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See detailExposure of workers to pesticide residues during re-entry activities: A Review
Toumi, Khaoula ULiege; Joly, Laure; Vleminckx, Christiane et al

in Human and Ecological Risk Assessment (2019), 25(8), 2193-2215

Workers may be exposed to pesticide residues when they enter an area that has been previously treated in order to realize different tasks (e.g. for pruning, cutting, picking, harvesting, pest scouting) or ... [more ▼]

Workers may be exposed to pesticide residues when they enter an area that has been previously treated in order to realize different tasks (e.g. for pruning, cutting, picking, harvesting, pest scouting) or to handle a contaminated crop commodity (e.g. sorting, bundling, packing). A review of the scientific literature on workers exposed to pesticide residues during re-entry tasks provides a comprehensive view of possible exposure routes and a better understanding of the risk assessment context, threshold values and calculation methodology. Methods assessing the risk to workers health are also reported and discussed. The impact of re-entry activities on health and factors affecting workers exposure are examined. Finally, solutions and mitigation measures aiming to reduce their exposure to pesticide residues are recommended. [less ▲]

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See detailOccurrence of Acetamiprid Residues in Water Reservoirs in the Cotton Basin of Northern Benin
Zoumenou, Yémalin Mawunan Genia Berny's ULiege; Aïna, Martin Pépin; Toko, Ibrahim et al

in Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology (2019), 102

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (15 ULiège)
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See detailThe Transfer of Insecticides Used in Cotton Production to Aquatic Ecosystems in the Cotton Basin in Northern Benin
Gouda, Abdoul-Ibrachi ULiege; Imorou Toko, Ibrahim; Imorou Idrissou, M. et al

in International Journal of Scientific Research in Environmental Science and Toxicology (2019), 4(1), 1-15

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (6 ULiège)
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See detailComparative acute toxicity of two phytosanitary molecules, lambda-cyhalothrin and acetamiprid, on Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) juveniles
Guedegba, Nicresse; Imorou Toko, Ibrahim; Agbohessi, Prudencio et al

in Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants and Agricultural Wastes (2019), 54(7), 580-589

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (8 ULiège)
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See detailASSESSMENT OF BELGIAN FLORISTS EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDE RESIDUES
Toumi, Khaoula ULiege; Joly, Laure; Vleminckx, Christiane et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2018), 83

Pesticides are known to be widely used on flowers to control insects and diseases during cropping. As a result, florists who handle daily a large number of flowers can be exposed to their residues. A ... [more ▼]

Pesticides are known to be widely used on flowers to control insects and diseases during cropping. As a result, florists who handle daily a large number of flowers can be exposed to their residues. A study was conducted among Belgian volunteer florists to assess their exposure: sampling of flowers, residue analysis, transfer of residues from flowers to hands and their absorption through the skin after contact. 90 bouquets (roses, gerberas, and chrysanthemums) were collected in Belgium to be analysed. Florists were requested to wear during their professional activities two pairs of cotton gloves during two consecutive half days in order to assess the potential transfer to their hands and the dermal exposure. Finally, during the three most important periods for the sale of flowers in Belgium (Valentine's Day, Mother's Day and All Saints’ Day), 84 urine samples were collected from florists and control groups (24-hour urine) to assess the total exposure by measuring the concentrations of pesticides (parent compounds and metabolites). A huge variety of pesticide residues were detected: 107 on bouquets and 111 on the gloves. A total of 70 different pesticide residues and metabolites were identified in urine of florists. A vast majority of pesticide residues identified on cut flowers and on cotton gloves were also found in urine samples. A clear relation was then established between dermal exposure and excretion of pesticide residues in florist urines. Exposure was particularly critical for clofentezine with a maximum systemic exposure value four times higher than the acceptable exposure threshold (393% AOEL). Moreover, clofentezine was detected in urine of florists. In conclusion, the study leads to conclude that Belgian florists are exposed daily to pesticide residues, with potential effects on their health. Therefore, there is an urgent need to raise the awareness about pesticides residues among florists who should adopt better personal hygiene rules and among authorities who could strengthen the controls on imported cut flowers and set safety standards such as Maximum Residue Limits for residues on cut flowers. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 82 (2 ULiège)
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See detailPratiques phytosanitaires et niveau d’exposition aux pesticides des producteurs de coton du nord du Bénin
Gouda, Abdoul-Ibrachi ULiege; Toko Imorou, Ibrahim; Salami, Sharaf-Dine et al

in Cahiers Agricultures (2018), 27

In Benin, terrestrial ecosystems are polluted by a widespread presence of pesticide residues released by an intensive use of plant protection products in agriculture, mainly those sprayed on cotton crops ... [more ▼]

In Benin, terrestrial ecosystems are polluted by a widespread presence of pesticide residues released by an intensive use of plant protection products in agriculture, mainly those sprayed on cotton crops. In order to assess the exposure of producers to pesticides and predict the potential impact on human health, field observation of local practices coupled with semi-structured surveys were conducted among 150 cotton growers in Gogounou, Kandi and Banikoara in Northern Benin, the main cotton production area of the country. Seventy-five percent of producers never received an education nor instructions of use, while only 5% have been trained in the safe use of pesticides on cotton crops. Among pesticides used by farmers, only 19% belong to the approved list of plant protection products in Benin. The most frequently used active substances are insecticides such as acetamiprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos-ethyl, emamectin benzoate, profenofos or cypermethrin. All are known to be more or less toxic and may have detrimental effects on health after exposure. Seventy-five percent of producers use higher amounts of insecticides than recommended on the labels and 80% do not wear personal protective equipment during mixing, loading and spraying. Empty pesticide containers are often left in cotton fields (73% of observations) or sometimes used for domestic purposes (25% of observations). Field observations were translated into reliable scenarios to estimate the exposure levels of producers, using the UK-POEM predictive model. Total exposures without personal protective equipment vary from 0.099 to 0.546 mg/kg body weight/day. Exposure values far exceed the Acceptable Operator Exposure Levels, indicating a potential risk. [less ▲]

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See detailRisk assessment of exposure to pesticide residues with potential negative effects on the Belgian florists' health
Toumi, Khaoula ULiege; Joly, laure; Vlemincks, Christiane et al

Poster (2018, May)

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (2 ULiège)
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See detailExposure of Belgian florists to pesticide residues during their professional activities
Toumi, Khaoula ULiege; Joly, Laure; Vleminckx, Christiane et al

Conference (2018, April)

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (1 ULiège)
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See detailAssessment of exposure to pesticide residues in Tunisian crop greenhouses
Toumi, Khaoula ULiege; Joly, Laure; Vleminckx, Christiane et al

Poster (2018, April)

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (3 ULiège)
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See detailAssessment of exposure to pesticide residues in Tunisian crop greenhouses
Toumi, Khaoula ULiege; Joly, Laure; Vleminckx, Christiane et al

Poster (2018, April)

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (1 ULiège)
See detailAssessment of exposure of workers to pesticide residues in tomato greenhouses
Toumi, Khaoula ULiege; Joly, Laure; Vleminckx, Christiane et al

Poster (2018, February)

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (1 ULiège)
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See detailFirst diet survey in Niger River valley and acute risk assessment for consumers exposed to pesticide residues in vegetables
Illyassou, Karimoun Massalatchi; Adamou, Rabani; Schiffers, Bruno ULiege

in Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection (2018), 13(2), 243-262

To control pests and crops diseases, small scale farmers in the Niger River valley use a wide range of plant protection products which could induce harmful impacts on human health and environment. Dietary ... [more ▼]

To control pests and crops diseases, small scale farmers in the Niger River valley use a wide range of plant protection products which could induce harmful impacts on human health and environment. Dietary exposure to plant protection products residues was assessed in Niger River valley using the 24-hour recall method. Portion sizes were estimated using a collection of pictures previously prepared according to the local usual diet. A total of 45 samples of eight types of vegetables, representative of the most consumed in the study area (Niamey) during the dry hot and the dry cold season were collected. Samples were analyzed using a multi-residue method (QuEChERS) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS/ MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) that can detect more than 540 active ingredients. Residues of insecticides were detected in 64.4% of the analyzed samples. Among them, 26.7% contained residues above maximum residue limits (MRLs), 35.5% below MRLs, 2.3% of samples had residue equal to the MRLs. Chili peppers, tomatoes, moringas, head cabbages, sorrel leaves and peppers were the most contaminated vegetables. Their residue levels were, respectively, 4.6 mg/kg of chlorpyrifos-ethyl, 0.29 mg/kg of dichlorvos, 1.8 mg/kg of cypermethrin, 1 mg/kg of chlorpyrifosethyl, 0.46 mg/kg of acetamiprid and 0.41 mg/kg of dichlorvos. To evaluate the intake and characterize the risk level for adults and children, the EFSA PRIMO model spreadsheet (Pesticide Residue Intake Model) was used. The exposure results based on consumptions at the 97.5th percentiles show that the highest predicted exposure values for a short-term intake (PSTI) was obtained in the case of consumption of head cabbages (532% of ARfD) for adults and tomatoes (1052% of ARfD) for children. Whatever the product, the risk of exposure was higher for children than for adults for all detected residues. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of plant diversification on pest abundance and tomato yields in two cropping systems in Burkina Faso: Farmer practices and integrated pest management
Son, Diakalia ULiege; Somda, Irénée; Legreve, Anne et al

in International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences (2018), 12(1), 101-119

In Burkina Faso, pests are the main constraint to tomato production because they can cause a complete loss of yields. To protect their crops, producers use extensively chemical pesticides. However, this ... [more ▼]

In Burkina Faso, pests are the main constraint to tomato production because they can cause a complete loss of yields. To protect their crops, producers use extensively chemical pesticides. However, this method can be ineffective and creates collateral effects on public health and on environment. To mitigate this problem, Integrated Pest Management (IPM) trials based on tomato crop in association with basil, garlic or onion were compared to the usual practices of producers in field trials in 2017. The tomato-onion association provided both the best protection of the fruits and the highest yield (3 kg / m²) compared to peasant and other IPM practices. No pesticide residue was detected in samples (tomatoes and soils) from IPM practices. However, several active substances (profenofos, lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorpyrifos-ethyl) were detected in samples from farmers' practices. Only chlorpyrifos-ethyl showed a residue level above its Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) in tomatoes (360% of MRL), without acute intoxication risk for consumers according to the calculations of the Predictable Short Term Intake (PSTI). Awareness-raising and producer training on the better agricultural and phytosanitary practices are necessary to protect public health and environment against adverse effects of pesticides in Burkina Faso. [less ▲]

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See detailComparaison de la dérive pour deux types de pulvérisateurs utilisés en production cotonnière au Bénin
Gouda, Abdoul-Ibrachi ULiege; Mehoba, Mahodjègbé Hermas Luc; Toko, Ibrahim Imorou et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement (2018), 22(2),

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (13 ULiège)
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See detailRisk assessment of Tunisian consumers and farm workers exposed to residues after pesticide application in chili peppers and tomatoes
Toumi, Khaoula ULiege; Joly, Laure; Tarchoun, Neji et al

in Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection (2018), 13(1), 127-143

In Tunisia, to prevent and control pests and diseases during cultivation under greenhouses, chili pepper and tomato require the use of a wide range of pesticides potentially toxic and thus presenting a ... [more ▼]

In Tunisia, to prevent and control pests and diseases during cultivation under greenhouses, chili pepper and tomato require the use of a wide range of pesticides potentially toxic and thus presenting a possible risk for farm operators, workers or consumers. A study has been carried out in the Sahel region of Tunisia to assess the risk for farm operators and workers exposed, by contact during harvest tasks, to possible pesticide residues remaining in tomato and chili pepper cultures, and for the Tunisian consumers (adults and children) after intake. A questionnaire was addressed to a group of 73 market gardeners to better understand the local professional practices and to determine the main route of exposure to pesticide. Twenty samples of cotton gloves (2 pairs / sample) were distributed to 20 volunteers who worn them for two consecutive half-days during the harvest of chili peppers or tomatoes before analysis of the dislodgeable pesticide residues which could be transferred from crops to hands. Using models predictive exposures values were calculated for consumers and farm workers. The highest exposure of consumers was observed for chlorpyrifos residues on tomatoes (with 82% and 312% of the Acute Reference Dose (ARfD), for adults and children respectively). The systemic exposure (SE) of farm workers was estimated for the average, the 90th percentile and the maximum concentration. At the highest observed concentrations, 15 pesticide residues (active substance and metabolites) used in pepper greenhouses, and 9 in tomato crops, exceed the Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (AOEL). Exposure appeared to be particularly critical for chlorothalonil sprayed in chili pepper greenhouses with SEMAX values 113 times higher than the AOEL (11285%). Long task duration (8 hours/day) after re-entry in greenhouse, limited access to personal protective equipment (PPE), lack of hygiene and bad habits (eating, drinking, or smoking at work) have also been observed and discussed as risk factors. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) producers'exposure level to pesticides, in Kouka and Toussiana (Burkina Faso)
Son, Diakalia ULiege; Zerbo, Fabrice K. B.; Bonzi, Schémaeza et al

in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2018), 15(2), 17

To assess producers’ exposure level to pesticides in vegetable production in Burkina Faso, a study was carried out in 2016 and 2017 among 30 tomato producers in the municipalities of Kouka and Toussiana ... [more ▼]

To assess producers’ exposure level to pesticides in vegetable production in Burkina Faso, a study was carried out in 2016 and 2017 among 30 tomato producers in the municipalities of Kouka and Toussiana. Eighteen (18) commercial formulations were identified, with more than 50% of pesticides destined for cotton production. Eleven active substances have been identified and the most frequently used are -cyhalothrin (35%), acetamiprid (22%) and profenofos (13%). The most commonly used chemical families are pyrethroids (28%) and organophosphates (18%). The study revealed a low level of training for producers, a high use of pesticides according to the Frequency Treatment Indicator, and a very low level of protection used by producers. The Health Risk Index shows that active substances such as methomyl, -cyhalothrin and profenofos present very high risk to operators’ health. Based on the UK-POEM model, the predictive exposure levels obtained varied from 0.0105 mg/kg body weight/day to 1.7855 mg/kg body weight/day, which is several times higher than the Acceptable Operator Exposure Level. However, the study also shows that exposure can be greatly reduced if the required Personal Protective Equipment is worn. Producers’ awareness and training on integrated pest management are necessary to reduce the risks linked to the pesticides use in Burkina Faso. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact des pesticides et autres intrants illégaux et contrefaits sur l'économie du secteur horticole des pays ACP
Schiffers, Bruno ULiege

Conference given outside the academic context (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 42 (1 ULiège)
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See detailÉvaluation du risque d’exposition des fleuristes belges aux résidus de pesticides
Toumi, Khaoula ULiege; Joly, Laure; Vleminckx, Christiane et al

Poster (2017, October)

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (1 ULiège)
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See detailPratiques phytosanitaires et risques liés à l'usage des pesticides en culture de tomates au Burkina Faso
Son, Diakalia ULiege; Somda, Irénée; Legrève, Anne et al

Conference (2017, October)

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (5 ULiège)
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See detailEvaluation du risque d’exposition des travailleurs horticoles aux résidus de pesticides en Tunisie
Toumi, Khaoula ULiege; Joly, Laure; Tarchoun, Neji et al

Conference (2017, October)

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (1 ULiège)