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See detailEstimation of the Antarctic surface mass balance using the regional climate model MAR (1979–2015) and identification of dominant processes
Agosta, Cécile; Amory, Charles; Kittel, Christoph; Orsi, Anais; Favier, Vincent; Gallée, Hubert; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; Lenearts, Jan T. M.; van Wessem, Jan Melchior; van de Berg, Willem Jan; Fettweis, Xavier

in Cryosphere (2019)

The Antarctic ice sheet mass balance is a major component of the sea level budget and results from the difference of two fluxes of a similar magnitude: ice flow discharging in the ocean and net snow accumulation on the ice sheet surface, i.e. the surface mass balance (SMB). Separately modelling ice dynamics and SMB is the only way to project future trends. In addition, mass balance studies frequently use regional climate models (RCMs) outputs as an alternative to observed fields because SMB observations are particularly scarce on the ice sheet. Here we evaluate new simulations of the polar RCM MAR forced by three reanalyses, ERA-Interim, JRA-55, and MERRA-2, for the period 1979–2015, and we compare MAR results to the last outputs of the RCM RACMO2 forced by ERA-Interim. We show that MAR and RACMO2 perform similarly well in simulating coast-to-plateau SMB gradients, and we find no significant differences in their simulated SMB when integrated over the ice sheet or its major basins. More importantly, we outline and quantify missing or underestimated processes in both RCMs. Along stake transects, we show that both models accumulate too much snow on crests, and not enough snow in valleys, as a result of drifting snow transport fluxes not included in MAR and probably underestimated in RACMO2 by a factor of 3. Our results tend to confirm that drifting snow transport and sublimation fluxes are much larger than previous model-based estimates and need to be better resolved and constrained in climate models. Sublimation of precipitating particles in low-level atmospheric layers is responsible for the significantly lower snowfall rates in MAR than in RACMO2 in katabatic channels at the ice sheet margins. Atmospheric sublimation in MAR represents 363 Gt yr−1 over the grounded ice sheet for the year 2015, which is 16 % of the simulated snowfall loaded at the ground. This estimate is consistent with a recent study based on precipitation radar observations and is more than twice as much as simulated in RACMO2 because of different time residence of precipitating particles in the atmosphere. The remaining spatial differences in snowfall between MAR and RACMO2 are attributed to differences in advection of precipitation with snowfall particles being likely advected too far inland in MAR.

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See detailSensitivity to Convective Schemes on Precipitation Simulated by the Regional Climate Model MAR over Belgium (1987–2017)
Doutreloup, Sébastien; Wyard, Coraline; Amory, Charles; Kittel, Christoph; Erpicum, Michel; Fettweis, Xavier

in Atmosphere (2019), 10(1), 34

The aim of this study is to assess the sensitivity of convective precipitation modelled by the regional climate model MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional) over 1987–2017 to four newly implemented convective schemes: the Bechtold scheme coming from the MESO-NH regional model and the Betts-Miller-Janjić, Kain-Fritsch and modified Tiedtke schemes coming from the WRF regional model. MAR version 3.9 is used here at a resolution of 10 km over a domain covering Belgium using the ERA-Interim reanalysis as forcing. The simulated precipitation is compared against SYNOP and E-OBS gridded precipitation data. Trends in total and convective precipitation over 1987–2017 are discussed. None of the MAR experiments compares better with observations than the others and they all show the same trends in (extreme) precipitation. Over the period 1987–2017, MAR suggests a significant increase in the mean annual precipitation amount over the North Sea but a significant decrease over High Belgium.

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See detailSensitivity of the current Antarctic surface mass balance to sea surface conditions using MAR
Kittel, Christoph; Amory, Charles; Agosta, Cécile; Delhasse, Alison; Doutreloup, Sébastien; Huot, Pierre-Vincent; Wyard, Coraline; Fichefet, Thierry; Fettweis, Xavier

in Cryosphere (2018), 12

Estimates for the recent period and projections of the Antarctic surface mass balance (SMB) often rely on high-resolution polar-oriented regional climate models (RCMs). However, RCMs require large-scale boundary forcing fields prescribed by reanalyses or general circulation models (GCMs). Since the recent variability of sea surface conditions (SSCs, namely sea ice concentration, SIC, and sea surface temperature, SST) over the Southern Ocean is not reproduced by most GCMs from the 5th phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), RCMs are then subject to potential biases. We investigate here the direct sensitivity of the Antarctic SMB to SSC perturbations around the Antarctic. With the RCM “Modèle Atmosphérique Régional” (MAR), different sensitivity experiments are performed over 1979–2015 by modifying the ERA-Interim SSCs with (i) homogeneous perturbations and (ii) mean anomalies estimated from all CMIP5 models and two extreme ones, while atmospheric lateral boundary conditions remained unchanged. Results show increased (decreased) precipitation due to perturbations inducing warmer, i.e. higher SST and lower SIC (colder, i.e. lower SST and higher SIC), SSCs than ERA-Interim, significantly affecting the SMB of coastal areas, as precipitation is mainly related to cyclones that do not penetrate far into the continent. At the continental scale, significant SMB anomalies (i.e greater than the interannual variability) are found for the largest combined SST/SIC perturbations. This is notably due to moisture anomalies above the ocean, reaching sufficiently high atmospheric levels to influence accumulation rates further inland. Sensitivity experiments with warmer SSCs based on the CMIP5 biases reveal integrated SMB anomalies (+5 % to +13 %) over the present climate (1979–2015) in the lower range of the SMB increase projected for the end of the 21st century.

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See detailBrief communication: Impact of the recent atmospheric circulation change in summer on the future surface mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet
Delhasse, Alison; Fettweis, Xavier; Kittel, Christoph; Amory, Charles; Agosta, Cécile

in Cryosphere (2018)

Since the 2000s, a change in the atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic resulting in more frequent blocking events has favoured warmer and sunnier weather conditions over the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) in summer, enhancing the melt increase. This circulation change is not represented by general circulation models (GCMs) of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), which do not predict any circulation change for the next century over the North Atlantic. The goal of this study is to evaluate the impact of an atmospheric circulation change (as currently observed) on projections of the future GrIS surface mass balance (SMB). We compare GrIS SMB estimates simulated by the regional climate model MAR forced by perturbed reanalysis (ERA-Interim with a temperature correction of +1, +1.5, and +2°C at the MAR lateral boundaries) over 1980–2016 to projections of the future GrIS SMB from MAR simulations forced by three GCMs over selected periods for which a similar temperature increase of +1, +1.5, and +2°C is projected by the GCMs in comparison to 1980–1999. Mean SMB anomalies produced with perturbed reanalysis over the climatologically stable period 1980–1999 are similar to those produced with MAR forced by GCMs over future periods characterised by a similar warming over Greenland. However, over the 2 last decades (2000–2016) when an increase in the frequency of blocking events has been observed in summer, MAR forced by perturbed reanalysis suggests that the SMB decrease could be amplified by a factor of 2 if such atmospheric conditions persist compared to projections forced by GCMs for the same temperature increase but without any circulation change.

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See detailInterest of a Regional Climate Model for doing future projections over the Greenland Ice Sheet
Fettweis, Xavier; Delhasse, Alison; agosta, C.; Amory, Charles; Lang, Charlotte; Kittel, Christoph

Conference (2018, June 22)

With the aim of evaluating the added value of a regional climate model in downscaled future projections over the Greenland Ice Sheet, we have compared the surface fields (snowfall and summer near-surface temperature) coming from the “best” CMIP5 and CMIP6 global models (GCMs) with these fields simulated by the MAR model forced by the same GCMs. These "best" GCMS were selected according to their ability to simulate the summer temperature at 700 hPa and the general circulation at 500 hPa over Greenland with respect to ERA-Interim over 1980-1999. However, despite their ability to correctly represent the free atmosphere, the selected GCMs present significant biases at the surface of the ice sheet. The comparison shows that MAR is however able to strongly reduce these GCM surface biases. We then forced the lateral boundaries of MAR with ERA-Interim to which we applied temperature corrections of +1°C and +2°C. The outputs were compared to MAR forced by GCM future projections corresponding to a climate about 1 and 2°C warmer than the current climate. The results of the different GCM-forced runs and sensitivity experiments are very similar to each other as the GCMs do not project general circulation changes. Moreover, the sensitivity experiments forced by modified ERA-Interim reveal that the projected SMB decrease is exponentially amplified if the increased occurrence of blocking events over Greenland in summer that has been observed since the 2000´s continues in the future.

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See detailModelling the impact of drifting snow on the surface mass balance
Kittel, Christoph; Amory, Charles; Agosta, Cécile; Favier, Vincent; Fettweis, Xavier

Conference (2018, June 20)

The transport of snow by the wind is an important component of the Antarctic surface mass balance (SMB) as drifting snow counts up for a large amount of snow ablation over the ice sheet. However, this process is frequently neglected in atmospheric models. Two simulations (one with drifting snow and one without) were performed at a resolution of 8 km with the regional climate model MAR forced by ERA-Interim, in order to assess the impact of drifting snow on the SMB of Adelie Land (East Antarctica) during the period 2002 - 2016. We evaluated results against field observations (including meteorological and snow skate measurements). Besides to better represent climate surface as airborne snow particles can sublimate and interact with the lowest atmospheric levels, the drifting snow simulation improves the modelled spatial distribution of the SMB and reduces the overestimation of the accumulation in comparison with MAR results without drifting snow.

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See detailInfluence of the recent circulation change in summer on future surface mass balance of Greenland ice sheet
Delhasse, Alison; Fettweis, Xavier; Kittel, Christoph; Amory, Charles

Conference (2018, April 11)

Regional Climate Models (RCM) driven by General Circulation Models (GCM) are often used to produce future projections of the surface climate and surface mass balance (SMB) of polar ice sheets. However, GCM do not represent the recent circulation change observed in summer over the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) since the 2000’s and do not predict any circulation changes for the next century. The goal of this study is to evaluate the impact of an atmospheric circulation change (as currently observed) combined with a temperature increase on the future GrIS SMB. We compare here SMB results from the RCM MAR (Modèle atmosphérique régional) forced by warmer reanalyses (ERA-Interim with a temperature correction of +1, +1,5 and +2 C at the lateral boundaries) to SMB results from MAR future simulations forced with GCM during a period where there is a temperature increase of +1, +1,5 and +2 C compared to 1980-1999. Mean SMB produced with warmer reanalyses over 1980-1999 is similar to that obtained when forcing with GCM over a period characterized by a similarly warmer climate. During last years (2000-2016) when a circulation change has been observed in summer, MAR forced with warmer reanalyses shows a significant amplified SMB decrease compared to future simulations forced by GCM for the same temperature increase.

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See detailObservations and modelling od drifting snow occurrences in coastal East Antarctica
Amory, Charles; Kittel, Christoph; Fettweis, Xavier

Conference (2017, December 15)

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See detailSensitivity of the Antarctic surface mass balance to oceanic perturbations
Kittel, Christoph; Amory, Charles; Agosta, Cécile; Fettweis, Xavier

Poster (2017, December 15)

Regional climate models (RCMs) are suitable numerical tools to study the surface mass balance (SMB) of the wide polar ice sheets due to their high spatial resolution and polar-adapted physics. Nonetheless, RCMs are driven at their boundaries and over the ocean by reanalysis or global climate model (GCM) products and are thus influenced by potential biases in these large-scale fields. These biases can be significant for both the atmosphere and the sea surface conditions (i.e. sea ice concentration and sea surface temperature). With the RCM MAR, a set of sensitivity experiments has been realized to assess the direct response of the SMB of the Antarctic ice sheet to oceanic perturbations. MAR is forced by ERA-Interim and anomalies based on mean GCM biases are introduced in sea surface conditions. Results show significant increases (decreases) of liquid and solid precipitation due to biases related to warm (cold) oceans. As precipitation is mainly caused by low-pressure systems that intrude into the continent and do not penetrate far inland, coastal areas are more sensitive than inland regions. Furthermore, warm ocean representative biases lead to anomalies as large as anomalies simulated by other RCMs or GCMs for the end of the 21st century.

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See detailInterests of using the RCM MAR to downscale CMIP6 outputs
Amory, Charles; Kittel, Christoph; Delhasse, Alison; Agosta, Cécile; Fettweis, Xavier

Conference (2017, December 10)

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See detailAntarctica-Regional Climate and Surface Mass Budget
Favier, Vincent; Krinner, Gerhard; Amory, Charles; Gallée, Hubert; Beaumet, Hulien; Agosta, Cécile

in Current Climate Change Reports (2017)

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See detailReconstructions of the 1900–2015 Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance using the regional climate MAR model
Fettweis, Xavier; Box, Jason; Agosta, Cécile; Amory, Charles; Kittel, Christoph; Lang, Charlotte; van As, Dirk; Machguth, Horst; Gallée, Hubert

in Cryosphere (2017), 11

With the aim of studying the recent Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) surface mass balance (SMB) decrease relative to the last century, we have forced the regional climate MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional; version 3.5.2) model with the ERA-Interim (ECMWF Interim Re-Analysis; 1979–2015), ERA-40 (1958–2001), NCEP–NCARv1 (National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research Reanalysis version 1; 1948–2015), NCEP–NCARv2 (1979–2015), JRA-55 (Japanese 55-year Reanalysis; 1958–2014), 20CRv2(c) (Twentieth Century Reanalysis version 2; 1900–2014) and ERA-20C (1900–2010) reanalyses. While all these forcing products are reanalyses that are assumed to represent the same climate, they produce significant differences in the MAR-simulated SMB over their common period. A temperature adjustment of +1 °C (respectively −1 °C) was, for example, needed at the MAR boundaries with ERA-20C (20CRv2) reanalysis, given that ERA-20C (20CRv2) is ∼ 1 °C colder (warmer) than ERA-Interim over Greenland during the period 1980–2010. Comparisons with daily PROMICE (Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet) near-surface observations support these adjustments. Comparisons with SMB measurements, ice cores and satellite-derived melt extent reveal the most accurate forcing datasets for the simulation of the GrIS SMB to be ERA-Interim and NCEP–NCARv1. However, some biases remain in MAR, suggesting that some improvements are still needed in its cloudiness and radiative schemes as well as in the representation of the bare ice albedo. Results from all MAR simulations indicate that (i) the period 1961–1990, commonly chosen as a stable reference period for Greenland SMB and ice dynamics, is actually a period of anomalously positive SMB (∼ +40 Gt yr−1) compared to 1900–2010; (ii) SMB has decreased significantly after this reference period due to increasing and unprecedented melt reaching the highest rates in the 120-year common period; (iii) before 1960, both ERA-20C and 20CRv2-forced MAR simulations suggest a significant precipitation increase over 1900–1950, but this increase could be the result of an artefact in the reanalyses that are not well-enough constrained by observations during this period and (iv) since the 1980s, snowfall is quite stable after having reached a maximum in the 1970s. These MAR-based SMB and accumulation reconstructions are, however, quite similar to those from Box (2013) after 1930 and confirm that SMB was quite stable from the 1940s to the 1990s. Finally, only the ERA-20C-forced simulation suggests that SMB during the 1920–1930 warm period over Greenland was comparable to the SMB of the 2000s, due to both higher melt and lower precipitation than normal.

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See detailSeasonal variations in drag coefficient over a sastrugi-covered snowfield in coastal East Antarctica
Amory, Charles; Gallee, Hubert; Naaim-Bouvet, Florence; Favier, Vincent; Vignon, Etienne; Picard, Ghislain; Trouvilliez, Alexandre; Piard, Luc; Genthon, Christophe; Bellot, Hervé

in Boundary-Layer Meteorology (2017)

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See detailMomentum- and Heat-Flux Parameterization at Dome C, Antarctica: A Sensitivity Study
Vignon, Etienne; Genthon, Christophe; Barral, Hélène; Amory, Charles; Picard, Ghislain; Gallée, Hubert; Casasanta, Giampietro; Argentini, Stefania

in Boundary-Layer Meteorology (2016)

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See detailBrief communication: Two well-marked cases of aerodynamic adjustment of sastrugi
Amory, Charles; Naaim-Bouvet, Florence; Gallée, Hubert; Vignon, Etienne

in Cryosphere (2016)

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See detailComparison between observed and simulated aeolian snow mass fluxes in Adélie Land, East Antarctica
Amory, Charles; Trouvillez, A.; Gallée, H.; Favier, V.; Naaim-Bouvet, F.; Genthon, C.; Agosta, Cécile; Piard, L.; Bellot, H.

in Cryosphere (2015), 9

The regional climate model MAR including a coupled snow pack/aeolian snow transport parameterisation is compared with aeolian snow mass fluxes at a fine spatial resolution (5 km horizontally and 2 m vertically) and at a fine temporal resolution (30 min) over 1 month in Antarctica. Numerous feedbacks are taken into account in the MAR including the drag partitioning caused by the roughness elements. Wind speed is correctly simulated with a positive value of the Nash test (0.60 and 0.37) but the wind speeds above 10 m s−1 are underestimated. The aeolian snow transport events are correctly reproduced with a good temporal resolution except for the aeolian snow transport events with a particles' maximum height below 1 m. The simulated threshold friction velocity, calculated without snowfall, is overestimated. The simulated aeolian snow mass fluxes between 0 to 2 m have the same variations but are underestimated compared to the second-generation FlowCapt values and so is the simulated relative humidity at 2 m. This underestimation is not entirely due to the underestimation of the simulated wind speed. The MAR underestimates the aeolian snow quantity that pass through the first two meters by a factor ten compared to the second-generation FlowCapt value (13 990 kg m−1 and 151 509 kg m−1 respectively). It will conduct the MAR, with this parametrisation, to underestimate the effect of the aeolian snow transport on the Antarctic surface mass balance.

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See detailCharacterization of the boundary layer at Dome C (East Antarctica) during the OPALE simmer campaign
Gallée, Hubert; Preunkert, Susanne; Argentini, Stefania; Frey, Markus; Genthon, Christophe; Jourdain, Bruno; Pietroni, Ilaria; Casasanta, Giampietro; Barral, Hélène; Vignon, Etienne; Amory, Charles; Legrand, Michel

in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (2015)

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See detailA novel experimental study of aeolian snow transport in Adelie Land (Antarctica)
Trouvilliez, Alexandre; Naaim-Bouvet, Florence; Genthon, Christophe; Piard, Luc; Favier, Vincent; Bellot, Hervé; Agosta, Cécile; Palerme, Cyril; Amory, Charles; Gallée, Hubert

in Cold Regions Science and Technology (2014), 108

None of the previous aeolian snow transport campaigns in Antarctica meet the requirements in terms of tempo- ral resolution, long-term series and qualified instruments for evaluations of meteorological and climate models including parameterization for aeolian snow transport. Consequently, determining the quantity of snow transported remains a challenge. A field campaign was therefore launched in January 2009, in Adélie Land, Antarctica, to acquire new model-evaluation-oriented observations within the European ICE2SEA project, with the logistical support of the French polar Institute (IPEV). The available aeolian snow transport sensors are reviewed and the sensor that best suited our specific needs was chosen: FlowCaptTM acoustic sensors. Three au- tomatic weather stations were deployed with FlowCaptsTM close to the coast. The stations' locations are distinct, ranging from 1 to 100 km inland, one of them with a 7-m mast with six levels of anemometers and thermohygrometers. The fluid and impact threshold friction velocities recorded were 0.48 ± 0.09 m s− 1 and 0.4 ± 0.09 m s−1, respectively, with a high standard deviation of 0.12 ± 0.03 m s−1 and 0.13 ± 0.03 m s−1, respectively. The aeolian snow transport frequency in Adélie Land was very high with seasonal variation of trans- port occurring with minima during the austral summer. Seven percent of the aeolian snow transport events were drifting snow (maximum particle's height, b1 m above the surface). The snow quantity transported was above 1 kiloton per year in the first meter above the surface.

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See detailBlowing snow in coastal Adélie Land, Antarctica: three atmospheric-moisture issues
Barral, Hélène; Genthon, Christophe; Trouvilliez, Alexandre; Brun, Christophe; Amory, Charles

in The Cryosphere (2014)

See detailSensitivity Study of the antarctic surface mass balance to snow erosion by the wind.
Gallée, Hubert; Agosta, Cécile; Amory, Charles; Trouvilliez, A.; Fettweis, Xavier

Conference (2014, August 26)