the direct extraction and sharing ... [more ▼]Point clouds generated from aerial LiDAR and photogrammetric techniques are great ways to obtain valuable spatial insights over large scale. However, their nature hinders the direct extraction and sharing of underlying information. The generation of consistent large-scale 3D city models from this real-world data is a major challenge. Specifically, the integration in workflows usable by decision-making scenarios demands that the data is structured, rich and exchangeable. CityGML permits new advances in terms of interoperable endeavour to use city models in a collaborative way. Efforts have led to render good-looking digital twins of cities but few of them take into account their potential use in finite elements simulations (wind, floods, heat radiation model, etc.). In this paper, we target the automatic reconstruction of consistent 3D city buildings highlighting closed solids, coherent surface junctions, perfect snapping of vertices, etc. It specifically investigates the topological and geometrical consistency of generated models from aerial LiDAR point cloud, formatted following the CityJSON specifications. These models are then usable to store relevant information and provides geometries usable within complex computations such as computational fluid dynamics, free of local inconsistencies (e.g. holes and unclosed solids). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 62 (5 ULiège) Stochastic and deterministic formulations for capacity firming nominationsDumas, Jonathan ; Cornélusse, Bertrand ; Giannitrapani, Antonello et alin International Conference on Probabilistic Methods Applied to Power Systems (2020, August)This paper addresses the energy management of a grid-connected photovoltaic plant coupled with a battery energy storage device, within the capacity firming specifications of the French Energy Regulatory ... [more ▼]This paper addresses the energy management of a grid-connected photovoltaic plant coupled with a battery energy storage device, within the capacity firming specifications of the French Energy Regulatory Commission. The paper contributions are positioned in the continuity of the studies adopting stochastic models for optimizing the bids of renewable energy sources in a day-ahead market by considering a storage device. The proposed deterministic and stochastic approaches are optimization problems formulated as quadratic problems with linear constraints. The case study is a real microgrid with PV production monitored on site. The results demonstrate the validity of the stochastic formulation by using an ideal predictor that produces unbiased PV scenarios. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 118 (28 ULiège) Power Factor Improvement by Active Distribution Networks During Voltage Emergency SituationsPabon Ospina, Luis David; Van Cutsem, Thierry in Electric Power Systems Research (2020, August)As more Distributed Generation Units (DGUs) are integrated into medium–voltage grids, the interaction between transmission and distribution networks plays a higher role in power system security. The ... [more ▼]As more Distributed Generation Units (DGUs) are integrated into medium–voltage grids, the interaction between transmission and distribution networks plays a higher role in power system security. The contribution of the so-called Active Distribution Networks (ADNs) to system stability is expected to become more and more significant. This paper focuses on long-term voltage stability issues and shows that, contrary to what might be expected, a mere reactive power injection by DGUs has detrimental effects on system stability and might bring along counterproductive effects that precipitate voltage instability and collapse. Hence, an alternative control scheme for power factor improvement by ADNs during voltage emergency situations is proposed. The power factor is measured at the point of common coupling between transmission and distribution networks. The controller enhances system stability and eliminates the identified counterproductive effects. The conclusions are derived from time-domain simulations of a very simple, but concept-friendly, 5-bus system. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 58 (5 ULiège) Hepatitis E virus genotype 3 subtype dependent clinical outcomes in Belgium 2010-2018Peeters, M; De Somer, T; Klamer, S et alin Journal of Hepatology (2020, August), 73Detailed reference viewed: 40 (2 ULiège) Early liver transplantation for severe alcoholic hepatitis not responding to medical treatment: results of the French-Belgian prospective study QuickTransLouvet, A; Labreuche, J; Moreno, C et alin Journal of Hepatology (2020, August), 73Detailed reference viewed: 74 (3 ULiège) Insulin Resistance in ICU Patients: Women Have Stronger Metabolic ResponseUyttendaele, Vincent ; Knopp, Jennifer L.; Gottlieb, Rebecca et alin IFAC-PapersOnLine (2020, July)Glycaemic control (GC) has been associated with improved outcomes in critically ill patients. However, inter- and intra- patient metabolic variability significantly increase the risk of hypoglycaemia when ... [more ▼]Glycaemic control (GC) has been associated with improved outcomes in critically ill patients. However, inter- and intra- patient metabolic variability significantly increase the risk of hypoglycaemia when using insulin to control glycaemia. Model-based protocols often identify key physiological parameters from patient data, and demonstrated safe and effective GC. Based on recent studies showing gender difference in insulin secretion, this study uses retrospective data to identify whether there exists a difference in sexes in metabolic stress response, and thus in how personalised GC is given. Retrospective data from 145 ICU patients under GC who started GC in the first 12 hours of ICU stay are used. Insulin sensitivity (SI) is identified hourly, as well as the hour-to-hour percentage change in SI (%ΔSI). Differences between males and females SI and %ΔSI over 6-h blocks are compared using hypothesis and equivalence testing. A difference in SI levels would suggest a difference in metabolic stress response to insult, while a difference in %ΔSI levels would suggest a resulting difference in the difficulty to control. Results show females are significantly more insulin resistant than males and not equivalent, suggesting stronger stress response to insult induced stress. Metabolic variability is equivalent in both groups, advocating GC safety and efficacy should be similar between males and females, despite potential higher insulin rates required for females. This study is the first to suggest potential gender differences in the metabolic stress response. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 29 (2 ULiège) Translating A Risk-Based Glycaemic Control Framework for Critically Ill Patients: STAR-LiègeUyttendaele, Vincent ; Knopp, Jennifer L.; PIROTTE, Marc et alin IFAC-PapersOnLine (2020, July)Glycaemic control (GC) in the intensive care unit (ICU) has been widely debated over the last 20 years. While many studies showed benefits, many others failed to replicate the results, blaming the ... [more ▼]Glycaemic control (GC) in the intensive care unit (ICU) has been widely debated over the last 20 years. While many studies showed benefits, many others failed to replicate the results, blaming the increased related risk of hypoglycaemia. Current ICU guidelines thus often suggest higher glycaemic target ranges, led by the fear of hypoglycaemia – permissive hyperglycaemia. However, recent studies have shown improved safety and performance in GC outcome, using model-based computerised methods. The Stochastic-Targeted (STAR) framework is a patient-specific risk-based dosing protocol modulating insulin and nutrition. This study presents recent intermediate results of the STAR-Liège clinical trial, targeting 4.4-8.0 mmol/L glycaemic band. Clinical data from patients controlled under STAR and STAR insulin only (STAR-IO) are compared to retrospective data under the standard protocol (SP), targeting higher 5.6-8.3 mmol/L glycaemic ranges. Overall, STAR performance was significantly higher (88% blood glucose measurements in the 4.4-8.0 mmol/L or 80-145 mg/dL target band) compared to STAR-IO (78%) and SP (55%). Incidence of hypoglycaemia was similar (1% below target), while hyperglycaemia was much higher for SP (31% above target) compared to STAR (9%) and STAR-IO (11%). The resulting lower median blood glucose (BG) levels in STAR (6.5 mmol/L), compared to STAR-IO (6.7 mmol/L) and SP (7.7 mmol/L), was achieved with less variability, but required higher clinical workload for STAR (12 measurements per day) compared to SP (7 measurements per day). Compliance to protocol was higher for STAR (98%) compared to STAR-IO (90%) and SP (79%). Although targeting lower glycaemic ranges, STAR provided better GC compared to the SP. Typically, the full version of STAR also modulating nutrition, was able to better control extremely insulin resistant patients, further improving glycaemic control results. The results of this clinical trial indicate the capability to provide the safe, effective control for all patients required to improve outcomes. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 32 (4 ULiège) Efficacy and safety of an intra-articular injection of JTA-004, a novel enhanced protein solution, in knee osteoarthritis pain: a randomized, double-blind controlled phase II/III studyBettonville, M; Leon, M; Margaux, J et alin Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases (2020, June), 79(Supplement 1), 798Detailed reference viewed: 56 (3 ULiège) Multimodal and multiview distillation for real-time player detection on a football fieldCioppa, Anthony ; Deliège, Adrien ; Noor, Ul Huda et alin IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. Proceedings (2020, June)Monitoring the occupancy of public sports facilities is essential to assess their use and to motivate their construction in new places. In the case of a football field, the area to cover is large, thus ... [more ▼]Monitoring the occupancy of public sports facilities is essential to assess their use and to motivate their construction in new places. In the case of a football field, the area to cover is large, thus several regular cameras should be used, which makes the setup expensive and complex. As an alternative, we developed a system that detects players from a unique cheap and wide-angle fisheye camera assisted by a single narrow-angle thermal camera. In this work, we train a network in a knowledge distillation approach in which the student and the teacher have different modalities and a different view of the same scene. In particular, we design a custom data augmentation combined with a motion detection algorithm to handle the training in the region of the fisheye camera not covered by the thermal one. We show that our solution is effective in detecting players on the whole field filmed by the fisheye camera. We evaluate it quantitatively and qualitatively in the case of an online distillation, where the student detects players in real time while being continuously adapted to the latest video conditions. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 81 (22 ULiège) Consensus statement on intra-articular injections of platelet-rich plasma for the management of knee osteoarthritisEymard, F; Ornetti, P; Maillet, J et alin Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases (2020, June), 79(Supplement 1), 1738Detailed reference viewed: 162 (8 ULiège) A Context-Aware Loss Function for Action Spotting in Soccer VideosCioppa, Anthony ; Deliège, Adrien ; Giancola, Silvio et alin IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. Proceedings (2020, June)In video understanding, action spotting consists in temporally localizing human-induced events annotated with single timestamps. In this paper, we propose a novel loss function that specifically considers ... [more ▼]In video understanding, action spotting consists in temporally localizing human-induced events annotated with single timestamps. In this paper, we propose a novel loss function that specifically considers the temporal context naturally present around each action, rather than focusing on the single annotated frame to spot. We benchmark our loss on a large dataset of soccer videos, SoccerNet, and achieve an improvement of 12.8% over the baseline. We show the generalization capability of our loss for generic activity proposals and detection on ActivityNet, by spotting the beginning and the end of each activity. Furthermore, we provide an extended ablation study and display challenging cases for action spotting in soccer videos. Finally, we qualitatively illustrate how our loss induces a precise temporal understanding of actions and show how such semantic knowledge can be used for automatic highlights generation. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 160 (50 ULiège) A multicomponent medication promotes chondrogenesis and reduces MMP-13 in primary articular chondrocytes from knee osteoarthritis patients in vitroSanchez, Christelle ; Hemmer, Kathrin; Kroemmelbein, Natascha et alin Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases (2020, June), 79(Suppl 1), 1336Detailed reference viewed: 20 (1 ULiège) Boswellia serrata extract and curcumin increase GDF15 production by human primary osteoarthritis chondrocytes: a new mechanism of actionSanchez, Christelle ; Zappia, Jérémie ; Dierckxsens, Yvan et alin Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases (2020, June), 79(Suppl 1), 1336-1337Detailed reference viewed: 21 (2 ULiège) An oleuropein-based dietary supplement improves joint functionality in older people with hugh knee joint painHorcajada, Marie-Noelle; Beaumont, M; Sauvageot, N et alin Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases (2020, June), 79(Suppl 1), 930Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 ULiège) SUN-LB46 Differences in IGF-I Concentrations Between European and US Populations - Consequences for Reference IntervalsBidlingmaier, Martin; Valcour, Andre; Chun, Kelly Y. et alin Journal of the Endocrine Society (2020, June), 4(Supplement_1), 1092-1093Detailed reference viewed: 10 (1 ULiège) How to represent 3D Data?Poux, Florent in Towards Data Science (2020, May 11)The 3D datasets in our computerized ecosystem — of which an increasing number comes directly from reality capture devices — are found in different forms that vary in both the structure and the properties ... [more ▼]The 3D datasets in our computerized ecosystem — of which an increasing number comes directly from reality capture devices — are found in different forms that vary in both the structure and the properties. Interestingly, they can be somehow mapped with success to point clouds thanks to its canonical nature. This article gives you the main 3D data representations modes to choose from when bindings point clouds to your application [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 79 (14 ULiège) « Leurs propos le tesmoignent assez » Le discours rapporté par voie épistolaire, arme de la Ligue catholique parisienne (1585-1594)Goderniaux, Alexandre in Ouvroir Litt&Arts (2020, May), 13De 1585 à 1594, la Ligue parisienne imprime près d’une centaine de lettres rapportant les propos de nombreux acteurs dans des situations d’élocutions particulièrement protéiformes. Cette enquête étudie ... [more ▼]De 1585 à 1594, la Ligue parisienne imprime près d’une centaine de lettres rapportant les propos de nombreux acteurs dans des situations d’élocutions particulièrement protéiformes. Cette enquête étudie les pratiques discursives par lesquelles le discours rapporté en contexte épistolaire a été instrumentalisé par les ultra-catholiques dans le cadre de cette guerre des libelles. Recourant largement à l’étude de cas, elle analyse comment les libellistes ont concrètement fait participer la citation des propos d’autrui à un vaste système discursif, notamment via la mise en scène de son origine et de son inclusion dans un échange privé, via son interprétation comme témoignage à charge contre les ennemis des catholiques, ou encore via des éléments de réflexion émis par les polémistes à propos du discours lui-même. Ce faisant, elle met en lumière la diversité des pratiques auxquelles les libellistes ligueurs ont recours afin de faire du discours en contexte épistolaire un argument au service de leurs revendications politiques. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 91 (30 ULiège) Microstructure and properties of SLM AlSi10Mg: Understanding the influence of the local thermal historyMertens, Anne ; Delahaye, Jocelyn ; Dedry, Olivier et alin Procedia Manufacturing (2020, April 26), 47Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is an Additive Manufacturing technique that is widely used to produce AlSi10Mg parts with a good strength-to-weight ratio. Indeed, strongly refined microstructures are ... [more ▼]Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is an Additive Manufacturing technique that is widely used to produce AlSi10Mg parts with a good strength-to-weight ratio. Indeed, strongly refined microstructures are obtained due to the ultra-fast cooling rates reached in this process, conferring high strength to the parts, even in the as-built state. However, microstructural heterogeneities at the scale of the melt pool may exert a detrimental influence on the mechanical properties e.g. by causing a loss in ductility. This study thus aims at a better understanding of the influence of the local thermal history on local variations of microstructure and mechanical properties. Microscopy (i.e. SEM+EDS) and nanoindentation have been combined to reach a detailed knowledge of the local microstructure and properties. In particular, the solute Si content in the -Al matrix, the volume fraction and the size of Si precipitates have been quantified by microscopy analysis. These local microstructural parameters are correlated with the matrix hardness as revealed by nanoindentation. Finally, the results of this detailed characterization are linked with the local thermal history that is approached in two different ways i.e. (i) an analytical description of thermal gradients inside the melt pool based on Rosenthal’s and Matyja’s equations and (ii) a simple Finite Element model for the deposition of a few layers in the SLM process. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 83 (27 ULiège) Thermal Analysis of Solidifying Steel Shell in Continuous Casting ProcessTran, Hoang Son ; Castiaux, Etienne; Habraken, Anne in Procedia Manufacturing (2020, April), 47A finite element simulation of the steel shell formation in continuous casting has been developed. The current research is focused on the solidification of molten steel during the initial stages of the ... [more ▼]A finite element simulation of the steel shell formation in continuous casting has been developed. The current research is focused on the solidification of molten steel during the initial stages of the mould cooling. The model allows predicting the temperature field throughout the process: temperature gradient, solidification front, cooling rates. In stationary state, the prediction of shell thickness reasonably agrees with analytical models and experimental observations. The simulation tool is used to study the alteration of the mould thermal field in case of sticking defects encountered in industrial practice. A numerical analysis increases the understanding of the phenomena. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 56 (24 ULiège) An oleuropein-based dietary supplement improves joint functionality in older people with high knee joint painHorcajada, M-N; Beaumont, M; Sauvageot, N et alin Osteoarthritis and Cartilage (2020, April), 28(Suppl 1), 472-3Detailed reference viewed: 25 (1 ULiège) A multicomponent medication promotes chondrogenesis and reduces MMP-13 in primary articular chondrocytes from knee osteoarthritis patients in vitroSanchez, Christelle ; Hemmer, Kathrin; Krommelbein, Natascha et alin Osteoarthritis and Cartilage (2020, April), 28(Suppl 1), 106-107Detailed reference viewed: 24 (3 ULiège) Boswellia serrata extract and curcumin increase GDF15 production by human primary osteoarthritis chondrocytes: a new mechanism of actionSanchez, Christelle ; Zappia, Jérémie ; Dierckxsens, Yvan et alin Osteoarthritis and Cartilage (2020, April), 28(Suppl 1), 120Detailed reference viewed: 36 (6 ULiège) Cartilage biomarkers S-COLL2-1 and S-COLL2-1NO2 are helpful in identifying knee osteoarthritis patients at risk of disease worseningHenrotin, Yves ; Hick, Anne-Christine; Labasse, Alain et alin Osteoarthritis and Cartilage (2020, April), 28(Suppl 1), 327-28Detailed reference viewed: 36 (6 ULiège) Un oratoire du Xe siècle sur le site du Rocher du Vieux-Château à Pont-de-Bonne (Lg)Delye, Emmanuel ; Wymmersch, Guillaume in Archaeologia Mediaevalis. Archéologie du Moyen Âge et de Temps Modernes dans les trois régions belges et les pays limitrophes (2020, March 13), 43Detailed reference viewed: 57 (19 ULiège) Hepatitis E virus genotype 3 subtype dependent clinical outcomes in Belgium 2010-2018De Somer, T; Peeters, M; Klamer, S et alin Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (2020, March), 83(1), 12Detailed reference viewed: 34 (0 ULiège) Apsidal motion in the massive binary HD 152248Rosu, Sophie ; Rauw, Grégor ; Gosset, Eric et alin Contributions of the Astronomical Observatory Skalnaté Pleso (2020, March), 50(2), 624-626The eccentric massive binary HD 152248, hosting two very similar O7.5 III(f) stars, is the most emblematic eclipsing O-star binary in the very young and rich open cluster NGC 6231. Measuring the rate of ... [more ▼]The eccentric massive binary HD 152248, hosting two very similar O7.5 III(f) stars, is the most emblematic eclipsing O-star binary in the very young and rich open cluster NGC 6231. Measuring the rate of apsidal motion in such a binary system gives insight into the internal structure and evolutionary state of the stars composing it. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 45 (9 ULiège) E.thesaurus :L'orfèvrerie à l'épreuve de la modélisation 3D - Valorisation, médiation et exploitation scientifique d'oeuvres médiévalesGil, Marc; Hallot, Pierre in HAL Archives ouvertes (2020, February 24), 02488959Detailed reference viewed: 45 (7 ULiège) First steps towards online Personal Dosimetry Using Computational Methods in Interventional Radiology: operator’s position tracking and simulation input generationAbdelrahman, Mahmoud Eid Mahmoud ; Lombardo, Pasquale; Vanhavere, Filip et alin Radiation Physics and Chemistry (2020, January 16)Introduction
With this work we present an innovative system for calculating occupational doses, as it is now being developed within the PODIUM (Personal Online DosImetry Using computational Methods ... [more ▼]Introduction
With this work we present an innovative system for calculating occupational doses, as it is now being developed within the PODIUM (Personal Online DosImetry Using computational Methods) project. Individual monitoring of workers is essential to follow up regulatory dose limits and to apply the ALARA principle. However, current personal dosimeters are subject to large uncertainties, especially in non-homogeneous fields, like those found interventional radiology/cardiology. Workers in these fields also need to wear several dosimeters (extremity, eye lens, above/below apron), which causes practical problems. As the capabilities of computational methods are increasing exponentially, it will become feasible to use pure computations to calculate doses in place of physical dosimeters.

Methods
In our concept system, operational and protection quantities are calculated by fast Monte Carlo methods. Our dose calculation accounts for the real radiation field (including fluence, energy and angular distributions) and for the relative position of different body parts of the worker. The real movements of exposed workers are captured using depth cameras. This information is translated to a flexible anthropomorphic phantom, and then in Monte-Carlo simulations. For the moment this is done off-line, after the procedure is finished, and the parameters of the procedure are collected.

Results
For validating our system, we performed tests in interventional radiology (IR) rooms. In total, we followed 15 procedures in Cath-labs at UZ-VUB and CHU- Liège. An accurate analysis of the staff position was performed, and as a first step, we compared simulated Hp(10) and measured Hp(10) with electronic personal dosimeter (EPD) during an angiography procedure for some of these procedures. The results showed good agreement between the calculated doses and the ones measured by the EPD dosimeter.

Conclusions