Publications of Frédéric Francis
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See detailIntegrated model of insect, fish and vegetable production
Hoc, Bertrand ULiege; Tomson, Thomas ULiege; Caparros Megido, Rudy ULiege et al

Poster (2020, December 12)

Global demand for food grow while resources including feed, water and spaces are limited To supply this demand in a context of sustainable development, new production models must be developed Integrated ... [more ▼]

Global demand for food grow while resources including feed, water and spaces are limited To supply this demand in a context of sustainable development, new production models must be developed Integrated productions of insects, fishes and vegetables maximize the use of resources and limit waste production The developed model allows local production of fishes and vegetables by insect bioconversion of many organic vegetable materials with small or no value [less ▲]

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See detailAbout lipid metabolism in Hermetia illucens (L. 1758). On the origin of fatty acids in prepupae.
Hoc, Bertrand ULiege; Genva, Manon ULiege; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULiege et al

in Scientific Reports (2020)

Although increasingly targeted in animal nutrition, black soldier fly larvae or prepupae (BSF, Hermetia illucens L. 1758) require the characterization and modulation of their fatty acid profile to become ... [more ▼]

Although increasingly targeted in animal nutrition, black soldier fly larvae or prepupae (BSF, Hermetia illucens L. 1758) require the characterization and modulation of their fatty acid profile to become fully integrated within the feed sector. This improvement will only be possible by the understanding of underlaying biochemical pathways of fatty acid synthesis in BSF. In this study, we hypothesized a labelling of de novo synthesized fatty acids in BSF by the incorporation of deuterated water ( D2O) in their feed. Three batches of fifty larvae were reared on two diets with different polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles moistened with 40% of H2O or D2O: chicken feed or 40% of chicken feed and 60% of flax cake. Although the occurrence of D2O in insect feed increased the larval development time and decreased prepupal weight, it was possible to track the biosynthesis of fatty acids through deuterium labelling. Some fatty acids (decanoic, lauric or myristic acid) were exclusively present in their deuterated form while others (palmitic, palmitoleic or oleic acid) were found in two forms (deuterated or not) indicating that BSF can partially produce these fatty acids via biosynthesis pathways and not only by bioaccumulation from the diet. These results suggest the importance of carbohydrates as a source of acetyl-CoA in the constitution of the BSF fatty acid profile but also the potential importance of specific enzymes (e.g. thioesterase II or Δ12 fat2 desaturase) in BSF fatty acid metabolism. Finally, nearly no deuterated polyunsaturated fatty acids were found in BSF fed with deuterium confirming that BSF is not able to produce these types of fatty acids. Despite the high levels of linolenic acid in flax-enriched diets, BSF will simply bioaccumulate around 13% of this fatty acid and will metabolize approximately two-thirds of it into saturated fatty acids as lauric or myristic acid. [less ▲]

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See detailControl of Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer 1778) and other mites with volatile organic compounds, a review
Gay, Marie ULiege; Lempereur, Laetitia ULiege; Francis, Frédéric ULiege et al

in Parasitology (2020)

Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer 1778), commonly named the poultry red mite (PRM), is considered to be the most harmful ectoparasite in poultry farms in Europe. This species feeds on the blood of laying hens ... [more ▼]

Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer 1778), commonly named the poultry red mite (PRM), is considered to be the most harmful ectoparasite in poultry farms in Europe. This species feeds on the blood of laying hens, but spends most of its time hidden in cracks and crevices around hen nests. To control PRM populations in poultry houses, chemical pesticides are currently used; however, concern is growing regarding the harmful residues found in eggs and hens, along with the increased resistance of mites against several compounds. Alternatives to synthetic compounds are now being explored, including vaccines, biological control, physical control and semiochemical control based on the chemical ecology of PRM. This review focused on the different volatile organic compounds (VOCs) identified from D. gallinae and other mite species that have been discovered to control them. Pheromones (aggregation pheromone, sex pheromone and alarm pheromone) and kairomones promoting attraction behaviour in D. gallinae and other mite species are presented, while VOCs from essential oils and plant extracts with repellent properties are also explored. Finally, devices using VOCs on PRM in the field are described, with devices that have been tested on other Acari species being mentioned as potential directions for the future control of PRM. [less ▲]

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See detailInduced Systemic Resistance by a Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Impacts Development and Feeding Behavior of Aphids
Serteyn, Laurent ULiege; Quaghebeur, Céleste; Ongena, Marc ULiege et al

in Insects (2020), 11(4),

The effects of microorganisms on plant-insect interactions have usually been underestimated. While plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are known to induce plant defenses, endosymbiotic bacteria ... [more ▼]

The effects of microorganisms on plant-insect interactions have usually been underestimated. While plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are known to induce plant defenses, endosymbiotic bacteria hosted by herbivorous insects are often beneficial to the host. Here, we aimed to assess whether PGPR-induced defenses in broad bean plants impact the pea aphid, depending on its genotype and the presence of endosymbionts. We estimated aphid reproduction, quantified defense- and growth-related phytohormones by GC-MS, and measured different plant growth and physiology parameters, after PGPR treatment. In addition, we recorded the feeding behavior of aphids by electropenetrography. We found that the PGPR treatment of broad bean plants reduced the reproduction of one of the pea aphid clones. We highlighted a phenomenon of PGPR-induced plant defense priming, but no noticeable plant growth promotion. The main changes in aphid probing behavior were related to salivation events into phloem sieve elements. We suggest that the endosymbiont Hamiltonella defensa played a key role in plant-insect interactions, possibly helping aphids to counteract plant-induced resistance and allowing them to develop normally on PGPR-treated plants. Our results imply that plant- and aphid-associated microorganisms add greater complexity to the outcomes of aphid-plant interactions. [less ▲]

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See detailBandes fleuries, quels impacts sur les communautés d’auxiliaires de culture ?
Noël, Grégoire ULiege; Francis, Frédéric ULiege

Conference (2020, February 10)

Parmi les éléments semi-naturels dans les paysages agricoles, les bandes fleuries semées en inter-culture semblent être des refuges potentiels ainsi que des sources florales pour un bon nombre d’insectes ... [more ▼]

Parmi les éléments semi-naturels dans les paysages agricoles, les bandes fleuries semées en inter-culture semblent être des refuges potentiels ainsi que des sources florales pour un bon nombre d’insectes, notamment les auxiliaires tels que les syrphes (Diptera : Syrphidae) ou encore les abeilles sauvages (Hymenoptera : Apoidea). Etant donné que ces insectes sont sensibles à une variété de traits floraux telles que la couleur ou encore la forme de la corolle, nous supposons qu’augmenter la diversité et la redondance de ces traits floraux (i.e. diversité fonctionnelle) favorisent et supportent une plus grande abondance et richesse spécifique d’auxiliaires de culture. Cet exposé aura pour but de vous montrer deux cas d’études de dispositifs de bandes enherbées et leur évaluation en Région Wallonne : (i) au niveau d’une ferme en transition agroécologique, la ferme d’Emeville (Havelange) et (ii) au niveau d’un champ expérimental à Golzinne (Gembloux). Les résultats seront montrés et discutés lors de la séance. Les méthodes utilisées ainsi que les résultats obtenus peuvent également constituer une base de développement concernant des nouveaux mélanges fleuris qui prodiguent deux services écosystémiques clés que sont la pollinisation et le contrôle biologique des cultures en milieu agricole. [less ▲]

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See detailProteomic Investigation on Anopheles gambiae in Burkina Faso Related to Insecticide Pressures from Different Climatic Regions
Zoure, Abdou ULiege; Serteyn, Laurent ULiege; Somda, Zéphirin et al

in Proteomics (2020)

In Sub‐Saharan Africa, Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) largely contributes to malaria transmission, in direct relation to environmental conditions influencing the vector ecology. Therefore ... [more ▼]

In Sub‐Saharan Africa, Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) largely contributes to malaria transmission, in direct relation to environmental conditions influencing the vector ecology. Therefore, we carried out a proteomic analysis on An. gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) mosquitoes to compare their metabolic state, depending on different pesticide pressures by selecting areas with or without cotton crops, in two climatic regions. Adult mosquitoes were collected, and the proteomes were analysed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC‐MS/MS). The data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD016300. From a total of 1,182 identified proteins, 648 were retained for further statistical analysis and were attributed to biological functions, the most important of which is energy metabolism (120 proteins) followed by translation‐biogenesis (74), cytoskeleton (71), stress response (62), biosynthetic process (60), signalling (44), cellular respiration (38), cell redox homeostasis (25), DNA processing (17), pheromone binding (10), protein folding (9), RNA processing (9), other proteins (26) and unknown functions (83). The distribution of biological functions of all conditions was similar between climate zones or agricultural practices associated with different pesticide pressures. In the Sudano‐Sahelian region, 421 (91.3%) proteins were found in samples from areas both with and without cotton crops. By contrast, in the Sahelian region, only 271 (55.0%) were common to both crop areas, and 233 proteins were up‐regulated in samples from the cotton area. The focus was placed on differentially expressed proteins with putative roles in insecticide resistance, according to literature. This study provides the first whole‐body proteomic characterisation of An. gambiae s.l. in Burkina Faso, as a framework to strengthen vector control strategies and understand the environment‐vector interactions in different ecological sites. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of the chemical communication of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae) and its potential use in biological control
Gay, Marie ULiege; Lempereur, Laetitia ULiege; Francis, Frédéric ULiege et al

Poster (2020, January 31)

Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778), commonly named poultry red mite (PRM), is considered as the most harmful ectoparasite in poultry farms in Europe. This species feeds from blood of laying hens but ... [more ▼]

Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778), commonly named poultry red mite (PRM), is considered as the most harmful ectoparasite in poultry farms in Europe. This species feeds from blood of laying hens but spend most of its time hidden in cracks and crevices around hen’s nests. To control PRM populations in poultry houses, chemical pesticides are currently used with growing concern on harmful residues found in eggs and hens and mite resistance against several compounds. Other alternatives are now explored to avoid the use of synthetic compounds such as vaccines, biological control, physical control or semiochemical control base on PRM chemical ecology. Our study focuses on the identification of pheromones emitted by PRM such as sex pheromone. To that purpose, samplings of individuals were realized in poultry houses and then, a first volatile organic compounds (VOCs) sampling was realised by SPME (Solid Phase Micro-Extraction) coupled to GC-MS (Gaz Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry) analysis to identify VOCs realised by the crush of 300 female individuals. Results allowed to identify five compounds never found in other Acari species. However, one compound, 2-Propyl-1-pentanol, was already found in feces extracts of Bedbugs Cimex hemipterus (Fabricius, 1803). These preliminary results allow to discuss potential changes of parameters for future studies. Other VOCs sampling technics are considered and future behavioral experiments are planned. Perspectives for an application of the attractive compounds in the field are evocated. They could be used in an “attract and kill” trap if coupled to a biological acaricide such as entomopathogenic fungi or silica dust. [less ▲]

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See detailPotential impacts of climate change in larval development and oviposition choice of an aphidophagous hoverfly species Episyrphus balteatus (Diptera : Syrphidae)
Noël, Grégoire ULiege; Caetano, Jessica; Blanchard, Solène ULiege et al

in 25th National Symposium for Applied Biological Sciences (2020, January 31)

Numerous studies have shown that climate change could, directly or indirectly, contribute to disturb insect’s biology and interactions with plants. An increase of mean temperatures and atmospheric carbon ... [more ▼]

Numerous studies have shown that climate change could, directly or indirectly, contribute to disturb insect’s biology and interactions with plants. An increase of mean temperatures and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is known to have various effects on insects-pests biology, behavior and communication. However, the impact of climate change on their natural enemies is still poorly understood. Following IPCC temperatures and CO2 predictions for the next decades, we first investigated (i) the impact of an elevation of temperature, here 20°C, 23°C and 26°C on the weight, size, and consumption in aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris), of the larvae development of the hoverfly Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer). We also tested (ii) the hypothesis that a combination of CO2 concentration (450 and 800ppm) and temperature (20 and 23°C) may affect the oviposition choice of E. balteatus gravid females on bean plant (Vicia faba L.) infested with aphids. Dual-choice bioassays were used for each temperature and CO2 combination. We found that temperature has no effect on the larval development of E. balteatus, but has an effect on the weight and size of the final larval stage. Furthermore, contrary to CO2 concentration, an elevation of temperature also has an effect on the site choice and number of eggs layed on the plants. Our results suggest that an elevation of temperature has an impact on hoverfly biology and oviposition. Temperature may impact plant volatile profile, as well as aphid honeydew, indirectly impacting hoverfly attraction. These outcomes offer new overview about multitrophic interactions under worldwide climate change. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges of feeding behavior and salivary proteome of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug when exposed to insect‑induced plant defenses
Serteyn, Laurent ULiege; Ponnet, Lola; Saive, Matthew et al

Poster (2020, January 31)

The invasive Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys Stål, has dispersed widely throughout North America and Europe, negatively impacting agro-ecosystems and urban areas. This species is ... [more ▼]

The invasive Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys Stål, has dispersed widely throughout North America and Europe, negatively impacting agro-ecosystems and urban areas. This species is phytophagous and highly gregarious at all developmental stages. Therefore, it is important to determine how the congeners react to plant defenses induced by first infestation. Lipoxygenase activity was found to be enhanced in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) leaves by BMSB feeding or its salivary compounds. We analyzed BMSB feeding behavior by comparison with our previously published EPG waveform library for that pest, and identified some EPG variables associated with test probes, stylets pathway, and sustained ingestion. We demonstrated that, on elicited plants, BMSB probes were delayed, with sustained ingestion events being shorter. Moreover, significant changes in salivary gland proteins involved in plant allelochemical detoxification were detected when BMSB was exposed to plant defenses. Our results confirmed that this polyphagous invasive Heteroptera has the ability to detect plant defenses and to adapt its feeding strategies in consequence. [less ▲]

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See detailEnrichment in omega3 of Hermetia illucens (L. 1758) prepupae from oilseed co products
Hoc, Bertrand ULiege; Francis, Frédéric ULiege; carpentier, Joachim et al

Poster (2020, January 27)

Mass production of insect is an alternative protein and fat source that can be incorporate in fish feed Hermetia illucens (L 1758 is a promising insect for feed production as it is a polyphagous species ... [more ▼]

Mass production of insect is an alternative protein and fat source that can be incorporate in fish feed Hermetia illucens (L 1758 is a promising insect for feed production as it is a polyphagous species with a fast larvae growth rate and a short life cycle Nevertheless, the fatty acids composition of prepupae (last instar larvae) is function of their diet and is unfortunately characterized by a high saturated fatty acids and low polyunsaturated fatty acids levels The current fatty acid profile of prepupae meal will limit the use of this ingredient in farmed fish diet The purpose of this experiment is to manipulate the fatty acid profile of insects by following the current legislative framework allowing only the use of plant in terms of byproducts [less ▲]

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See detailLinking variety‑dependent root volatile organic compounds in maize with diferential infestation by wireworms
La Forgia, Diana ULiege; Thibord, Jean-Baptiste; Larroudé, Philippe et al

in Journal of Pest Science (2020)

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See detailFrom diverse origins to specific targets: Role of microorganisms in indirect pest biological control
Francis, Frédéric ULiege; Jacquemyn, H.; Delvigne, Frank ULiege et al

in Insects (2020), 11(8), 1-14

Integrated pest management (IPM) is today a widely accepted pest management strategy to select and use the most efficient control tactics and at the same time reduce over-dependence on chemical ... [more ▼]

Integrated pest management (IPM) is today a widely accepted pest management strategy to select and use the most efficient control tactics and at the same time reduce over-dependence on chemical insecticides and their potentially negative environmental effects. One of the main pillars of IPM is biological control. While biological control programs of pest insects commonly rely on natural enemies such as predatory insects, parasitoids and microbial pathogens, there is increasing evidence that plant, soil and insect microbiomes can also be exploited to enhance plant defense against herbivores. In this mini-review, we illustrate how microorganisms from diverse origins can contribute to plant fitness, functional traits and indirect defense responses against pest insects, and therefore be indirectly used to improve biological pest control practices. Microorganisms in the rhizosphere, phyllosphere and endosphere have not only been shown to enhance plant growth and plant strength, but also promote plant defense against herbivores both above-and belowground by providing feeding deterrence or antibiosis. Also, herbivore associated molecular patterns may be induced by microorganisms that come from oral phytophagous insect secretions and elicit plant-specific responses to herbivore attacks. Furthermore, microorganisms that inhabit floral nectar and insect honeydew produce volatile organic compounds that attract beneficial insects like natural enemies, thereby providing indirect pest control. Given the multiple benefits of microorganisms to plants, we argue that future IPMs should consider and exploit the whole range of possibilities that microorganisms offer to enhance plant defense and increase attraction, fecundity and performance of natural enemies. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. [less ▲]

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See detailBiocidal activity of polylactic acid-based nano-formulated abamectin on Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the aphid predator Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
Sun, Changjiao ULiege; Yu, Manli; Zeng, Zhanghua et al

in PLoS ONE (2020)

Abamectin is a common biocide used to control agricultural insect pests. However, the water insolubility of abamectin may result in extra organic solvent introduced in the environment. To solve this issue ... [more ▼]

Abamectin is a common biocide used to control agricultural insect pests. However, the water insolubility of abamectin may result in extra organic solvent introduced in the environment. To solve this issue, it is desirable to develop nanoformulations to encapsulate abamectin with environment-friendly polymers. In this study, two polylactic acid based abamectin nanoformulations were prepared. The average particle sizes, measured by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscope, were 240 nm and 150 nm, respectively. The insecticidal activity of these nano-formulated abamectin was examined in the laboratory on the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The acute toxicity of nano-formulated abamectin on non-target aphid predator Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was also evaluated by topical, residual and oral exposure. The two nano-formulated abamectin had comparable insecticidal effect with commercial abamectin formulation against the pea aphid. Taking median lethal concentration (LC50) as the toxicological endpoint, nanoformulations had higher contact toxicity and lower oral toxicity to first-instar larvae of the predator A. bipunctata. These results are expected to contribute to the application of solvent-free nano-formulated pesticides that comply with the integrated pest management (IPM) strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic analysis and population structure of Anopheles gambiae complex (Diptera: Culicidae) from different ecological zones of Burkina Faso.
Zoure, Abdou ULiege; Noël, Grégoire ULiege; Sombié, Aboubacar et al

in Infection, Genetics and Evolution: Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics of Infectious Diseases (2020)

The Anopheles gambiae complex is the most important vector for malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa, besides to other vectors such as Anopheles funestus. Malaria vector control must consider specific ... [more ▼]

The Anopheles gambiae complex is the most important vector for malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa, besides to other vectors such as Anopheles funestus. Malaria vector control must consider specific identification, the genetic diversity and the population structure of An. gambiae to design vector control strategies. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of sibling species of the An. gambiae complex according to climatic regions related to cotton-growing or cotton-free areas by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Secondly, variation in mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) was used to assess the genetic structure within and between populations from our selected ecological zones. At the sibling species level, in all samples (n = 180), the following proportions of An. coluzzii (65.56%), An. gambiae s.s. (21.11%) and An. arabiensis (3.33%) were found. Hybrids between An. gambiae s.s. and An. coluzzii (7.78%) and hybrids between An. coluzzii and An. arabiensis (2.22%) were found as well. The phylogenetic tree and Integer Neighbour-Joining (IntNJ) haplotype network revealed no distinct genetic structure pattern related to climatic or agricultural conditions in Burkina Faso. The Fst (Wright’s F-statistic) values close to zero showed a free gene flow and an absence of differentiation in An. gambiae complex populations. Furthermore, neutrality indices calculated by Tajima’s D, Fu and Li's D*, Fu and Li's F*, Fu’s Fs tests suggested an excess of rare mutations in the investigated populations. Overall, this study found variations in the proportions of An. gambiae s.s., An. coluzzii and An. arabiensis according to climatic regions but without population 35 structuration of the An. gambiae complex. These results are scientific contributions that can be used as a basis for further in-depth study of the genetic diversity of the An. gambiae complex for epidemiologic risk assessment of malaria in Burkina Faso. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthèse bibliographique : Streetbees – Clauses techniques pour l’aménagement de trottoirs et revêtements permettant l’accueil d’abeilles sauvages terricoles.
Noël, Grégoire ULiege; Van Keymeulen, Violette; Van Damme, Olivier et al

Book published by Bruxelles Environnement (2020)

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See detailBiofilm mode of cultivation leads to an improvement of the entomotoxic patterns of two aspergillus species
Francis, Frédéric ULiege; Druart, F.; Di Mavungu, J. D. et al

in Microorganisms (2020), 8(5),

Two fungi, i.e., Aspergillus flavus Link and Aspergillus oryzae (Ahlb.) E. Cohn, were cultivated according to two methodologies, namely submerged and biofilm cultures with the primary aim to use their ... [more ▼]

Two fungi, i.e., Aspergillus flavus Link and Aspergillus oryzae (Ahlb.) E. Cohn, were cultivated according to two methodologies, namely submerged and biofilm cultures with the primary aim to use their secondary metabolites the supernatant CL50, and CL90 varied between 1.3% (v/v) to 12.7% (v/v) for incubation times from 24 to 72 h. While the A. flavus supernatant entomotoxicity was higher than this of A. oryzae, the biofilm culture application increased the efficiency of the former. Proteomic analysis of the supernatants revealed discrepancies among the two species and modes of cultivation. Furthermore, the secondary metabolite profiles of both Aspergillus cultures were verified. Aspergillic acid, beta-cyclopiazonic acid, cyclopiazonic acid, ferrineospergillin, flavacol, and spermadin A were most predominant. Generally, these secondary metabolites were present in higher concentrations in the supernatants of A. flavus and biofilm cultures. These molecular identifications correlated positively with entomotoxic activity. Noteworthy, the absence of carcinogenic aflatoxins was remarkable, and it will allow further valorization to produce A. flavus to develop potential biopesticides. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. [less ▲]

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See detailLabeling Regulations and Quality Control of Honey Origin: A Review
Madas, Mariana-Niculina ULiege; Mărghitaş, Liviu Alexandru; Dezmirean, Daniel Severus et al

in Food Reviews International (2020)

Honey, a complex product made by bees, represents a rich natural source of simple carbohydrates. The characteristic flavor, health benefits, and high economic value of honey depend on its origin and ... [more ▼]

Honey, a complex product made by bees, represents a rich natural source of simple carbohydrates. The characteristic flavor, health benefits, and high economic value of honey depend on its origin and production methods. Therefore, labels have been developed to recognize honey quality linked to origin or production method, in order to inform consumers about these specific determinants. This review aims to deepen the knowledge of honey quality linked to the origin and to present an overview of the literature concern- ing the methods to determine its authenticity. Legislative aspects and the general parameters required for honey generic quality are presented, as well as honey quality control methods with emphasis on the profiling determination. [less ▲]

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See detailPresentation of Pukchang fish farm (Democratic People Republic of Korea) in the context of a joint partnership project funded by EU.
Lebailly, Philippe ULiege; Yong Jin Kang; Cho Yon Kim et al

in Advances in Oceanography & Marine Biology (2020)

The main objective of this paper is to present a project initiated in 2018 by two universities and a NGO with the support of EU in Democratic People Republic of Korea. The partnership intends to durably ... [more ▼]

The main objective of this paper is to present a project initiated in 2018 by two universities and a NGO with the support of EU in Democratic People Republic of Korea. The partnership intends to durably improve the animal protein intake’s availability and the dietary quality for children at social institutions’ level in South Pyongan province. The authors present the main characteristic of Pukchang farm and the organisation of the fish distribution in the county. The experimental farm of Pukchang has been designated as reference fish farm. The maximum production level was reached in 1998 and 1999 with trout production estimated at around 50 tons at the time. This record level was observed when the farm was supplied with high quantities and quality of fishmeal, which is no longer the case today. Now, the primary constraint to increasing production is directly related to lack of feed. [less ▲]

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See detailResidues and enantioselective behavior of cyflumetofen from apple production
Quan, R.; Li, Minmin ULiege; Liu, Y. et al

in Food Chemistry (2020), 321

The effect of food processing on the level and fate of chiral pesticide residues in apple products has rarely been investigated. In this study, we used ultra-performance convergence chromatography coupled ... [more ▼]

The effect of food processing on the level and fate of chiral pesticide residues in apple products has rarely been investigated. In this study, we used ultra-performance convergence chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry to determine the content of the novel chiral acaricide cyflumetofen. The matrix-matched calibration lines were constructed for apple slices, juice, wine and vinegar, and the determination coefficients (r2) exceeded 0.9954. Acceptable average recoveries were within 81.1% to 119.9%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 0.8% to 11.0%. Processing effectiveness is represented by the processing factor (PF). The results indicated that the PFs of different procedures (washing, peeling, enzymolysis, fermentation, among others.) were generally less than 1. The reduction of cyflumetofen enantiomers during fermentation was in accordance with first-order kinetics, and stereoselective behavior was observed. This study provides reliable references for the risk assessment of cyflumetofen in the processing of apple products. © 2020 Elsevier Ltd [less ▲]

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See detailVolatiles of bacteria associated with parasitoid habitats elicit distinct olfactory responses in an aphid parasitoid and its hyperparasitoid
Goelen, T.; Sobhy, I. S.; Vanderaa, C. et al

in Functional Ecology (2020), 34(2), 507-520

To locate mating partners and essential resources such as food, oviposition sites and shelter, insects rely to a large extent on chemical cues. While most research has focused on cues derived from plants ... [more ▼]

To locate mating partners and essential resources such as food, oviposition sites and shelter, insects rely to a large extent on chemical cues. While most research has focused on cues derived from plants and insects, there is mounting evidence that indicates that micro-organisms emit volatile compounds that may play an important role in insect behaviour. In this study, we assessed how volatile compounds emitted by phylogenetically diverse bacteria affected the olfactory response of the primary parasitoid Aphidius colemani and one of its secondary parasitoids, Dendrocerus aphidum. Olfactory responses were evaluated for volatile blends emitted by bacteria isolated from diverse sources from the parasitoid's habitat, including aphids, aphid mummies and honeydew, and from the parasitoids themselves. Results revealed that A. colemani showed a wide variation in response to bacterial volatiles, ranging from significant attraction over no response to significant repellence. Our results further showed that the olfactory response of A. colemani to bacterial volatile emissions was different from that of D. aphidum. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the volatile blends revealed that bacterial strains repellent to A. colemani produced significantly higher amounts of esters, organic acids, aromatics and cycloalkanes than attractive strains. Strains repellent to D. aphidum produced significantly higher amounts of alcohols and ketones, whereas the strains attractive to D. aphidum produced higher amounts of the monoterpenes limonene, linalool and geraniol. Overall, our results indicate that bacterial volatiles can have an important impact on insect olfactory responses, and should therefore be considered as an additional, so far often overlooked factor in studying multitrophic interactions between plants and insects. A free Plain Language Summary can be found within the Supporting Information of this article. © 2019 British Ecological Society [less ▲]

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