Publications of Philippe Lebailly
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See detailAnalysis of economic efficiency of small-scale onion production in Volcanic Highlands in Rwanda
Maniriho, Aristide ULiege; Musabanganji, Edouard; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege

in Montenegrin Journal of Economics (2020), 16(3), 185-196

Onion is recognized for its nutritional value, its curative capacities and its fitness to flavor diets. This article attempted to assess the economic efficiency of input combinations among onion farmers ... [more ▼]

Onion is recognized for its nutritional value, its curative capacities and its fitness to flavor diets. This article attempted to assess the economic efficiency of input combinations among onion farmers in the Volcanic Highlands in Rwanda. Data were collected using a questionnaire administered to a random sample of 94 small-scale onion producers. Cobb-Douglas type stochastic frontier functions were specified and estimated using maximum likelihood method to estimate technical, allocative, and economic efficiencies of onion production. A simultaneous-equations model was specified and estimated with seemingly unrelated regression method to identify the sources of technical, allocative, and economic efficiencies. Results from econometric estimations revealed that seeds and organic fertilizers are the most influential determinants of onion production, and showed that the total production cost increases with an increase in onion output. The sum of input coefficients of 1.03 (greater than 1) indicates that onion production scores the increasing returns to scale in the study area. The results also pointed to the significant effect of education and household size on farm efficiencies. Finally, the study suggests the enhancement of farmer’s professional trainings and the re-adaptation of extension services to the farmers’ needs so as to achieve the optimal use of resources. [less ▲]

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See detailMapping the pork value chain in Vietnam: a systematic review
Nguyen Thi Thuy, Man; Dorny, Pierre; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege et al

in Tropical Animal Health and Production (2020)

In Vietnam, pork is the most commonly consumed type of meat, and the demand is expected to rise even further. Nevertheless, food safety is a major concern, as the country bears a high burden of food-borne ... [more ▼]

In Vietnam, pork is the most commonly consumed type of meat, and the demand is expected to rise even further. Nevertheless, food safety is a major concern, as the country bears a high burden of food-borne diseases, including these caused by pork products. Knowledge of the flows of pigs and pork from producers up to the consumers is important; however, up to now, a comprehensive overview is lacking. We addressed this by conducting a systematic review on the pork value chain (PVC) mapping for the country. Four international and three Vietnamese databases were searched for data on the pork value chain in Vietnam, and the results were reported according to the PRISMA guidelines. Data obtained from the retained records showed that 10 main PVC types are present in Vietnam, comprising of five main actors including: producers, middlemen, slaughter men, retailers and consumers. Among the identified chains, the one involving producers, slaughter men, retailers and consumers is the most common one, with up to 75% of pork following this route. In cities or export routes to other countries, middlemen and/or traders are important additional actors in the PVCs. The small scale of PVC linkages is prominent. The presence of middlemen, pig traders and pork traders is contributing to further distribution of pork products in geographical terms. Transactions between actors in the traditional PVCs in Vietnam are characterized by the absence of official contracts; therefore, the linkages in the chains are loose and the origin of pork is not traceable. More industrial forms of PVCs are slowly developing; however, the traditional PVCs are still prevailing in Vietnam. The weak linkages between actors and poor hygienic practices in these chains form a risk to pork safety. [less ▲]

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See detailCash Crops and Food Security: A Case of Tea Farmers in Burundi
Bitama, Pierre ULiege; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege; Ndimanya, Patrice et al

in Asian Social Science (2020), 16(7), 81-93

Food security is a genuine challenge in developing countries. To combat food insecurity, various means and strategies are being mobilized. The promotion of cash crops in rural areas is one of the main ... [more ▼]

Food security is a genuine challenge in developing countries. To combat food insecurity, various means and strategies are being mobilized. The promotion of cash crops in rural areas is one of the main strategies for improving food security. Accessibility to subsistence staples and stable living conditions for rural farmers are made possible by the relatively high and permanent income from cash crops. This paper addresses the issue of food security by discussing the power of tea crop incomes in a rural tea farming area in Burundi. A survey was conducted in 2019 among 120 smallholder tea farmers in two communes located in the Mugamba natural region of Burundi. The results show that the tea plant contributes significantly to food security for both tea farmers and non-tea farmers. By complementing other livelihood resources, tea incomes improve the food security of smallholder tea farmers. In addition, tea incomes ensure the resilience of smallholder tea farmers during lean seasons and against various shocks. Besides, the perennial nature of the tea plant provides a pension for smallholder tea farmers in their old age. [less ▲]

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See detailSocioeconomic Constraints to Tea Productivity: A Case of Small-Scale Tea Farmers in Burundi
Bitama, Pierre ULiege; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege; Ndimanya, Patrice et al

in Journal of Applied Economic Sciences (2020), XV(Summer, 2(68)), 389-399

The article identifies and discusses the socio-economic factors that constrain the productivity of the tea bush of the small-scale tea farmers who supply most of the green leaves to the state-owned ... [more ▼]

The article identifies and discusses the socio-economic factors that constrain the productivity of the tea bush of the small-scale tea farmers who supply most of the green leaves to the state-owned factories in Burundi. Despite technical support and fertilizer subsidies from Burundi Tea Board (OTB), the productivity of small-scale tea farmers is still lower than the productivity of stateowned plantations. To investigate the cause of this low productivity, a survey was carried out on a sample of 120 small-scale tea farmers in two communes (Mugongomanga and Bukeye) located in two tea-producing areas (Ijenda and Teza) in Burundi. The results show that the low level of education has a considerable negative impact on the maintenance of plantations in good condition. In addition, the problems of availability of family labour and the high cost of hired labour, the variety and age of the tea bushes and the customs of the country are hindrances to the productivity of smallholder tea growers. In order to maintain the tea as a strategic sector for the country, there should be close and sustained supervision of smallholders and investment in research and development [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyse des Approches et Méthodes de Projets/Programmes au Burundi : rapport final
Lebailly, Philippe ULiege; Niyongere, Célestin; Nimenya, Nicodème

Report (2020)

La sécurité alimentaire et nutritionnelle est un défi majeur pour les autorités burundaises et pour ses partenaires au développement, nationaux comme internationaux. De nombreuses initiatives existent au ... [more ▼]

La sécurité alimentaire et nutritionnelle est un défi majeur pour les autorités burundaises et pour ses partenaires au développement, nationaux comme internationaux. De nombreuses initiatives existent au Burundi pour apporter des réponses concrètes aux contraintes liées au développement agricole et rural. L’Union Européenne et ses Etats membres (Belgique, Pays-Bas, France, Allemagne, …) mettent en œuvre des programmes de développement rural, dans une logique de complémentarité. Au Burundi, le paysage institutionnel de l’appui au développement rural est vaste, avec de nombreux acteurs publics et privés, bilatéraux et multilatéraux. Malgré une volonté affichée d’œuvrer en cohérence les uns avec les autres, de multiples interventions non concertées coexistent, ainsi que des chevauchements d’approches et de méthodes d’accompagnement des populations, avec des conséquences souvent négatives en termes de coûts humains et financiers. C’est pourquoi, la DUE (Délégation de l’Union Européenne) à Bujumbura a souhaité confier à l’ATAB (Assistance Technique d’Agrinatura au Burundi) une étude afin de contribuer au renforcement de l'efficacité et de l'impact de l'aide à travers l'harmonisation ou la complémentarité des approches et méthodes de différents intervenants. L’équipe de trois consultants retenus pour la réalisation de l’étude a commencé par rechercher et regrouper tous les travaux disponibles afin d’exploiter la documentation existante et de constituer une base de données préalable sur les différentes approches rencontrées au Burundi. Le présent rapport s’attache en premier lieu à présenter la méthodologie suivie par les experts et le contexte particulier en relation avec le développement agricole et rural. Le Burundi a traversé plus de deux décennies de violences et de troubles avec comme conséquence : la plupart des indicateurs sociaux, économiques et environnementaux du pays se sont fortement dégradés. La dégradation de la situation économique que connaît le pays a contribué à éroder progressivement la capacité de résilience des populations vulnérables et leur capacité à participer au développement. Il convient de souligner qu’en mars 2016, l’Union Européenne (UE), le principal partenaire en matière du développement au Burundi, a décidé de mettre en œuvre des mesures appropriées en application de l’article 96 de l’Accord de Cotonou, ce qui a eu comme conséquence la suspension des appuis directs au Gouvernement du Burundi. D’autres bailleurs européens ont aussi reconsidéré la forme de leurs engagements au Burundi, notamment dans les secteurs du développement rural, de l’agriculture, de la nutrition et du foncier. Malgré le constat de nombreuses contraintes au développement du pays, il ne faudrait pas perdre de vue le potentiel existant qui, pour autant qu’il soit accompagné d’un retour durable de la sécurité et d’une stabilité politique, ouvre au développement agricole des perspectives plutôt favorables. Un travail prioritaire initié par la mission a consisté à contacter les ambassades, la FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) et le PAM (Programme Alimentaire Mondial) afin d’obtenir l’inventaire des projets mis en œuvre au Burundi dans le domaine de la SAN (Sécurité alimentaire et nutritionnelle) ou du développement agricole au cours des cinq dernières années. Au départ de ces informations, nous avons pu contacter différents interlocuteurs actifs sur le terrain et représentatifs des actions conduites dans le domaine du développement rural au Burundi, afin d’obtenir une présentation des approches mises en œuvre soutenue si possible par des documents méthodologiques. Les principales approches/méthodes rencontrées au Burundi et documentées dans le présent rapport se concentrent sur l’intensification des exploitations agricoles afin d’accroître la production, de contribuer à la sécurité alimentaire et à la résilience. Il s’agit des approches suivantes : * PIP : Plan Intégré du Paysan, * EFICC : Exploitation Familiale Intégrée Continue et Compétitive, * CEP : Champ Ecole Producteurs, * EMER : Exploitation Modèle Economiquement Rentable, Les quatre principales approches/méthodes en lien étroit avec l’intensification des exploitations agricoles mises en œuvre au Burundi ont été comparées selon 10 critères distincts. Cela permet d’identifier des similitudes entre les approches CEP et EMER d’une part et PIP et EFICC d’autre part. i) Les deux premières approches (PIP, EFICC) sont davantage orientées sur l’exploitation agricole dans sa dimension « ménage » et sur l’autopromotion avec le souci de développer une résilience en faisant passer le ménage agricole du stade « traditionnel » vers celui de l’entreprise agricole. La théorie du changement est formulée par et pour tous les membres du ménage. ii) Les approches EMER et CEP apparaissent davantage comme le prolongement des méthodes classiques de vulgarisation. Elles sont plus orientées sur une intensification axée sur des filières-produits comme le riz et le lait. Nous avons également jugé utile de considérer l’approche CEF mise en oeuvre au Burundi depuis un peu plus de 2 ans, on peut noter qu’elle est davantage orientée vers l’animateur rural (conseiller agricole) afin qu’il soit en capacité d’intégrer les nouvelles approches de vulgarisation qui passent d’une approche techniciste à une approche davantage centrée sur l’autopromotion pour le changement des pratiques agricoles et du mode de production. Vu que l’approche CEF est d’application trop récente au Burundi, nous avons convenu de ne pas l’inclure dans la comparaison des approches. Dans un deuxième temps, nous avons analysé les différences observées entre la théorie présentée et l’application de cette théorie par les agences de mise en oeuvre.   Les approches retenues au niveau du programme « TUBEHONEZA » financé par l’UE et lancé depuis mai 2019, ont fait l’objet d’une attention particulière. Ce programme se traduit par la mise en œuvre de cinq projets chacun étant sous la responsabilité d’un chef de file. Les approches CEP et EFICC se retrouvent dans ces projets alors que les approches EMER et PIP ne sont pas représentées. Il est à souligner également une préoccupation forte liée à l’inclusion du genre dans les approches mais aussi le souci très pertinent de la DUE de ne pas entretenir une forme de non-alignement des interventions sur une zones d’intervention donnée en veillant à un zonage géographique. Toutefois, il faudra bien veiller à ce qu’il n’y ait pas de chevauchements avec d’autres projets financés par d’autres bailleurs sur les mêmes collines. Les travaux des experts ont été complétés par une démarche plus ciblée orientée vers des thématiques ciblées présentées dans le rapport comme études de cas. Ces études de cas ont mobilisé différents chercheurs de l’ISABU (Institut des Sciences Agronomiques du Burundi), de l’UB (Université du Burundi) et de l’UEA (Université Evangélique d’Afrique). En outre, le choix des études de cas est justifié par l’existence de travaux de recherche et d’une base de données. Grâce à l’existence de ces données collectées dans le cadre de travaux de doctorats ou d’évaluations de projets, il a été possible d’apprécier les méthodes d’approche mises en œuvre. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficiency Analysis of the Progress of Orange Farms in Tuyen Quang Province, Vietnam towards Sustainable Development
Tran Nguyen, Thu Trang ULiege; Le, Hai Ha; HO, Thi Minh Hop ULiege et al

in Sustainability (2020), 12(8), 3170

Nowadays, Vietnam is known as a developing country with a fast-growing economy. Agriculture is the main traditional sector which plays an important role in Vietnamese economic growth and development ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, Vietnam is known as a developing country with a fast-growing economy. Agriculture is the main traditional sector which plays an important role in Vietnamese economic growth and development. Improving the efficiency of agricultural production towards sustainable development is one of the country’s national economic development goals. This study aims to measure the efficiency of the orange farms which have created jobs and improved living standards for people in Tuyen Quang province, Vietnam. A comprehensive literature review, key informant interviews, and a structured questionnaire were applied in this research for data collection. The data envelopment analysis (DEA) model was applied to evaluate the technical, allocative, cost, and scale efficiencies. The main results of this analysis show that the orange farms have high scores for technical and scale efficiencies. On the other hand, the research reveals low levels of cost and allocating efficiencies. This is in line with the fact that though the farms’ owners have extensive experience in orange cultivation and receive periodic technical training, they still have low levels of education and a lack of economic management expertise. The study results also propose optimal input allocation for the orange farmers. The research could provide crucial information to farms’ owners, the local government, and agricultural planners for formulating effective strategies to improve agricultural sustainability [less ▲]

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See detailNew Urban Consumption Patterns and Local Agriculture: Application to the Bukavu HORECA Sector (DRC)
Neema Ciza, Angélique ULiege; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege

in Wood, Jacob; Habimana, Olivier (Eds.) A Multidimensional Economic Assessment of Africa (2020)

The rapid urbanization experienced by all developing countries is recognized as a key factor in the current evolution of food consumption. In Bukavu, consumption patterns are evolving and diversifying ... [more ▼]

The rapid urbanization experienced by all developing countries is recognized as a key factor in the current evolution of food consumption. In Bukavu, consumption patterns are evolving and diversifying into out-of-home catering in a new restauration mode. The purpose of this study is analyzing whether this new consumption pattern can constitute an opportunity for local agricultural products. The study surveyed 45 sampled restaurants in Bukavu city. A survey questionnaire based on food types, offers for consumers, frequency of consumption, and income was submitted to the restaurateurs. Two main types of restaurants were identified, of which 71% were ‘Malewa’ and 29% were modern restaurants. In all these restaurants both local and imported products were generally used. The survey results show that in Malewa restaurants type 58% of the income from sales was used for purchasing local products and only 18% was used for purchasing imported products and in the modern restaurants type 38% of the sales income was used for purchasing local products against 31% of the income used for purchasing imported products. Hence, there is an opportunity for local agricultural producers as they can find new remunerative outlets in this new consumption mode. [less ▲]

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See detailRecent Evolution of Perennial Crop Farms: Evidence From Dak Lak Province, Vietnam
Phan Thi Thuy, ULiege; Niem, Le Duc; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege

in Agris On-line Papers in Economics and Informatics (2020), 12(3), 87-100

There is a great consensus about the crucial role of perennial crops in an agricultural economy of a country. The paper aims (1) to identify the differences in the costs and profits of perennial crops ... [more ▼]

There is a great consensus about the crucial role of perennial crops in an agricultural economy of a country. The paper aims (1) to identify the differences in the costs and profits of perennial crops produced by two study groups, a group producing coffee (GpC) and a group producing pepper (GpP) over two crop years 2016/2017-2017/2018; (2) evaluate the evolution of the economic performance of each group during two years; and (3) examine factors influencing the farm profitability. By using the mixed data from a household survey conducted in three sub-regions of Dak Lak province, Vietnam, a financial verification is used to explore the economic incentives between two groups and a discriminant analysis is undertaken to classify the determinants of the farm profitability. The results perform that the GpC is generally lower input costs and economic benefits than the GpP. The decrease of economic indicators of the GpP during two years, meanwhile, is more significant than that of the GpC in the same period. In addition, the GpP is likely to invest more inputs, heavily use chemical cost, be more susceptible to pests and diseases, and the volatile market conditions in comparison to the GpC. Categorically, the variable cost and reduction rate in terms of value-added, net farm income (NFI), profit, labor productivity, and the ratio of NFI to family labor of the GpC have lower than those of the GpP, respectively, during two years. Furthermore, in similarly conditional practices, the perennial crop farms generate different returns depending on experience, training, other income, and gross outputs. The findings provide information for farmers to make accurate decision about coffee and pepper farms production as recommended by reducing the quantity of fertilizers, allocating resources and diversifying crop systems. Additionally, the empirical results also offer policymakers the farms sustainable development at local and national levels. Going forward, authors suggest these factors be considered in the future. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of Farmers’ Cooperatives on Socio-economic Living Conditions of Rural Households in North of Burundi
Manirakiza, Dismas ULiege; Mulumeoderhwa Munyakazi, Fidèle ULiege; Maniriho, Aristide ULiege et al

in International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues (2020), 10(1), 150-158

The study aimed to assess the farmers’ cooperatives impact on the socio-economic living conditions of their members in North of Burundi. A research survey was conducted on two farmers’ groups such as a ... [more ▼]

The study aimed to assess the farmers’ cooperatives impact on the socio-economic living conditions of their members in North of Burundi. A research survey was conducted on two farmers’ groups such as a sample of 90 farmers randomly chosen in three main cooperatives and a control sample of 60 non-members. Data were analyzed with a comparative approach of descriptive statistics. Among six main food crops considered by the study, results show a significant contribution of the cooperative only on bananas’ production (P = 0.075). Moreover, members gain a cost reduction of 50%/kg in maize milling or rice dehulling. Thanks to the multiple financial opportunities within the cooperative, members improve the quality of their houses (12%), subscribe supplementary health insurance (38%), pay easily the school fees for their children and equip themselves with household equipment. Finally, the value of solidarity among members enhances the spirit of confidence and cohesion in the community. [less ▲]

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See detailIncentive mechanism to promote corn stalk return sustainably in Henan, China
Yang, Xiaomei; Cheng, Leilei; Huang, Xianlei et al

in Science of the Total Environment (2020), 738 (2020) 139775

Corn stalk return (CSR) can manage agricultural residues on the spot to avoid field open burning and protect the environment. However, the implementation of this measure encounters reluctance from farmers ... [more ▼]

Corn stalk return (CSR) can manage agricultural residues on the spot to avoid field open burning and protect the environment. However, the implementation of this measure encounters reluctance from farmers which hinders its sustainability. This study combined the economic (cost) and technical (return amount, crushing quality, and decomposition of corn stalk) aspects to examine the factors affecting farmers' willingness to participate in the CSR by using a logistic regression model. The level of willingness to accept (WTA) compensation and its determinants were analyzed by using a tobit model. Based on the survey of 925 farmers, this study found the likelihood of farmers' participation in CSR will be decreased when CSR has high machinery cost, an excessive amount of stalk, poor quality of crushing, and slow decomposing rate. The farmers' WTA for CSR was estimated at about 711 Chinese Yuan (RMB) per ha annually, much higher than the current compensation level of 75–225 RMB per ha in Henan. Farmers were willing to be compensated more because of the high cost and slow decomposing rate. The issues in economic and technical sides should attract more attention, and the compensation should be increased and the technical problems should be solved to stimulate farmers' willingness of CSR. By providing a fuller understanding of farmers' CSR behavior, this study can serve as a reference for the Chinese government to develop and implement better policies. [less ▲]

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See detailSocial Value Chain Analysis: The Case of Tuna Value Chain in Three South Central Provinces of Vietnam
Nguyen Dang Hoang Thu, ULiege; Cao Le Quyen; Le Thi Minh Hang et al

in Asian Social Science (2020), 16(8 (2020)),

This paper presents the outputs of a Ministry of Science and Technology-funded national research project on fisheries value chain entitled “Developing Feasible and Comprehensive Policies for Sustainable ... [more ▼]

This paper presents the outputs of a Ministry of Science and Technology-funded national research project on fisheries value chain entitled “Developing Feasible and Comprehensive Policies for Sustainable Fisheries Development in Vietnam” completed in 2019. It was carried out to map the Vietnamese tuna value chain in terms of value chain description, including actors, material flows, volume, knowledge and information, relationships, linkages and trust, and values at different levels of the chain. The point of entry for undertaking this analysis was to identify specific income increasing interventions for fishers to achieve the project objective of better management of tuna fisheries and to improve socio-economic conditions of tuna fishing communities in Vietnam. Three South Central provinces of Binh Dinh, Phu Yen, Khanh Hoa were chosen for the investigation of the tuna value chain. This study was completed in four main phases, which consist of interview surveys, focus group discussions, individual key informant interviews, and a validation workshop. Four hundreds fishers, nineteen middlemen and traders, five processors, three wholesalers, and eight retailers were interviewed in the three investigated provinces during 2018. Several policy recommendations to increase the income and improve the position of fishers in the tuna value chain were proposed, which include (i) the collaboration among fishers to take advantage of purchasing input materials; (ii) the improvements on the handling and maintenance of tuna quality to increase fishers’ income; (iii) the establishment of tuna auction center to decrease financial detriment to fishers, increase their access to public and transparent market information, and strengthen their position in the chain; (iv) the formulation of savings, credit, and microfinance schemes to diversify forms of capital access for fishers; (v) the suggestion on a fair share of profits among shipowners, captains and cruise workers to reduce the vulnerability of the poor and increase the incentive for properly managing the tuna fisheries in Vietnam. [less ▲]

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See detailLand Access in the Development of Horticultural Crops in East Africa. A Case Study of Passion Fruit in Burundi, Kenya, and Rwanda
Bashangwa Mpozi, Bosco ULiege; Mizero, Mireille ULiege; Ogolla Egesa, Andrew et al

in Sustainability (2020), 12(7), 3041

Rapid population growth in fertile agricultural lands of East Africa creates land scarcity, which has become a major hindrance to land access for the introduction of new horticultural crops. But their ... [more ▼]

Rapid population growth in fertile agricultural lands of East Africa creates land scarcity, which has become a major hindrance to land access for the introduction of new horticultural crops. But their introduction in these areas is increasing, because of their high market price, which improves farmers’ income. As such, this research evaluated land access dynamics (availability, acquisition, and use changes) on the introduction of passion fruits in East Africa. The study used purposeful sampling to collect information from 171 passion fruit farmers from Burundi (60), Kenya (51), and Rwanda (60) through interviews during field surveys. Among the respondents from all three countries, inheritance and land purchase were the predominant modes of land access (>50% and >21%, respectively). Furthermore, the substitution of other crops by passion fruits was high (>60%) among Kenyan and Rwandan farmers, but low (18%) among Burundian farmers. Our findings indicate that land access influences the patterns of adoption of new crops, since, when limited in supply, it may require the acquisition of new land space, abandonment of other crops, or opting for mixed farming. As such, land access should be a consideration in the promotion of new crops for sustainable agricultural ventures. [less ▲]

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See detailDeterminants of Farming Households’ Credit Accessibility in Rural Areas of Vietnam: A Case Study in Haiphong City, Vietnam
Ta Nhat Linh, ULiege; Dang Anh, Tuan; Phan Thu, Trang et al

in Sustainability (2020), 12(11), 4357

The role of agricultural sectors in the economic development of a country is undeniable, especially in developing and least-developed ones, ensuring food supply, increasing national income, export ... [more ▼]

The role of agricultural sectors in the economic development of a country is undeniable, especially in developing and least-developed ones, ensuring food supply, increasing national income, export earnings and poverty reduction. Vietnam is known as an emerging market, depending directly on agriculture-related activities for their livelihood, in which the issue of rural credit access still remains a confounding problem. The paper focuses on identifying the determinants of credit access in rural areas of Vietnam using Haiphong city as a case study, including formal and informal credit. The paper uses data collected from a survey of 180 rural households in a district of Haiphong city. The probit and linear regression models are applied to investigate the factors that determine household credit accessibility, i.e., the household’s decision to borrow and borrowing amounts. Results of this analysis reveal the different significant determinants of formal and informal credit market access. Group membership and connection are found to have significantly strong impacts on formal credit accessibility while informal credit access is strongly influenced by agriculture income and dependency ratio. The implications of these findings for enhancing formal credit accessibility and decreasing the dependence on informal markets are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailPresentation of Pukchang fish farm (Democratic People Republic of Korea) in the context of a joint partnership project funded by EU.
Lebailly, Philippe ULiege; Yong Jin Kang; Cho Yon Kim et al

in Advances in Oceanography & Marine Biology (2020)

The main objective of this paper is to present a project initiated in 2018 by two universities and a NGO with the support of EU in Democratic People Republic of Korea. The partnership intends to durably ... [more ▼]

The main objective of this paper is to present a project initiated in 2018 by two universities and a NGO with the support of EU in Democratic People Republic of Korea. The partnership intends to durably improve the animal protein intake’s availability and the dietary quality for children at social institutions’ level in South Pyongan province. The authors present the main characteristic of Pukchang farm and the organisation of the fish distribution in the county. The experimental farm of Pukchang has been designated as reference fish farm. The maximum production level was reached in 1998 and 1999 with trout production estimated at around 50 tons at the time. This record level was observed when the farm was supplied with high quantities and quality of fishmeal, which is no longer the case today. Now, the primary constraint to increasing production is directly related to lack of feed. [less ▲]

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See detailConstraints of Agricultural Development in the Context of Environmental Conservation for Protected Areas, Vietnam
Nguyen Thi Trang Nhung, ULiege; Cuong Tran Huu; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege

in Tielkes, Eric (Ed.) Tropentag 2019 International Research on Food Security, Natural Resource Management and Rural Development "Filling gaps and removing traps for sustainable resources management" Book of abstracts (2019, November 18)

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See detailImpact of Vietnam labor policies on rural wage: An experience from agricultural sector in the Red River Delta
Nguyen Thi Hai Ninh, ULiege; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege; Nguyen Mau, Dzung

Conference (2019, October 26)

This paper attempts to understand about impact of Vietnam labor policies on wage of rural labor in agricultural sector. Using primary data collected from 60 hired laborers in the Red River Delta region ... [more ▼]

This paper attempts to understand about impact of Vietnam labor policies on wage of rural labor in agricultural sector. Using primary data collected from 60 hired laborers in the Red River Delta region, we find that minimum wage and vocational training policies statistically significant affect wage of employees. The higher time participating in vocational training courses, the higher wage (about 3 US dollars) a laborer can obtain per month. Moreover, if hired laborers perceive that their wages are protected by minimum wage policy, they will get higher wage from employers as they have more power in wage negotiation. We estimate that awareness of minimum wage policy help hire laborers to increase 5 US dollars in their wage comparing to others. Conversely, social insurance policy does not have any impact on wage of rural laborers, especially on those working in agriculture. By the law, employees working under written contracts are supported to pay part of social insurance by their employers. However, hired laborers in agricultural sector are found to work with only verbal contracts, so that they are excluded by the law. This issue is one of the weakness in Vietnam labor law and need to be adjusted in the coming time. [less ▲]

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See detailGlobal Value Chain Governance and Relation between Local Actors in the Burundian Tea Sector
Bitama, Pierre ULiege; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege; Ndimanya, Patrice et al

in International Review of Management and Marketing (2019), 9(6), 105-111

In the context of globalization, the success of a firm to sell its products on international and regional markets depends on the type of governance exercised in a given sector. This article mobilizes a ... [more ▼]

In the context of globalization, the success of a firm to sell its products on international and regional markets depends on the type of governance exercised in a given sector. This article mobilizes a theoretical framework of global value chain governance to analyze the type of governance exercised in the tea sector in Burundi. A qualitative analysis of data from a survey of 120 small tea farmers in the Ijenda and Teza areas reveals that control and coordination in the sector is ensured by captive governance. In addition, a stagnation of the price of the green leaf tea over a decade generates a lack of interest in the tea farming out on small farming areas. Only 25% of small tea farmers in Ijenda and 36% in Teza want an extension. [less ▲]

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See detailGiải pháp tín dụng cho doanh nghiệp nông nghiệp vừa và nhỏ: từ thực tiễn đến chính sách
Bui Thi Lam, ULiege; Tran, Huu Cuong; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege

Conference (2019, October 11)

In developing countries, like Vietnam, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) are considered an important driving force to promote sustainable economic growth. Vietnam - an agriculture-based country ... [more ▼]

In developing countries, like Vietnam, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) are considered an important driving force to promote sustainable economic growth. Vietnam - an agriculture-based country, agricultural SMEs accounts for the major proportion in the enterprise community, attracting a large workforce and contributing a significant share on national income and prosperity. Besides its outstanding flexibility and dynamism, agricultural SMEs often have limited operational experience and management, small collateral values and weak financial report systems. These characteristics are major barriers in accessing banking credit in order to develop their production and business activities. Yet, this paper sketches out the landscape SMEs' access to credit in Vietnam and focuses on this state of agricultural SMEs in Lao Cai, and hence, suggests several reasonable solutions to improve the accessibility of agricultural SMEs. [less ▲]

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See detailCrop production and food consumption for farmers' welfare in Rwanda
Maniriho, Aristide ULiege; Musabanganji, Edouard; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege

Conference (2019, October)

Agriculture is a source of livelihood for increasing population in the world. It provides mainly food and is expected to avail enough income to farmers and thus improve their livelihood through the ... [more ▼]

Agriculture is a source of livelihood for increasing population in the world. It provides mainly food and is expected to avail enough income to farmers and thus improve their livelihood through the increased yield. This study attempted to assess the effects of crop production and food consumption on farmers’ welfare. We used secondary data collected at national level during the Fifth Integrated Household Living Conditions from October 2016 to October 2017. For data analysis, Chi-Square test, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, t test, and ordinary least-squares (OLS) methods were used. The results revealed that the crop output increased with the increase in inputs (labour, fertilizers, pesticides, and seeds). The return to scale of crop production was 1.06, which implies that the crop production system scored increasing returns to scale. The OLS estimates indicated that food consumption was positively influenced by the age and the marital status of the household head, the household size, farm income, land size, crop production, when bean, maize, potato, rice and soybean were the main crops selected by the farmers, while it was negatively affected by the sex of the household head, when coffee and wheat were the crops chosen by the farmers. The results from Pearson’s correlation analysis showed that food consumption was positively and significantly (p=0.00) correlated with family size, farm income, land size, and crop production. With reference to these findings, we recommend that the strategies to increase the crop yield and farm income and thus sustain food consumption and improve farmers’ welfare should be enhanced. [less ▲]

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