Publications of Dominique Cassart
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See detailIn vitro and in vivo assessment of phage therapy against Staphylococcus aureus causing bovine mastitis
Ngassam Tchamba, Cyrille ULiege; Duprez, Jean-Noël ULiege; Fergestad, M. et al

in Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance (2020)

Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of lytic bacteriophages onStaphylococcus aureus causing bovine mastitis, by in vitro and in vivo assays using Galleria mellonella and murine ... [more ▼]

Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of lytic bacteriophages onStaphylococcus aureus causing bovine mastitis, by in vitro and in vivo assays using Galleria mellonella and murine mastitis models. Methods Between May and December 2016, tenS. aureus (five methicillin-resistant and five methicillin-sensitive) isolates were isolated from milk samples of cattle with mastitis in Belgium and Norway. The isolates were assessed in vitro for their susceptibility to four lytic bacteriophages (Romulus, Remus, ISP and DSM105264) and subsequently in vivo in G. mellonella larvae and in murine mastitis model. Results Romulus, Remus and ISP showed a lytic activity against theS. aureus isolates in vitro. A larvae survival rate below 50% was observed at four days post inoculation in the groups infected with a methicillin-sensitive S. aureus isolate and treated with these three phages in vivo. An incomplete recovery of the mice mastitis was observed at 48 hours post inoculation in the groups infected and treated with the ISP phage in vivo. Conclusions The observations are much more pronounced statistically between the infected-PBS treated and infected-phage treated groups inG. mellonella and murine mastitis model demonstrating an effect of the phages against S. aureus associated with bovine mastitis. [less ▲]

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See detailPoint sur les outils diagnostiques et pronostiques de la myopathie atypique
Votion, Dominique ULiege; BOEMER, François ULiege; Marcillaud-Pitel, Christel et al

in Pratique Vétérinaire Équine (2019), 201

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See detailFirst Evidence of Fatal Usutu Virus Natural Infections in an Anatidae, the Common Scoter (Melanitta nigra).
Benzarti, Emna ULiege; Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULiege; Hauman, Dany et al

in Vector borne and zoonotic diseases (Larchmont, N.Y.) (2019)

While fatal infections caused by the Usutu virus appeared to concern only passerines (especially the blackbird) and Strigiformes (especially the great gray owl), we report herein that the virus also ... [more ▼]

While fatal infections caused by the Usutu virus appeared to concern only passerines (especially the blackbird) and Strigiformes (especially the great gray owl), we report herein that the virus also naturally causes a fatal disease in an anseriforme species, the common scoter (Melanitta nigra). [less ▲]

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See detailPhylogeographic Analysis of African Swine Fever Virus, Western Europe, 2018.
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULiege; Desmecht, Daniel ULiege; Tignon, Marylene et al

in Emerging Infectious Diseases (2019), 25(1),

In September 2018, African swine fever in wild boars was detected in Belgium. We used African swine fever-infected spleen samples to perform a phylogenetic analysis of the virus. The causative strain ... [more ▼]

In September 2018, African swine fever in wild boars was detected in Belgium. We used African swine fever-infected spleen samples to perform a phylogenetic analysis of the virus. The causative strain belongs to genotype II, and its closest relatives are viruses previously isolated in Ukraine, Belarus, Estonia, and European Russia. [less ▲]

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See detailAltered mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity in horses suffering from polysaccharide storage myopathy.
Tosi, Irène ULiege; Art, Tatiana ULiege; Cassart, Dominique ULiege et al

in Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes (2018)

Polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM) is a widely described cause of exertional rhabdomyolysis in horses. Mitochondria play a central role in cellular energetics and are involved in human glycogen ... [more ▼]

Polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM) is a widely described cause of exertional rhabdomyolysis in horses. Mitochondria play a central role in cellular energetics and are involved in human glycogen storage diseases but their role has been overlooked in equine PSSM. We hypothesized that the mitochondrial function is impaired in the myofibers of PSSM-affected horses. Nine horses with a history of recurrent exercise-associated rhabdomyolysis were tested for the glycogen synthase 1 gene (GYS1) mutation: 5 were tested positive (PSSM group) and 4 were tested negative (horses suffering from rhabdomyolysis of unknown origin, RUO group). Microbiopsies were collected from the gluteus medius (gm) and triceps brachii (tb) muscles of PSSM, RUO and healthy controls (HC) horses and used for histological analysis and for assessment of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) using high-resolution respirometry. The modification of mitochondrial respiration between HC, PSSM and RUO horses varied according to the muscle and to substrates feeding OXPHOS. In particular, compared to HC horses, the gm muscle of PSSM horses showed decreased OXPHOS- and electron transfer (ET)-capacities in presence of glutamate&malate&succinate. RUO horses showed a higher OXPHOS-capacity (with glutamate&malate) and ET-capacity (with glutamate&malate&succinate) in both muscles in comparison to the PSSM group. When expressed as ratios, our results highlighted a higher contribution of the NADH pathway (feeding electrons into Complex I) to maximal OXPHOS or ET-capacity in both rhabdomyolysis groups compared to the HC. Specific modifications in mitochondrial function might contribute to the pathogenesis of PSSM and of other types of exertional rhabdomyolyses. [less ▲]

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See detailSummer 2018: African swine fever virus hits north-western Europe.
Linden, Annick ULiege; Licoppe, Alain ULiege; Volpe, Rosario ULiege et al

in Transboundary and Emerging Diseases (2018)

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See detailClassification of adult cattle infectious diseases: A first step towards prioritization of biosecurity measures
Renault, Véronique ULiege; Damiaans, B.; Sarrazin, S. et al

in Transboundary and Emerging Diseases (2018), 65(6), 1991-2005

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See detailAtypical polypoid leiomyosarcoma in an ouessant ewe.
Bayrou, Calixte ULiege; Casalta, Hélène ULiege; Cassart, Dominique ULiege et al

Poster (2017, October 05)

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See detailATYPICAL DICTYOCAULUS VIVIPAROUS-ASSOCIATED BOVINE ACUTE PNEUMONITIS: REMINISCENT OF LARVAL HYPOBIOSIS DURING THE WINTER?
Bayrou, Calixte ULiege; Dernier, Adrienne ULiege; Cassart, Dominique ULiege et al

Conference (2017, October)

Dictyocaulus viviparus is the aetiological agent of verminous bronchitis in cattle. Herein we describe an atypical case of parasitic pneumonitis in an adult cow. Methods At the end of March 2017, a 3-yr ... [more ▼]

Dictyocaulus viviparus is the aetiological agent of verminous bronchitis in cattle. Herein we describe an atypical case of parasitic pneumonitis in an adult cow. Methods At the end of March 2017, a 3-yr old Belgian Blue cow suddenly displayed a marked respiratory distress syndrome a few hours after C-section calving. In spite of the treatment set up by the local veterinarian, the cow died 48 hours later. The body was referred to the Veterinary Faculty of Liège (Belgium) for necropsy. Post- mortem gross examination revealed a severe, acute interstitial pneumonitis with concurrent emphysema and a significant amount of parasites (Dictyocaulus viviparus) in the bronchi. The microscopic examination confirmed the severe acute interstitial pneumonitis with foci of hemorrhages, necrosis, hyaline membranes and hyperplasia of type II pneumocytes. Larvae were also present in the alveoli and bronchioles. Results Altogether, theses clinical observations and lesions were compatible with a hypersensitivity reaction against worm antigens. Additionally, Baermann’s test was performed on feces collected from the cadaver and from 5 others cows kept under the same conditions. Four out of 6 cows were excreting small amounts of Dictyocaulus stage-1 larvae. Conclusions Parasitic pneumonia is a very common disease in first year grazing young cattle. In this case, cow’s age and disease manifestation time were very uncommon. Three-year-old cows are supposed to be fully protected against this nematode species. Moreover, in Belgium, at the end of March, livestock is still kept indoors (zero grazing winter period). Therefore, this case could highlight the hypobiotic capacity of Dictyocaulus viviparus larvae and associated « periparturient rise » phenomenon, both well known in sheep, but not described in cattle so far. We herein discuss the farming conditions that promoted such a severe parasitic respiratory disease. [less ▲]

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See detailObservations as a way to assess the compliance of veterinary students with biosecurity procedures
Humblet, Marie-France ULiege; Vanderschueren, P; Grignet, Christine ULiege et al

in Revue Scientifique et Technique. Office International des Epizooties (2017), 36(3),

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See detailOccurence of the new variant of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV2) in wild populations of rabbits in Southern Belgium
Volpe, Rosario ULiege; Lesenfants, Christophe ULiege; Paternostre, Julien ULiege et al

Poster (2016, October 07)

Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is a highly infectious and fatal disease of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), responsible for important economic losses in the rabbit industry. The ... [more ▼]

Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is a highly infectious and fatal disease of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), responsible for important economic losses in the rabbit industry. The aetiological agent of the disease is a RNA virus (RHDV, Lagovirus, Caliciviridae) first detected in China in 1984. Currently RHDV is endemic in most parts of Europe, Asia and North Africa. Phylogenetic analyses of RHDV strains have identified 3 distinct groups : the classic RHDV, the variant RHDVa and RHDV2. This latter has been detected in France for the first time in 2010 in domestic and wild rabbits (Le Gall-Reculé G et al., 2013) and since then has spread throughout Europe, replacing the circulating RHDV/RHDVa strains in most european countries. RHDV2 has already been detected in Belgium in rabbitries (Marlier D et al., 2014). Here, we report for the first time the presence of RHDV2 in wild rabbits in Southern Belgium. In november 2015, the Surveillance Network of Wildlife Diseases received seven dead wild rabbits for necropsy. The discovery of 7 fresh carcasses found at the same time in a same area (Hainaut province) emphasised the infectious or intoxication hypothesis as cause of death. Postmortem examinations were performed at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (FVM) of the University of Liege according to a systematic protocol based on gross lesions, histopathological and targeted microbiological analysis. For necropsy, each rabbit (1) was weighted and age was determined by the presence/absence of the distal ulna protuberance, (2) stomach was investigated to exclude poison, (3) spleen was systematically driven into Yersinia CIN culture media for detection of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, (4) lungs and livers were systematically (a) packaged into 10% formaldehyde solution for histopathology analysis (Service of Pathology, FVM) and (b) frozen at -20°C for RHDV analysis (Scanelis Laboratory,Toulouse, France) and finally (6) feces were gathered for parasitology (Service of Parasitology, FVM). At necropsy, animals (5 adults: 3 males/2 females and 2 juveniles: 1 male/1 female) were in good condition. No hematomas or broken bones were detected, only one displayed clues of diarrhoea. Examinations of the carcasses showed congestion of lungs/kidneys and livers were macroscopically normal. No foreign body or suspicious particles was seen in the stomachs, only one rabbit was hardly infested by tapeworms in the gut. Histopathological examination revealed haemorragic lung lesions in one animal while 5 of them presented severe necrotic hepatitis, sometimes associated with peri-angiocholitis. Only one animal presented an abnormal high rate of coccidia in feces. Samples of livers were sent to Scanelis Laboratory for RHDV RT-qPCR diagnostic. The results were positive for the new variant RHDV2 in 5 out of the 7 rabbit livers. All the samples were negative for the classic RHDV. To determine if RHDV2 was already present before 2015 in wild rabbits in the region, we tested a series of livers that had been collected in 2013 and 2014 for a retrospective study. Among the 25 rabbit livers checked, 12 presented necrotic hepatitis and were sent for analysis. Ten were confirmed positive by RT-qPCR for RHDV2. [less ▲]

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See detailOccurence of the new variant of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV2) in wild populations of rabbits in Southern Belgium
Volpe, Rosario ULiege; Lesenfants, Christophe ULiege; Paternostre, Julien ULiege et al

Conference (2016, September 09)

Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is a highly infectious and fatal disease of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), responsible for important economic losses in the rabbit industry. The ... [more ▼]

Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is a highly infectious and fatal disease of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), responsible for important economic losses in the rabbit industry. The aetiological agent of the disease is a RNA virus (RHDV, Lagovirus, Caliciviridae) first detected in China in 1984. Currently RHDV is endemic in most parts of Europe, Asia and North Africa. Phylogenetic analyses of RHDV strains have identified 3 distinct groups : the classic RHDV, the variant RHDVa and RHDV2. This latter has been detected in France for the first time in 2010 in domestic and wild rabbits (Le Gall-Reculé G et al., 2013) and since then has spread throughout Europe, replacing the circulating RHDV/RHDVa strains in most european countries. RHDV2 has already been detected in Belgium in rabbitries (Marlier D et al., 2014). Here, we report for the first time the presence of RHDV2 in wild rabbits in Southern Belgium. In november 2015, the Surveillance Network of Wildlife Diseases received seven dead wild rabbits for necropsy. The discovery of 7 fresh carcasses found at the same time in a same area (Hainaut province) emphasised the infectious or intoxication hypothesis as cause of death. Postmortem examinations were performed at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (FVM) of the University of Liege according to a systematic protocol based on gross lesions, histopathological and targeted microbiological analysis. For necropsy, each rabbit (1) was weighted and age was determined by the presence/absence of the distal ulna protuberance, (2) stomach was investigated to exclude poison, (3) spleen was systematically driven into Yersinia CIN culture media for detection of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, (4) lungs and livers were systematically (a) packaged into 10% formaldehyde solution for histopathology analysis (Service of Pathology, FVM) and (b) frozen at -20°C for RHDV analysis (Scanelis Laboratory,Toulouse, France) and finally (6) feces were gathered for parasitology (Service of Parasitology, FVM). At necropsy, animals (5 adults: 3 males/2 females and 2 juveniles: 1 male/1 female) were in good condition. No hematomas or broken bones were detected, only one displayed clues of diarrhoea. Examinations of the carcasses showed congestion of lungs/kidneys and livers were macroscopically normal. No foreign body or suspicious particles was seen in the stomachs, only one rabbit was hardly infested by tapeworms in the gut. Histopathological examination revealed haemorragic lung lesions in one animal while 5 of them presented severe necrotic hepatitis, sometimes associated with peri-angiocholitis. Only one animal presented an abnormal high rate of coccidia in feces. Samples of livers were sent to Scanelis Laboratory for RHDV RT-qPCR diagnostic. The results were positive for the new variant RHDV2 in 5 out of the 7 rabbit livers. All the samples were negative for the classic RHDV. To determine if RHDV2 was already present before 2015 in wild rabbits in the region, we tested a series of livers that had been collected in 2013 and 2014 for a retrospective study. Among the 25 rabbit livers checked, 12 presented necrotic hepatitis and were sent for analysis. Ten were confirmed positive by RT-qPCR for RHDV2. [less ▲]

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See detailSarcoptic mange infection in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Belgium
Volpe, Rosario ULiege; Caron, Yannick ULiege; Lesenfants, Christophe ULiege et al

Poster (2016, August)

Eight cases of sarcoptic mange in foxes were reported during summer 2014 (n=3) and winter 2015 (n= 5) in Belgium. All animals came from the same restricted forest zones near urbanized areas and some of ... [more ▼]

Eight cases of sarcoptic mange in foxes were reported during summer 2014 (n=3) and winter 2015 (n= 5) in Belgium. All animals came from the same restricted forest zones near urbanized areas and some of them were discovered in private gardens (Forest District of Thuin, Hainaut, Belgium). Three of them were found dead, the others were shot for sanitary reasons. At necropsy, all of them presented large areas of alopecia and extensive skin lesions such as hyperkeratosis and suppurative lacerations. Animals presented poor body condition and some of them were severely emaciated (absence of visceral fat). Mange has profound influences on population since, if untreated, death follows in four to six months. In the present cases, cutaneous scrapings and histopathological examinations were systematically performed. Numerous parasites were observed in skin scrapings and marked dermo-epidermatitis with several parasites was observed in histopathological sections. These results suggest an outbreak of sarcoptic mange in red foxes in a limited area of the country. This is a first record for the country. Furthermore, investigations on lungs and digestive tracts performed on 3 of these foxes revealed they were also infected by parasites transmissible to pets and/or humans: Angiostrongylus vasorum was observed in the respiratory tract of one fox whereas Toxocara canis, Uncinaria stenocephala, Taenia spp. and Echinococcus multilocularis worms were detected in the digestive tract. In conclusion, urban foxes represent a source of parasites of public health and veterinary importance and foxes surveillance should be strengthened in these areas. [less ▲]

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See detailBilateral scrotal swelling in a boar
Thilmant, Pierre; Cassart, Dominique ULiege; Laitat, Martine ULiege

Poster (2016, June)

Introduction: A 3-year-old Landrace boar with a bilateral swelling of the scrotum was submitted to the Swine clinic in August. History reported a period of hyperthermia, anorexia, depression and weight ... [more ▼]

Introduction: A 3-year-old Landrace boar with a bilateral swelling of the scrotum was submitted to the Swine clinic in August. History reported a period of hyperthermia, anorexia, depression and weight loss in May. Recovery was obtained after a treatment based on antibiotic (lincomycin and ceftiofur) and anti-inflammatory (steroid) medication injections. On July, the boar fell down after a supervised natural mating. Materials and Methods: The present poster describes our clinical approach and conclusions. Results: The boar had a good general condition and a normal appetite. Scrotal palpation was painless. The left hemiscrotum was more enlarged than the right one. Serological analysis allowed to exclude Aujeszky disease virus, Brucella suis and Chlamydia spp., the main agents responsible for orchitis in pigs. Ultrasonography revealed multiple hypoechogenic cavities around both testicles. Semen analysis performed using microscope showed azoospermia. Dissection of the scrotal tissues - performed in October - revealed the presence of kystic structures filled with serous fluid; the largest one had a diameter of approximately 15 cm. These kystic structures were surrounded by an abondant fibrous connective tissue. Histological examination showed the presence of large amount of lymphocytes and hemosiderophages around the kysts. No sign of spermatogenesis was detected in testis. An hyperplasia of the interstitial tissue in detriment to seminiferous tubules was also observed. Conclusion: These results led us to confirm the traumatic origin of the bilateral scrotal swelling observed in this boar. The lesions were the result of a partial resorption of a complex extratesticular hematoma. [less ▲]

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See detailRe-emergence of the Schmallenberg virus associated triad hydranencephaly-micromyelia-arthrogryposis in a newborn calf in Belgium, 2016
Bayrou, Calixte ULiege; Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULiege; Cassart, Dominique ULiege et al

in Veterinary Record Case Reports (2016), 4(1), 000342

Schmallenberg virus (SBV) emerged in Germany in 2011, then spread rapidly across Europe, causing an epizootic outbreak of abortion, stillbirth and birth at term of lambs, kids and calves with neurological ... [more ▼]

Schmallenberg virus (SBV) emerged in Germany in 2011, then spread rapidly across Europe, causing an epizootic outbreak of abortion, stillbirth and birth at term of lambs, kids and calves with neurological signs and/or musculo-skeletal malformations. SBV-associated disease in newborns disappeared in Belgium in 2013. Here, we describe a SBV genomic RNA-positive malformed calf born in May 2016. It reveals the return of SBV circulation during the fall 2015 in the said area. [less ▲]

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See detailMeningitis and orchitis in a hare (Lepus Europaeus) infected with Francisella tularensis
Grégoire, Fabien; Cassart, Dominique ULiege; Desmecht, Daniel ULiege et al

in Veterinary Record Case Reports (2016), 4(e000306),

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See detailFeline panleukopenia virus in cerebral neurons of young and adult cats.
Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULiege; Gilliaux, Gautier ULiege; Jolly, Sandra et al

in BMC Veterinary Research (2016), 12(1), 28

BACKGROUND: Perinatal infections with feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) have long been known to be associated with cerebellar hypoplasia in kittens due to productive infection of dividing neuroblasts. FPV ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Perinatal infections with feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) have long been known to be associated with cerebellar hypoplasia in kittens due to productive infection of dividing neuroblasts. FPV, like other parvoviruses, requires dividing cells to replicate which explains the usual tropism of the virus for the digestive tract, lymphoid tissues and bone marrow in older animals. RESULTS: In this study, the necropsy and histopathological analyses of a series of 28 cats which died from parvovirus infection in 2013 were performed. Infections were confirmed by real time PCR and immunohistochemistry in several organs. Strikingly, while none of these cats showed cerebellar atrophy or cerebellar positive immunostaining, some of them, including one adult, showed a bright positive immunostaining for viral antigens in cerebral neurons (diencephalon). Furthermore, infected neurons were negative by immunostaining for p27(Kip1), a cell cycle regulatory protein, while neighboring, uninfected, neurons were positive, suggesting a possible re-entry of infected neurons into the mitotic cycle. Next-Generation Sequencing and PCR analyses showed that the virus infecting cat brains was FPV and presented a unique substitution in NS1 protein sequence. Given the role played by this protein in the control of cell cycle and apoptosis in other parvoviral species, it is tempting to hypothesize that a cause-to-effect between this NS1 mutation and the capacity of this FPV strain to infect neurons in adult cats might exist. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first evidence of infection of cerebral neurons by feline panleukopenia virus in cats, including an adult. A possible re-entry into the cell cycle by infected neurons has been observed. A mutation in the NS1 protein sequence of the FPV strain involved could be related to its unusual cellular tropism. Further research is needed to clarify this point. [less ▲]

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See detailMitochondrial function is altered in horse atypical myopathy
Lemieux, Hélène; BOEMER, François ULiege; Van Galen, Gaby ULiege et al

in Mitochondrion (2016), 30

Equine atypical myopathy in Europe is a fatal rhabdomyolysis syndrome that results from the ingestion of hypoglycin A contained in seeds and seedlings of Acer pseudoplatanus. The hallmark of atypical ... [more ▼]

Equine atypical myopathy in Europe is a fatal rhabdomyolysis syndrome that results from the ingestion of hypoglycin A contained in seeds and seedlings of Acer pseudoplatanus. The hallmark of atypical myopathy consists of a severe alteration in the energy metabolism including a severe impairment in muscle mitochondrial respiration that could contribute to its high death rate [less ▲]

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