Vaessen, Q., Hambuckers, A., & Houbrechts, G. (2021, September 09). Spatial distribution of Unio crassus linked to environmental variables at a regional scale. Paper presented at 9th Euromal (2021), Praha, Czech Republic.
Hambuckers, A., François, L., Louidiyi, I., & Wellens, J. (2020, December 16). Are dynamic vegetation models able to simulate accurately water stress: confronting delta13C predictions of the DVM CARAIB with field values ? Paper presented at Appui à la politique agricole et résistance au changement climatique, webinaire, Maroc, Belgique.
Gazagne, E., Pitance, J.-L., Savini, T., Huynen, M.-C., Poncin, P., Brotcorne, F., & Hambuckers, A. (2020). Seed shadows of northern pigtailed macaques within a degraded forest fragment, Thailand. Revue de Primatologie, 11.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
Determining seed shadow (i.e. seed deposition pattern of a plant population) produced by frugivores is difficult to evaluate by direct observations, although of paramount importance to understand their ...
Gazagne, E., José Domínguez, J. M., Huynen, M.-C., Hambuckers, A., Poncin, P., Savini, T., & Brotcorne, F. (2019, October 04). Faire face à une faible disponibilité en fruits dans un habitat dégradé : rôle des plantations chez les macaques à queue de cochon (Macaca leonina) en Thaïlande. Revue de Primatologie.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
Space-use patterns and foraging strategies are crucial to understand the ecological resilience of primates in degraded habitats. However, detailed ranging data are scarce, especially for Southeast Asian ...
Jacquemin, I., Berckmans, J., Henrot, A.-J., Dury, M., Tychon, B., Hambuckers, A., Hamdi, R., & François, L. (2019, September). Utilisation du modèle dynamique de végétation CARAIB pour simuler les rendements en Belgique : validation et projections à l'horizon 2035. Poster session presented at 6ème colloque de l'AFGP, Arlon, Belgique.
Peer reviewed
Le modèle CARAIB (CARbon Assimilation In the Biosphere) est un modèle dynamique de végétation initialement développé pour étudier le comportement de la végétation naturelle, tant son rôle dans le cycle global ...
Hambuckers, A., Paillet, M., Henrot, A.-J., Trolliet, F., Cheddadi, R., Fettweis, X., El Hasnaoui, Y., Dury, M., Porteman, K., & François, L. (2019, March 19). Refining the outputs of a dynamic vegetation model (CARAIB):Research at ULiège, Belgium. Paper presented at Séminaire à l'UNESP, Botucatu, Brazil.
Dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) are process-based models combining the inputs and the outputs of sub-models, possibly in feedback loops, to simulate the plant functions. The sub-models compute conditions ...
Hambuckers, A., Paillet, M., Henrot, A.-J., Trolliet, F., Cheddadi, R., Fettweis, X., El Hasnaoui, Y., Dury, M., Porteman, K., & François, L. (2019, March 11). Refining the outputs of a dynamic vegetation model (CARAIB): the importance of plant traits to improve prediction accuracy at tree species level. Paper presented at Past Plant Diversity, Climate Change and Mountain Conservation, Cuenca, Ecuador.
Dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) are process-based models combining the inputs and the outputs of sub-models, possibly in feedback loops, to simulate the plant functions. The sub-models compute conditions ...
Dury, M., Henrot, A.-J., Lézine, A.-M., Migliore, J., Hardy, O., Hambuckers, A., Fayolle, A., Singarayer, J., Trolliet, F., & François, L. (2018, August 16). Simulating last glacial and postglacial distributions of African tropical trees with a dynamic vegetation model. Paper presented at 10th European Palaeobotany and Palynology Conference, Dublin, Ireland.
Climate change and human pressure threaten species richness of African tropical forests. Understanding how the past climate changes have shaped the current distribution and composition of African rainforests ...
François, L., Henrot, A.-J., Dury, M., Raghunathan, P., Hambuckers, A., Utescher, T., & Bruch, A. (2018, August 16). Are the climatic ranges of plant species impacted by atmospheric CO2 ? An attempt of quantification with a dynamic vegetation model. Paper presented at European Palaeobotany and Palynology Conference 2018, Dublin, Ireland.
The observed present-day climatic ranges of plant species are frequently used by palaeobotanists and palynologists to reconstruct the climate evolution in the past. This is, for instance, the case of the ...
Gazagne, E., Hambuckers, A., Savini, T., & Huynen, M.-C. (2018, July 05). Surviving in a degraded forest environment: foraging strategies and space use of northern pigtailed macaques (Macaca leonina) in Sakaerat Biosphere reserve, Northeastern Thailand. Paper presented at 55th Annual meeting of the Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation, Pullman Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia.
Space-use patterns and foraging strategy in degraded habitat are crucial to understand the ecology, adaptation, and conservation of primates. However, detailed ranging and behavioral data are scarce for many ...
Dury, M., Hardy, O., Migliore, J., Henrot, A.-J., Trolliet, F., Hambuckers, A., Lézine, A.-M., Singarayer, J., & François, L. (2018, March 28). Simulating seed dispersal to reproduce past dynamics and distribution of African tropical trees. Poster session presented at European Conference of Tropical Ecology ”Challenges in tropical ecology and conservation - global perspectives”, Paris, France.
Climate change and human pressure threaten species richness of African tropical forests. Understanding how the past climate changes have shaped the current distribution and composition of African rainforests ...
Dury, M., Henrot, A.-J., Lézine, A.-M., Cheddadi, R., Migliore, J., Hardy, O., Hambuckers, A., Singareyer, J., Trolliet, F., & François, L. (2018, March 27). Distribution of Podocarpus latifolius/milanjianus from the Last Glacial Maximum to 2100 in Africa with the dynamic vegetation model CARAIB. Paper presented at European Conference of Tropical Ecology ”Challenges in tropical ecology and conservation - global perspectives”, Paris, France.
Podocarpus latifolius/milanjianus (same species according to genetics) is an endemic African species with populations in the western, eastern and southern parts of the continent. The current global warming ...
Jacquemin, I., Dury, M., Henrot, A.-J., Beckers, V., Berckmans, J., Dendoncker, N., Hamdi, R., Hambuckers, A., Tychon, B., & François, L. (2017, November 17). High-resolution simulations of natural and agricultural ecosystems over Belgium with the CARAIB Dynamic Vegetation Model. Paper presented at 7th Belgium geography day, Liège, Belgique.
CARAIB (for CARbon Assimilation In the Biosphere) is a state-of-the-art dynamic vegetation model (DVM), initially designed to study the role of the vegetation in the global carbon cycle and the vegetation ...
Dury, M., Doutreloup, S., Hardy, O., Fayolle, A., Fettweis, X., Hambuckers, A., Gallee, H., & François, L. (2017, February 08). Modelling past and present distributions of tropical African biomes and species using a dynamic vegetation model. Poster session presented at European Conference of Tropical Ecology "(re)connecting tropical biodiversity in space and time", Brussels, Belgium.
In the framework of the AFRIFORD project (Genetic and paleoecological signatures of African rainforest dynamics: pre-adapted to change?, http://www.ulb.ac.be/facs/sciences/afriford/), we used the CARAIB ...
Hambuckers, A., Zuniga, L., Dury, M., & François, L. (2017, February 05). Predicting the future of an endemic endangered Andean bird species with a niche-based-model nested into a dynamic vegetation model. Paper presented at (Re)Connecting biodiversity in space and time - European Conference of Tropical Ecology, Brussels, Belgium.
The slopes of the Andes are recognized as supporting the highest avian diversity in the world combined with high endemism rate but also more than 20 % of threatened species. Frugivores birds, even rare species ...
Henrot, A.-J., Hambuckers, A., François, L., Cheddadi, R., Trolliet, F., Fettweis, X., Dury, M., & Porteman, K. (2017). Refining plant traits in vegetation models using forest inventory and LAI measurements. An application to the modelling of Cedrus atlantica in the Rif Mountains with the CARAIB model. Paper presented at Climate Change in Africa: Evidence, mechanisms and Impacts Past and Present (CCA 2017), Marrakech, Maroc.
It appears today established that climate change will alter biodiversity, since the migration speed of many species, especially plants, are presumably too small to follow climate change. Mountain ecosystem ...
Jacquemin, I., Dury, M., Henrot, A.-J., Berckmans, J., Hamdi, R., Hambuckers, A., Tychon, B., & François, L. (2016, September 29). Using a dynamic vegetation model for future projections of crop yields: simulations from the plot scale to the Belgian and European scales. Paper presented at FACEing the future : food production and ecosystems, Giessen, Allemagne.
Peer reviewed
Dynamic vegetation models (DVM), such as CARAIB (“CARbon Assimilation In the Biosphere”) were initially designed to describe the dynamics of natural ecosystems as a function of climate and soil with the aim of ...
Dury, M., Hambuckers, A., Henrot, A.-J., Jacquemin, I., Munhoven, G., & François, L. (2016, September 26). Assessing the impact of climate change on terrestrial plants in Europe using a Dynamic Vegetation Model driven by EURO-CORDEX projections. Poster session presented at FACEing the future: food production and ecosystems, Giessen, Germany.
While the combination of warmer and drier mean climatic conditions can have severe impacts on ecosystems, extreme events like droughts or heat waves that break the gradual climate change can have more long ...
Trolliet, F., Forget, P.-M., Doucet, J.-L., Gillet, J.-F., & Hambuckers, A. (2016, June 20). Influence of frugivore taxa on the generation of plant recruitment foci and on the composition of plant recruits’ communities. Paper presented at Annual Meeting of the Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation, Montpellier, France.
Peer reviewed
Frugivores can disperse seeds in a spatially contagious pattern and generate recruitment foci (e.g. under fruiting trees). This process is increasingly explored to understand the influence of frugivores on the ...
Jacquemin, I., Henrot, A.-J., Fontaine, C. M., Dendoncker, N., Beckers, V., Debusscher, B., Tychon, B., Hambuckers, A., & François, L. (2016, April 22). Using a dynamic vegetation model for future projections of crop yields : application to Belgium in the framework of the VOTES and MASC projects. Poster session presented at EGU General Assembly 2016, Vienne, Autriche.
Dynamic vegetation models (DVM) were initially designed to describe the dynamics of natural ecosystems as a function of climate and soil, to study the role of the vegetation in the carbon cycle. These models ...
Jacquemin, I., Henrot, A.-J., Beckers, V., Berckmans, J., Debusscher, B., Dury, M., Minet, J., Hamdi, R., Dendoncker, N., Tychon, B., Hambuckers, A., & François, L. (2016, April 21). High-resolution climate and land surface interactions modeling over Belgium: current state and decennial scale projections. Poster session presented at EGU General Assembly 2016, Vienne, Autriche.
The interactions between land surface and climate are complex. Climate changes can affect ecosystem structure and functions, by altering photosynthesis and productivity or inducing thermal and hydric stresses ...
Dury, M., François, L., Hambuckers, A., Henrot, A.-J., Jacquemin, I., & Munhoven, G. (2016, April 18). Assessing the Risk of Ecosystem Disruption in Europe using a Dynamic Vegetation Model driven by CMIP5 Regional Climatic Projections from EURO-CORDEX. Paper presented at EGU General Assembly 2016, Vienne, Autriche.
While the combination of warmer and drier mean climatic conditions can have severe impacts on ecosystems, extreme events like droughts or heat waves that break the gradual climate change can have more long ...
Dury, M., François, L., Hambuckers, A., Henrot, A.-J., Jacquemin, I., & Munhoven, G. (2016, April). Assessing the Risk of Ecosystem Disruption in Europe using a Dynamic Vegetation Model driven by CMIP5 Regional Climatic Projections from EURO-CORDEX. Paper presented at EGU General Assembly 2016, Vienne, Autriche.
Dury, M., Hambuckers, A., Henrot, A.-J., Jacquemin, I., Munhoven, G., & François, L. (2015, December 18). Assessing the Risk of Ecosystem Disruption in Europe using a Dynamic Vegetation Model driven by CMIP5 Regional Climatic Projections from EURO-CORDEX. Paper presented at AGU Fall Meeting 2015, San Francisco, CA.
While the combination of warmer and drier mean climatic conditions can have severe impacts on ecosystems, extreme events like droughts or heat waves that break the gradual climate change can have more long ...
Henrot, A.-J., Dury, M., Hambuckers, A., Munhoven, G., Jacquemin, I., & François, L. (2015, July). Modelling ecosystem response to present and future drought events in Western Europe with the CARAIB dynamic vegetation model. Poster session presented at Our Common Future Under Climate Change, CFCC 2015, Paris, France.
Trolliet, F., Forget, P.-M., Huynen, M.-C., & Hambuckers, A. (2015, June 22). Effect of hunting pressure and forest fragmentation on seed dispersal of Staudtia kamerunensis (Myristicaceae) in the Western Congolian forest-savanna mosaic. Paper presented at 6th International Symposium- Workshop on Frugivores & Seed Dispersal, Drakensberg, South-Africa.
Peer reviewed
Numerous studies have investigated the impact of hunting and forest fragmentation on seed dispersal processes, but few of them in Africa. The African continent, however, holds the greatest abundance of large ...
Henrot, A.-J., François, L., Dury, M., Hambuckers, A., Jacquemin, I., Minet, J., Tychon, B., Heinesch, B., Horemans, J., & Deckmyn, G. (2015, April). Modelling carbon fluxes of forest and grassland ecosystems in Western Europe using the CARAIB dynamic vegetation model: evaluation against eddy covariance data. Poster session presented at EGU General Assembly 2015, Vienna, Austria.
Eddy covariance measurements are an essential resource to understand how ecosystem carbon fluxes react in response to climate change, and to help to evaluate and validate the performance of land surface and ...
Hambuckers, A. (2015). La menace climatique sur les plantes. Paper presented at Les mardis du développement durable, Marche-en-Famenne, Belgique.
L’exposé commence par un bref rappel du contexte climatique (évolution de la température globale au cours des 150 dernières années, grandes tendances des changements climatiques prévus par les modèles globaux ...
Hambuckers, A., Huynen, M.-C., Trolliet, F., Jamar-Beudels, R., Lafontaine, R.-M., Robert, H., Van Damme, P., Baert, A., Dendoncker, N., Fontaine, C., Halleux, C., François, L., Dury, M., & Henrot, A.-J. (2015). Sustainability of tropical forest biodiversity and services under climate and humane pressure - "BIOSERF". Final report (Neither the Belgian Science Policy nor any person acting on behalf of the Belgian Science Policy is responsible for the use which might be made of the following information. The authors are responsible for the content. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without indicating the reference: A. Hambuckers, M.-C. Huynen, F. Trolliet, R. Jamar-Beudels, R.-M. Lafontaine, H. Robert, P. Van Damme, A. Baert, N. Dendoncker, C. Fontaine, C. Halleux, L. François, M. Dury, A.-J. Henrot. Sustainability of tropical forest biodiversity and services under climate and human pressure - "BIOSERF". Final Report. Brussels: Belgian Science Policy 2015 – 125 p. (Research Programme Science for a Sustainable Development)). Brussels, Belgium: Belgian Science Policy.
Hambuckers, A. (2014, December 27). The seed dispersal of the afro- tropical tree species Staudtia kamerunensis (Myristicaceae). Paper presented at REDE SISBIOTA, Ilhéus, Brésil.
Tosso, D.-N. F., Daïnou, K., Hambuckers, A., François, L., Sinsin, B., Hardy, O., & Doucet, J.-L. (2014, September 24). Importance des modèles de distribution de niche potentielle dans la gestion des espèces tropicales exploitées: cas des taxons du genre Guibourtia Benn. Poster session presented at Quels botanistes pour le XXIe siècle ? Métiers, enjeux, opportunités, Paris, France.
De la famille des (Fabaceae / Caesalpinioideae) et composé de 13 espèces en Afrique, le genre Guibourtia comporte des taxons à forte valeur culturelle et à forte valeur commerciale. Aujourd'hui, la pression de ...
Coos, W., Dury, M., Trolliet, F., Hambuckers, A., Huynen, M.-C., & François, L. (2014, June). Modelling seed dispersal and tropical forest regeneration :application to Staudtia kamerunensis in the WWF Lake Tele-Tumba Landscape in DR Congo. Poster session presented at First International Conference on Biodiversity in the Congo Basin, Kisangani, Congo.
Unsustainable hunting and slash-and-burn farming in tropical forests can lead to the empty forest syndrome. It is characterized by the loss of key species essential in the maintenance and regeneration of the ...
Hambuckers, A., Dury, M., Tosso, D.-N. F., Trolliet, F., Huynen, M.-C., Haineaux, D., Fayolle, A., & François, L. (2014, June). Modelling the future range and productivity of African tree species. Perspectives and limits. Poster session presented at First International Conference on Biodiversity in the Congo Basin, Kisangani, Congo.
There remains a lack of information on the future of plant species in many parts of Africa under the threads of climate change with the exception of the mountainous areas. Models are valuables tools to examine ...
Dury, M., Hambuckers, A., Trolliet, F., Huynen, M.-C., Haineaux, D., Fontaine, C. M., Fayolle, A., & François, L. (2014, April). Modelling the Congo basin ecosystems with a dynamic vegetation model. Poster session presented at European Geophysical Union Assembly 2014, Vienne, Autriche.
The scarcity of field observations in some parts of the world makes difficult a deep understanding of some ecosystems such as humid tropical forests in Central Africa. Therefore, modelling tools are ...
Dury, M., Hambuckers, A., Trolliet, F., Huynen, M.-C., Haineaux, D., Fontaine, C. M., Fayolle, A., & François, L. (2014, April). Modelling the Congo basin ecosystems with a dynamic vegetation model. Paper presented at European Geophysical Union Assembly 2014, Vienne, Autriche.
The scarcity of field observations in some parts of the world makes difficult a deep understanding of some ecosystems such as humid tropical forests in Central Africa. Therefore, modelling tools are ...
Trolliet, F., Serckx, A., Huynen, M.-C., Beudels-Jamar, R., & Hambuckers, A. (2013, September 12). Could bonobos, Pan paniscus, influence forest re(colonization) in a forest-savana mosaic? Folia Primatologica: International Journal of Primatology.
Peer reviewed (verified by ORBi)
Trolliet, F., Serckx, A., Huynen, M.-C., & Hambuckers, A. (2013, April 05). Dynamic of seed dispersal by large frugivores in a forest-savanna mosaic subject to anthropic pressure in Western D.R. Congo. Poster session presented at Tropical organisms and ecosystems in a changing world, Vienna, Austria.
Peer reviewed
The Western Congolian forest-savanna mosaic is an ecotone subject to anthropogenic as well as natural fragmentation. Its forests have thus a considerable proportion of edges. This vegetation structure is ...
Léonard, L., Delcourt, J., Vilvens, C., Poulicek, M., & Hambuckers, A. (2013). Inventaire malacologique du domaine forestier universitaire du Sart Tilman (Liège, Belgique).
The Sart Tilman is a vast wooded area of 754 ha located on the south of the city of Liege that hosts the campus of the University of Liege. It is the only large remaining peri-urban forest of this city. The ...
Dury, M., Hambuckers, A., Warnant, P., Jacquemin, I., Thuiller, W., & François, L. (2012, April). Modelling the risk of ecosystem disruption in Europe with a dynamic vegetation model. Paper presented at European Geophysical Union Assembly 2012, Vienne, Autriche.
What will be the European ecosystem responses to future climate? With unprecedented speed and extent, the projected climate change might lead to a disruption of terrestrial plants functioning in many regions ...
Halleux, C., Dendoncker, N., Huynen, M.-C., Trolliet, F., Van Damme, P., Baert, A., Fontaine, C., François, L., Hambuckers, A., Lafontaine, R.-M., Beudels, R., Isumbisho Mwapu, P., Balagizi Karhagomba, I., & Bukobero, L. (2012). Une approche participative des interactions entre les hommes, femmes et la biodiversité de la forêt tropicale dans la région du lac Tumba, RDC. Paper presented at Gouvernance des Ressources naturelles collectives, Bukavu, Congo.
L'objectif du projet BIOSERF est d'évaluer la durabilité d'un écosystème de forêt tropicale humide dans l'Ouest de la République démocratique du Congo sous des pressions démographiques, sociétales et ...
Trolliet, F., Huynen, M.-C., & Hambuckers, A. (2012). Dispersal and regeneration capacity of large-seeded tree species in a forest-savanna mosaic in Western DR Congo. Poster session presented at Islands in land- and seascape: the challenges of fragmentation, Erlangen, Allemagne.
Peer reviewed
It is widely recognized that the Congo Basin is affected by numerous anthropogenic pressures. A number of studies proved that hunting and forest fragmentation diminish the diversity and abundance of large ...
Trolliet, F., Huynen, M.-C., & Hambuckers, A. (2011, December). Regeneration capacity of socio-economically important tree species in terra-firma forest in DR Congo: role of primates. Paper presented at Annual joint meeting of the Belgian Group for Primatology and the FNRS Contact Group "Primatologie", Bruxelles, Belgium.
Huynen, M.-C., Beudels, R., Baert, A., Culot, L., Dendoncker, N., Fontaine, C., François, L., Hambuckers, A., Lafontaine, R.-M., Trolliet, F., & Van Damme, P. (2011, June). Sustainability of tropical forest biodiversity and services under climate and human pressure (BIOSERF): tracking the regeneration of human-used plants through dispersal by the animal community. Paper presented at Adaptability to Climate Change and Attaining the Millennium Development Goals for Tropical Ecosystems, Arusha, Tanzanie.
The objective of the BIOSERF project is to assess the sustainability of a tropical humid forest ecosystem and the local human communities in southern Congo under future climate, demographic and societal ...
Dury, M., Hambuckers, A., Warnant, P., Henrot, A.-J., Favre, E., Ouberdous, M., & François, L. (2011, April). Assessing the impacts of present and future interannual climate variability on European ecosystems using a dynamic vegetation model. Poster session presented at European Geophysical Union Assembly 2011, Vienne, Autriche.
Climate projections indicate changes in mean climate as well as in climate variability and frequency of extreme events for the end of the 21st century compared to present. Since many biological processes ...
Dury, M., Hambuckers, A., Warnant, P., Henrot, A., Favre, E., Ouberdous, M., & François, L. (2010, October). Response of the European forests to extreme climatic events predicted for the 21st century: sensitivity to climate models and their variability. Paper presented at Research, monitoring and modelling in the study of climate change and air pollution impacts on forest ecosystems, Rome, Italie.
Significant climatic changes are currently observed and, according to projections, will be strengthened over the 21st century throughout the world with the enhanced greenhouse effect. Climate will be generally ...
Dury, M., Warnant, P., François, L., Henrot, A., Favre, E., & Hambuckers, A. (2010, May). Response of the European ecosystems to climate change: a modelling approach for the 21st century. Poster session presented at European Geophysical Union Assembly 2010, Vienne, Autriche.
According to projections, over the 21st century, significant climatic changes appear and will be strengthened all over the world with the continuing increase of the atmospheric CO2 level. Climate will be ...
Dury, M., Warnant, P., François, L., Henrot, A.-J., Favre, E., & Hambuckers, A. (2010, April). Response of the European ecosystems to climate change: a modeling approach for the 21st century. Poster session presented at EGU general Assembly 2010, Vienne, Autriche.
Hambuckers, A., Huynen, M.-C., & Savini, T. (2009). Measuring home-range quality in the frugivorous gibbon (Hylobates lar). Paper presented at Assessing and restoring biodiversity in a human dominated lanscape, Chiang-Mai, Thailand.
de Behr, V., Coenen, M., Hambuckers, A., Cabaraux, J.-F., Kamphues, J. L., Istasse, L., & Dufrasne, I. (2003). Production of selenium-enriched grass and haylage by mineral fertilisation in southern Belgium. Proceedings of 7th Conference of the European Society of Veterinary and Comparative Nutrition (pp. 88).
Peer reviewed
Carnol, M., Hambuckers, A., & Remacle, J. (1997, June). Watershed Liming in the Belgian Ardennes : Effects on soil solution and streamwater chemistry. Paper presented at BIOGEOMON, 3rd International Symposium on Ecosystem Behavior, Villanova, Etats-Unis.
Forest liming has received increased attention in the 1980s, when unusual needle yellowing and fall were observed in large parts of Europe and North America. This ‘new forest decline’ has been attributed to ...
Hambuckers, A., & Remacle, J. (1992). Time series analysis of the nutrient concentrations of the water flowing through a forested watershed: trend and causal link detection. In P., Vander Borght & B., Tychon (Eds.), Gestion de l'azote agricole et qualité des eaux. Acte du séminaire spécialisé. Cebedoc.