Publications of Nadia Everaert
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See detailLe marc de pomme en post-sevrage améliore-t-il les performances et la santé digestive du porcelet ?
Dufourny, Sandrine ULiege; Antoine, Nadine; Pitchugina, Elena et al

Poster (2020, February)

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See detailDifferential effects of inulin or its fermentation metabolites on gut barrier and immune function of porcine intestinal epithelial cells
Uerlings, Julie ULiege; Schroyen, Martine ULiege; Willems, Els et al

in Journal of Functional Foods (2020)

Prebiotics can modulate gut fermentation and improve intestinal barrier function in mammals. First, inulin fermentation profile was tested in a three-step in vitro model of the piglet’s gastro-intestinal ... [more ▼]

Prebiotics can modulate gut fermentation and improve intestinal barrier function in mammals. First, inulin fermentation profile was tested in a three-step in vitro model of the piglet’s gastro-intestinal tract combining a hydrolysis – dialysis step to a batch fermentation. Then, the differential effects of digested inulin (after the hydrolysis – dialysis steps) or fermented inulin (after the fermentation step) on the expression of gut barrier and immune-related genes of IPEC-J2 cells were investigated by high-throughput qPCR. Inulin was associated with elevated short-chain fatty acids and butyrate levels. Upregulated expressions of tight and adherens junction genes were observed in IPEC-J2 cells supplemented with inulin fermentation supernatant compared to control IPEC-J2 cells and digested inulin. Therefore, metabolites arising from the fermentation process, including butyrate, could be responsible for the reinforcement of the barrier function. [less ▲]

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See detailA toddler SHIME® model to study microbiota of young children.
Bondue, Pauline ULiege; Lebrun, Sarah ULiege; Taminiau, Bernard ULiege et al

in FEMS Microbiology Letters (2020), 367(16),

The 'first 1000 days of life' determine the gut microbiota composition and can have long-term health consequences. In this study, the simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem (SHIME®) model ... [more ▼]

The 'first 1000 days of life' determine the gut microbiota composition and can have long-term health consequences. In this study, the simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem (SHIME®) model, which represents the main functional sections of the digestive tract, was chosen to study the microbiota of young children. The aim of this study was to reproduce the digestive process of toddlers and their specific colonic environment. The ascending, transverse and descending colons of SHIME® model were inoculated with feces from three donors aged between 1 and 2 years-old, in three separate runs. For each run, samples from colon vessels were collected at days 14, 21 and 28 after microbiota stabilization period. Short chain fatty acid concentrations determined by HPLC showed that microbiota obtained in SHIME® model shared characteristics between adults and infants. In addition, microbial diversity and bacterial populations determined by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing were specific to each colon vessel. In conclusion, the SHIME® model developed in this study seemed well adapted to evaluate prebiotic and probiotic impact on the specific microbiota of toddlers, or medicine and endocrine disruptor metabolism. Moreover, this study is the first to highlight some biofilm development in in vitro gastrointestinal modelling systems. [less ▲]

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See detailNovel dipeptidyl peptidase-IV and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides released from quinoa protein by in silico proteolysis
Guo, Huimin ULiege; Richel, Aurore ULiege; Hao, Y. et al

in Food Science and Nutrition (2020), 8(3), 1415-1422

Quinoa protein has been paid more and more attention because of its nutritional properties and beneficial effects. With the development of bioinformatics, bioactive peptide database and computer-assisted ... [more ▼]

Quinoa protein has been paid more and more attention because of its nutritional properties and beneficial effects. With the development of bioinformatics, bioactive peptide database and computer-assisted simulation provide an efficient and time-saving method for the theoretical estimation of potential bioactivities of protein. Therefore, the potential of quinoa protein sequences for releasing bioactive peptides was evaluated using the BIOPEP database, which revealed that quinoa protein, especially globulin, is a potential source of peptides with dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities. Three plant proteases, namely papain, ficin, and stem bromelain, were employed for the in silico proteolysis of quinoa protein. Furthermore, four tripeptides (MAF, NMF, HPF, and MCG) were screened as novel promising bioactive peptides by PeptideRanker. The bioactivities of selected peptides were confirmed using chemical synthesis and in vitro assay. The present work suggests that quinoa protein can serve as a good source of bioactive peptides, and in silico approach can provide theoretical assistance for investigation and production of functional peptides. © 2020 The Authors. Food Science & Nutrition published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailRunning head: Heat affects cholesterol and bile acid alterations in cholesterol and bile acids metabolism in large white pigs during short-term heat exposure
Fang, Wei ULiege; Wen, X.; Meng, Q. et al

in Animals (2020), 10(2),

Heat stress influences lipid metabolism independently of nutrient intake. It is not well understood how cholesterol and bile acid (BA) metabolism are affected by heat stress. To investigate the ... [more ▼]

Heat stress influences lipid metabolism independently of nutrient intake. It is not well understood how cholesterol and bile acid (BA) metabolism are affected by heat stress. To investigate the alterations of cholesterol and bile acids when pigs are exposed to short term heat stress, 24 Large White pigs (63.2 ± 9.5 kg body weight, BW) were distributed into one of three environmental treatments: control conditions (CON, 23◦C with ad libitum intake; n = 8), heat stress conditions (HS, 33◦C with ad libitum intake; n = 8), or pair-fed conditions (PF, 23◦C with the same amount to the feed consumed by the HS; n = 8) for three days. Compared with CON pigs, HS pigs reduced the average daily feed intake and average daily gain by 55% and 124%, respectively, and significantly increased rectal temperatures by 0.9◦C and respiration rates more than three-fold. The serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG) increased (p < 0.05), while hepatic TC, TG, and mRNA of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase were reduced on day 3. Furthermore, liver taurine-conjugated BAs (TCBAs), including taurolithocholic acid, taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA), tauroursodeoxycholic acid, taurohyodeoxycholic acid, and taurocholic acid were elevated in HS pigs compared to CON and PF pigs (p < 0.05), and the level of chenodeoxycholic acid was more significant in the PF group than in the CON and HS groups. The concentration of ursodeoxycholic acid in the serum was higher in HS pigs than CON and PF pigs (p < 0.05), and TCDCA was increased in HS pigs compared with PF pigs (p < 0.05). Altogether, short-term HS reduced hepatic cholesterol levels by decreasing cholesterol synthesis, promoting cholesterol to TCBAs conversion, and cholesterol release to serum in growing pigs. This independently reduced feed intake might serve as a mechanism to protect cells from damage during the early period. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. [less ▲]

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See detailAntihypertensive effect of quinoa protein under simulated gastrointestinal digestion and peptide characterization.
Guo, Huimin ULiege; Hao, Yuqiong; Richel, Aurore ULiege et al

in Journal of the science of food and agriculture (2020)

BACKGROUND: Quinoa protein is a potential source of bioactive peptides. Although some studies have demonstrated its angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory properties, research into its in vivo ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Quinoa protein is a potential source of bioactive peptides. Although some studies have demonstrated its angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory properties, research into its in vivo effect on blood-pressure regulation and peptide characterization remains limited. RESULTS: Quinoa protein hydrolyzate (QPH) was prepared by simulated gastrointestinal digestion. QPH lowered the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in spontaneously hypertensive model rats (SHRs) from 2 h to10 h after oral administration, effectively controlling blood pressure in these SHRs. An in vitro study showed that QPH is capable of inhibiting ACE activity. This was attributed to the activity of a number of low-molecular-weight peptides. With relatively high scores predicted by PeptideRanker, three promising bioactive peptides, FHPFPR, NWFPLPR, and NIFRPF, were further studied and their ACE-inhibition effects were confirmed with IC(50) values of 34.92, 16.77, and 32.40 μM, respectively. A molecular docking study provided insights into the binding of ACE with peptides, and revealed that the presence of specific amino acids in the peptide sequence (Pro, Phe, and Arg at the C-terminal, and Asn at the N-terminal) could contribute to the interaction between ACE and peptides. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrated the potential of QPH for the management of hypertension, which indicates that it could be a good candidate for inclusion in functional foods to control high blood pressure. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Inulin Supplementation on Intestinal Barrier Function and Immunity in Specific Pathogen-free Chickens with Salmonella Infection.
Song, Jiao; Li, Qinghe; Everaert, Nadia ULiege et al

in Journal of animal science (2020)

We investigated the effects of inulin on intestinal barrier function and mucosal immunity in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE)-infected specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. SPF chickens (n ... [more ▼]

We investigated the effects of inulin on intestinal barrier function and mucosal immunity in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE)-infected specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. SPF chickens (n=240, 1-day-old) were divided into four groups (6 replicates per group, 10 chickens per replicate): a control group (CON) fed a basal diet without inulin supplementation and three SE-infected groups fed a basal diet supplemented with inulin 0% (SE group), 0.5% (0.5% InSE group), and 1% (1% InSE group), respectively. At 28 days of age, the chickens in SE-infected groups were orally infected with SE and in CON group were administrated with phosphated-buffered saline (PBS). Intestinal morphology, mucosal immunity, and intestinal barrier function-related gene expression were analysed at 1- and 3-days post-infection (dpi). SE challenge significantly increased the mucosal gene expression, such as interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), lipopolysaccharide-induced tumour necrosis factor factor (LITAF), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and increased serum IFN-gamma, secretory IgA (sIgA), and IgG concentration, and significantly decreased the gene expression levels of mucin 2 (MUC2) and claudin-1 at 3 dpi compared with the CON group (p < 0.05). Inulin supplementation improved the expression levels of these immunity- and intestinal barrier function-related genes, increased villus height (VH), and decreased crypt depth (CD) in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum at 1 and 3 dpi within the SE-challenged groups (p < 0.05). SE challenge significantly increased ileal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA at 1 and 3 dpi, suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS3) mRNA at 1 dpi, and phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3) and Janus kinase1 (JAK1) protein expression at 3 dpi compared with the CON group (p < 0.05). Inulin supplementation suppressed p-STAT3 and JAK1 protein expression and promoted ileal TLR4 and SOCS3 mRNA expression at 3 dpi compared with SE group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, inulin alleviated SE-induced gut injury by decreasing the proinflammatory response and enhancing mucosal immunity in chickens. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vitro prebiotic potential of agricultural by-products on intestinal fermentation, gut barrier and inflammatory status of piglets
Uerlings, Julie ULiege; Schroyen, Martine ULiege; Bautil, An et al

in British Journal of Nutrition (2020), 123(3), 293-307

The inclusion of fibre-rich ingredients in diets is one possible strategy to enhance intestinal fermentation and positively impact gut ecology, barrier and immunity. Nowadays, inulin-type fructans are ... [more ▼]

The inclusion of fibre-rich ingredients in diets is one possible strategy to enhance intestinal fermentation and positively impact gut ecology, barrier and immunity. Nowadays, inulin-type fructans are used as prebiotics in the feed of piglets to manipulate gut ecology for health purposes. Likewise, some by-products could be considered as sustainable and inexpensive ingredients to reduce gut disorders at weaning. In the present study, chicory root and pulp, citrus pulp, rye bran and soya hulls were tested in a three-step in vitro model of the piglet's gastro-intestinal tract combining a pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysis (digestion), a dialysis step using cellulose membranes (absorption) and a colonic batch fermentation (fermentation). The fermentation kinetics, SCFA and microbiota profiles in the fermentation broth were assessed as indicators of prebiotic activity and compared with the ones of inulin. The immunomodulatory effects of fermentation supernatant (FS) were investigated in cultured intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) by high-throughput quantitative PCR. Chicory root displayed a rapid and extensive fermentation and induced the second highest butyrate ratio after inulin. Citrus pulp demonstrated high acetate ratios and induced elevated Clostridium clusters IV and XIVa levels. Chicory root and pulp FS promoted the intestinal barrier integrity with up-regulated tight and adherens junction gene expressions in comparison with inulin FS. Chicory pulp FS exerted anti-inflammatory effects in cultured IPEC-J2. The novel approach combining an in vitro fermentation model with IPEC-J2 cells highlighted that both chicory root and pulp appear to be promising ingredients and should be considered to promote intestinal health at weaning. © The Authors 2019. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of sex and fasting/refeeding on hepatic AMPK signaling in chickens (Gallus gallus).
Wang, Yufeng; Buyse, Johan; Courousse, Nathalie et al

in Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology (2020), 240

The alpha-1 isoform of chicken AMPK situates on the Z-chromosome, in contrast, the other isoforms in birds and the mammalian AMPKalpha1 are located on the autosomes. The present study aimed to investigate ... [more ▼]

The alpha-1 isoform of chicken AMPK situates on the Z-chromosome, in contrast, the other isoforms in birds and the mammalian AMPKalpha1 are located on the autosomes. The present study aimed to investigate the role of hepatic AMPK signaling in adaptation to nutritional status and the potential sex-specific response in chickens. Hepatic genes and proteins were compared between the two sexes immediately after hatching. From 20d of age, chicks from each sex received feed treatments: Control was fed ad libitum; Fasted was starved for 24h; Refed was fed for 4h after a 24h fasting. As a result, hepatic AMPKalpha1 mRNA level in males was significantly higher at both ages compared to females, due to the presence of Z-chromosomes. However, this did not make this kinase "male-bias" as it was eventually compensated at a translational level, which was not reported in previous studies. The protein levels and activation of AMPKalpha were even lower in newly-hatched male compared to female chicks, accompanied with a higher FAS and SREBP-1 gene expressions. Accordingly, hepatic G6PC2 mRNA levels in males were significantly lower associated with lower plasma glucose levels after hatching. Fasting activated hepatic AMPK, which in turn inhibited gene expression of GS, FAS and SREBP-1, and stimulated the downstream G6PC2 in both sexes. These changes recovered after refeeding. In conclusion, AMPK plays a role in adaptation to nutritional environment for both sexes. The Z-linked AMPK did not exert a sex-specific signaling, due to a "translational compensation" of AMPKalpha1. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effect of dietary protein levels on reproduction performance and E. coli shedding in sows
Kroeske, Kikianne ULiege; Everaert, Nadia ULiege; Schroyen, Martine ULiege et al

Conference (2019, August 29)

Low protein levels in sows’ gestation diets have been associated with fetal development. Low dietary protein levels have also demonstrated to increase protein absorption efficiency when maintaining the ... [more ▼]

Low protein levels in sows’ gestation diets have been associated with fetal development. Low dietary protein levels have also demonstrated to increase protein absorption efficiency when maintaining the levels of digestible essential amino acids and to decrease the available amino acids for microbial fermentation in the large intestine. The microbiota of the sow affects the intestinal colonization of the piglets. Moreover, an important production disease for piglets is weaning diarrhea, caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (E. coli). Therefore, we investigated the effect of two levels of crude protein in gestation diet and the effects on reproduction parameters, the abundance of E. coli in feces of the sow and piglets performance until weaning. The hypothesis was tested with high and low protein levels in sow diets (12 (LP)vs 17% (HP) crude protein (CP)) during the last five weeks of gestation until farrowing. After farrowing, all sows received the same lactation diet (16% CP). From each sow, four faecal samples were taken over time: at 5 weeks before (before treatment), 1 week before (gestation stable), 4 days before (farrowing stable) and 2 weeks after farrowing. Fecal samples were diluted and cultivated on BIO-RAD RAPID'E.coli 2 Medium. Microbial colony-forming units (CFUs) were calculated and transformed with LOG. Statistical analysis was performed using RStudio with linear mixed-effect models (lme4 package) and pairwise comparison (emmeans package). No treatment effect was found in weight gain/-loss before farrowing (LP 260.76kg±13.04, HP 249.86kg±10.96), back fat thickness (LP 16.76mm±1.09, HP 15.36mm±1.13) or litter size (17±0.8, HP 16.28±1.1). No difference was found for piglet weight at farrowing (LP 1.42kg±0.06, HP 1.35kg±0.42) or weaning (LP 7.2kg±0.26, HP 7.45kg±0.23). For E. coli counts (log), an average was found for LP 6.99±0.14 (se) and HP 7.08±0.14 (se), but no treatment differences were found. In conclusion, no effect on sow performance, or E. coli shedding were found. Future research will focus on nitrogen digestion in sows and microbiota in piglets. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of protein level in maternal and weanling diets on performance and fecal consistency of weaned pigs
Kroeske, Kikianne ULiege; Everaert, Nadia ULiege; Heyndrickx, Marc et al

Conference (2019, August 26)

Low protein levels in weaning diets have been associated with lower risk for diarrhea, which could improve piglets’ gut health, and decrease antibiotic use in animal production. The mismatch theory ... [more ▼]

Low protein levels in weaning diets have been associated with lower risk for diarrhea, which could improve piglets’ gut health, and decrease antibiotic use in animal production. The mismatch theory presumes that animals can be prepared during fetal development for certain postnatal situations. Therefore, we investigated the effect of two levels of crude protein in late-gestation diet and piglet post weaning diet on the offspring’s susceptibility for diarrhea post weaning and performance until slaughter. The hypothesis was tested in a 2x2 factorial trial, with high and low protein levels in sow diets (12 vs 17% crude protein (CP)) during the last five weeks of gestation and high or low, one-phase nursery diet (16.5 vs 21% CP). Resulting in four treatments of the four combination of high (H) and low (L) protein diets. All diets were supplemented with amino acids (AA), to reach or exceed the ideal AA-composition. The faecal consistency was measured during the nursery phase of the piglets. Performance of the piglets was registered from birth until slaughter. Statistical analysis was performed using RStudio with linear mixed-effect models (lme4 package), pairwise comparison and estimated measures of means (emmeans package). For performance, no difference was found between treatments. Daily gain (g) did not differ from weaning until 9 weeks (LL 372.00±20.3, LH364.00±7.23, HL370.00±18.8, HH 377.00±4.92), or from 9 weeks until slaughter (LL 766.85±16.62, LH 807.07±32.31, HL 792.11±24.4, HH 804.87±21.15). Feed conversion ratio did not differ from weaning until 9 weeks (LL 1.39±0.04, LH 1.42±0.02, HL 1.42±0.03, HH 1.35±0.02) or from 9 weeks until slaughter (LL 2.45±0.02, LH 2.53±0.05, HL 2.48±0.03, HH 2.39±0.07). For faecal consistency, no interaction between maternal and piglet diet was found. Lower protein in the gestation diet lead to higher diarrhea scores post weaning, while lower protein in the piglet diets tended to lead to lower diarrhea scores. In summary, the difference in dietary protein levels for sows and piglets did influence weaning diarrhea, but did not influence the performance of piglets. [less ▲]

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See detailChallenges to improve gut health in suckling piglets: potentials of prebiotics.
Everaert, Nadia ULiege

Scientific conference (2019)

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See detailSearch of dietary strategies to reduce the use of antibiotics in pig production
Everaert, Nadia ULiege

Scientific conference (2019)

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (3 ULiège)