Publications of François Verheggen
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See detailLinking variety‑dependent root volatile organic compounds in maize with diferential infestation by wireworms
La Forgia, Diana ULiege; Thibord, Jean-Baptiste; Larroudé, Philippe et al

in Journal of Pest Science (2020)

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See detailPolymer-Based Nanoinsecticides: Current Developments, Environmental Risks and Future Challenges-A Review
Sun, Changjiao ULiege; Zeng, Zhanghua; Cui, Haixin et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement (2020), 24

Introduction. Le développement rapide de l'industrie des nanotechnologies ouvre de nouvelles perspectives pour les stratégies modernes de protection des cultures. Cette revue de la littérature résume et ... [more ▼]

Introduction. Le développement rapide de l'industrie des nanotechnologies ouvre de nouvelles perspectives pour les stratégies modernes de protection des cultures. Cette revue de la littérature résume et discute l'utilisation des polymères comme matrice de support aux insecticides. Ces nouvelles matrices doivent assurer un niveau de protection plus élevé pour les humains et l'environnement, tout en assurant une bonne efficacité de la matière active. Littérature. Certains des polymères synthétiques (y compris le polyéthylène glycol, l'acide polylactique, la polycaprolactone et le polyhydroxybutyrate) qui sont largement utilisés dans les domaines pharmaceutique ou cosmétique, peuvent être utilisés comme matrice de support aux insecticides. Mais les polymères naturels (dont le chitosane, l'alginate, la cellulose, l'amidon et les cyclodextrines) bénéficient d'une attention croissante en raison de leurs propriétés écologiques. Les matériaux polymères peuvent être préparés sous différents types de structures tridimensionnelles, parmi lesquelles les nanocapsules, les nanosphères, les micelles, les nanogels et les nanofibres sont les plus courantes. Les risques environnementaux des nanoinsecticides à base de polymères sont discutés, ainsi que les principaux défis à relever avant leur commercialisation future. Il s'agit notamment de la réduction de leurs couts de production et de l'évaluation de leurs performances, en particulier sur le terrain. De nouveaux protocoles de caractérisation, de détection et de quantification sont également nécessaires de toute urgence. Conclusions. Les nanoformulations à base de polymères semblent prometteuses pour la libération ciblée de matières actives insecticides tout en réduisant la dérive de ces substances nocives. Afin de faciliter le développement de nouveaux produits bénéfiques, une collaboration entre les pays du monde entier est nécessaire. [less ▲]

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See detailBiocidal activity of polylactic acid-based nano-formulated abamectin on Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the aphid predator Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
Sun, Changjiao ULiege; Yu, Manli; Zeng, Zhanghua et al

in PLoS ONE (2020)

Abamectin is a common biocide used to control agricultural insect pests. However, the water insolubility of abamectin may result in extra organic solvent introduced in the environment. To solve this issue ... [more ▼]

Abamectin is a common biocide used to control agricultural insect pests. However, the water insolubility of abamectin may result in extra organic solvent introduced in the environment. To solve this issue, it is desirable to develop nanoformulations to encapsulate abamectin with environment-friendly polymers. In this study, two polylactic acid based abamectin nanoformulations were prepared. The average particle sizes, measured by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscope, were 240 nm and 150 nm, respectively. The insecticidal activity of these nano-formulated abamectin was examined in the laboratory on the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The acute toxicity of nano-formulated abamectin on non-target aphid predator Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was also evaluated by topical, residual and oral exposure. The two nano-formulated abamectin had comparable insecticidal effect with commercial abamectin formulation against the pea aphid. Taking median lethal concentration (LC50) as the toxicological endpoint, nanoformulations had higher contact toxicity and lower oral toxicity to first-instar larvae of the predator A. bipunctata. These results are expected to contribute to the application of solvent-free nano-formulated pesticides that comply with the integrated pest management (IPM) strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailConservation value of tropical forests: Distance to human settlements matters more than management in Central Africa
Lhoest, Simon ULiege; Fonteyn, Davy ULiege; Daïnou, Kasso ULiege et al

in Biological Conservation (2020), 241(108351),

Tropical forests in Central Africa host unique biodiversity threatened by human degradation of habitats and defaunation. Forests allocated to conservation, production and community management are expected ... [more ▼]

Tropical forests in Central Africa host unique biodiversity threatened by human degradation of habitats and defaunation. Forests allocated to conservation, production and community management are expected to have different conservation values. Here, we aimed to identify the determinants of the conservation value of tropical forests in southeastern Cameroon, by disentangling the effects of forest allocations, proximity to human settlements, and local habitat. We inventoried two taxonomical groups: mammal species with camera traps (3464 independent detection events) and dung beetle species with pitfall traps (4475 individuals). We used an integrated analytical approach, examining both species richness and composition. For both mammals and dung beetles, species richness decreased from the protected area to the community forests, and the logging concession showed intermediate richness. Species richness of both groups was negatively correlated to the proximity to human settlements and disturbance, with a decreasing gradient of body mass and the loss of the most threatened species. The replacement (i.e., spatial turnover) of both mammal and dung beetle species among forest allocations suggest an integration of conservation initiatives to a large number of different sites, with a priority on protected and remote areas of high biodiversity. These results confirm the high conservation value of protected areas and their essential role in conservation strategies, ecologically connected with well-managed production forests with variable conservation value mainly depending on accessibility. Community forests located close to villages are much more degraded but not totally defaunated and still provide bushmeat to local populations. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd [less ▲]

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See detailSilicon and Plant Natural Defenses against Insect Pests: Impact on Plant Volatile Organic Compounds and Cascade Effects on Multitrophic Interactions
Leroy, Nicolas ULiege; de Tombeur, Félix ULiege; Walgraffe, Yseult ULiege et al

in Plants (2019), 8(444), 11

Environmental factors controlling silicon (Si) accumulation in terrestrial plant are key drivers to alleviate plant biotic stresses, including insect herbivory. While there is a general agreement on the ... [more ▼]

Environmental factors controlling silicon (Si) accumulation in terrestrial plant are key drivers to alleviate plant biotic stresses, including insect herbivory. While there is a general agreement on the ability of Si-enriched plant to better resist insect feeding, recent studies suggest that Si also primes biochemical defense pathways in various plant families. In this review, we first summarize how soil parameters and climate variables influence Si assimilation in plants. Then, we describe recent evidences on the ability of Si to modulate plant volatile emissions, with potential cascade effects on phytophagous insects and higher trophic levels. Even though the mechanisms still need to be elucidated, Si accumulation in plants leads to contrasting e ects on the levels of the three major phytohormones, namely jasmonic acid, salicylic acid and ethylene, resulting in modified emissions of plant volatile organic compounds. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles would be particularly impacted by Si concentration in plant tissues, resulting in a cascade effect on the attraction of natural enemies of pests, known to locate their prey or hosts based on plant volatile cues. Since seven of the top 10 most important crops in the world are Si-accumulating Poaceae species, it is important to discuss the potential of Si mobility in soil-plant systems as a novel component of integrated pest management. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential wing polyphenism adaptation across life stages under extreme high temperatures in corn leaf aphid
Chen, Yu ULiege; Verheggen, François ULiege; Sun, Dandan et al

in Scientific Reports (2019)

Polyphenism, a common phenomenon in nature, is an important form of adaptation in a diverse environment. Corn leaf aphid (CLA), Rhopalosiphum maidis, (Hemiptera: Aphididae), exhibit wing polyphenism in ... [more ▼]

Polyphenism, a common phenomenon in nature, is an important form of adaptation in a diverse environment. Corn leaf aphid (CLA), Rhopalosiphum maidis, (Hemiptera: Aphididae), exhibit wing polyphenism in response to poor habitat quality. In this study, we focused on the effects of crowding and thermal cues on morph determination of CLA. Five developmental stages of aphids (1st to 4th nymphs and maternal adults) with increased population densities, were tested under two kinds of temperature patterns, i.e., A) a constant temperature of 22 °C with 2 h exposure to high temperature in the range of 35 to 39 °C during mid-photophase and B) different constant temperatures in the range of 22-30 °C with 2 h exposure to high temperature of 39 °C during mid-photophase. Crowding was found to directly impact winged induction. The 1st and 2nd nymphs were more sensitive for alate morphs induction under high density. In addition, temperature played a significant role in wing production, with the temperature setting of 26/39 °C in pattern B inducing higher alate morphs and survival than other temperature settings. Therefore, we hypothesize that warmer climate with brief high temperature is more favourable for survival and alate morphs production, but cool weather and transient extreme high temperature (>39 °C) is detrimental for CLA. Our results provide a new perspective on understanding the interactions between changes in extreme high temperatures and insect densities that differentially affect wing polymorphism for further demographic and distribution rates of species across temporal and spatial scales. [less ▲]

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See detailConservation value of protected and logged tropical forests in Cameroon
Lhoest, Simon ULiege; Fonteyn, Davy ULiege; Daïnou, Kasso ULiege et al

Scientific conference (2019, January 25)

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See detailBiological alternatives to pesticides to control wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae)
La Forgia, Diana ULiege; Verheggen, François ULiege

in Agri Gene (2019), 11

Most studies on plant-insect interactions focus on the aboveground parts of plants, but the knowledge regarding the belowground interactions is increasing. Soil pests are at least equally dangerous to ... [more ▼]

Most studies on plant-insect interactions focus on the aboveground parts of plants, but the knowledge regarding the belowground interactions is increasing. Soil pests are at least equally dangerous to plant health and elicit plant defense mechanisms as well. Wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) are common polyphagous soil pests of various crops, including economically relevant crops such as maize and potatoes. Their management with pesticides is often not successful or sustainable, and more research on biological alternatives is required. We aim at providing an overview of biological control methods under development or commercially available. Little is known about the natural enemies of wireworms, and the available work is often limited to laboratory experiments. The interest for using using microorganisms as biocontrol agent is increasing, and entomopathogenic fungi, nematodes, and bacteria represent promising alternatives to pesticides. The review discusses the combination of attractive semiochemicals with biological agents to improve wireworm monitoring and control, as well as research advances on these fronts [less ▲]

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See detailA review of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) host plants and their impact on management strategies
Cherif, Asma ULiege; Verheggen, François ULiege

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement (2019), 23(4),

Introduction. Tuta absoluta is one of the most harmful insect pests of tomato crops worldwide. While its host plants mainly include Solanaceae species, recent studies suggest that it can lay eggs and ... [more ▼]

Introduction. Tuta absoluta is one of the most harmful insect pests of tomato crops worldwide. While its host plants mainly include Solanaceae species, recent studies suggest that it can lay eggs and develop on a wider range of wild and cultivated plants. No complete list of host plants based on available scientific data exists. Such information is important for those who aim at performing integrated management strategies against this pest, especially when it comes to identify host reservoirs where the species can survive between harvests or avoid insecticide exposure. Literature. We identified cultivated and non-cultivated plant species belonging to Solanaceae, Amaranthaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Geraniaceae, Fabaceae, Asteraceae and Malvaceae that allow partial or complete egg-imago development. Among them, we found out that most non-Solanaceous plants serve as oviposition sites only (with no larval development possible), and a few of them allow partial life cycle (causing late instars to die prematurely). We also identified a strong cultivar-dependence in the most common cultivated plant species including tomato and potato. Conclusions. We discuss the potential of resistant and genetically modified tomato cultivars, plant chemical compounds and fertilization as components of integrated control strategies of T. absoluta. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst record of Tuta absoluta in Haiti
Verheggen, François ULiege; Fontus, Bertin

in Entomologia Generalis (2019)

From March to June 2018, we performed an insect survey in four tomato fields located in the South Department of Haiti. Although crop rotations and insecticide applications are regularly performed on these ... [more ▼]

From March to June 2018, we performed an insect survey in four tomato fields located in the South Department of Haiti. Although crop rotations and insecticide applications are regularly performed on these fields, insect pests repeatedly cause damage to plants and fruits. Leafminer larvae and adults were captured and further identified as Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). This is the first record of this important tomato pest in Haiti. Early conversations with growers suggest that the insect is experiencing a year of unprecedented outbreaks. We expect growers to increase the frequency and doses of insecticide treatments, accelerating the development of insecticide resistant populations. The presence of T. absoluta in Haiti will probably result in a fast expansion to the neighbouring Dominican Republic, and could serve as additional reservoir for dissemination to American countries. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of the Sex Pheromone Composition of Harmonia axyridis Originating from Native and Invaded Areas
Legrand, Pauline ULiege; Vanderplanck, Maryse ULiege; Verheggen, François ULiege

in Insects (2019)

The multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), originates from South-East Asia and is now considered as an invasive species at a worldwide scale, with populations ... [more ▼]

The multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), originates from South-East Asia and is now considered as an invasive species at a worldwide scale, with populations encountered in North and South America, Africa, and Europe. Several previous studies suggested that invasive populations display di erent behavioral and physiological traits, leading to a better fitness than native individuals. H. axyridis sex pheromone was identified recently, but only from individuals established in Europe. In this study, we compare the composition of the female sex pheromone of H. axyridis from two populations: (i) an invasive population in North America, and (ii) a native population in South-East China. We found the females originating from both populations to release in similar proportions the same five pheromonal compounds, namely -caryophyllene, -elemene, methyl-eugenol, -humulene, and -bulnesene. However, females from the North American strain release all five compounds in larger amount than the Chinese ones. Whether invasive individuals were selected during the process of invasion through their capacity to better call and find sexual partners remains to be confirmed. [less ▲]

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See detailToday and tomorrow: impact of climate change on aphid biology and potential consequences on their mutualism with ants
Blanchard, Solène ULiege; Lognay, Georges ULiege; Verheggen, François ULiege et al

in Physiological Entomology (2019)

Recent studies about mutualism are considering the complexity and versatility of the relation as well as highlighting the importance of the cost/benefit balance between the two protagonists. As species ... [more ▼]

Recent studies about mutualism are considering the complexity and versatility of the relation as well as highlighting the importance of the cost/benefit balance between the two protagonists. As species interactions are highly dependent on the environment, the climate changes that are foreseen for the coming years, are expected to have significant impacts on the evolution of mutualistic interactions. Among mutualisms, the aphid-ant interaction is well documented, partly explained by the pest status of aphids. This literature review focuses on the impact of climate change (particularly atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and temperature) on aphids’ biology and the potential consequences on their mutualistic interactions with ants. We provide an overview of the published reports that deal with the effects of temperature and carbon dioxide on aphids, for which a positive, a negative or a no-effect was highlighted. A discussion is then provided on how climatic changes can alter four major components of aphid biology that are shaping their interaction with ants: (1) aphid population growth, (2) aphid behavior and mobility, (3) honeydew production and composition, and (4) semiochemistry. At the end of the review, we discuss limits to such studies on aphid-ant mutualism as well as the information still needed to predict how climate change might impact this kind of relationship. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of necrophagous insects on the emission of volatile organic compounds released during the decaying process
Martin, Clément ULiege; Vanderplanck, Maryse; Boullis, Antoine ULiege et al

in Entomologia Generalis (2019), 39(1),

After death, corpses undergo a complex decomposition process, during which volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released. Several groups of organisms, including insects, use these VOCs to select their ... [more ▼]

After death, corpses undergo a complex decomposition process, during which volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released. Several groups of organisms, including insects, use these VOCs to select their mating and feeding sites. While the presence of insects on a corpse influences the decaying process, we do not know whether insects impact on the VOC profile released by the cadaver. Using decomposing rats exposed to dipterans (Lucilia sericata) and/or coleopterans (Dermeste frischii), we assessed how the presence of insects impacted the cadaver volatilome by using dynamic sampling. As expected, the decomposition of rats in presence of insects was faster than in absence of insects. All rats went through the five decomposition stages with the exception of rats decomposing without insects. The composition of their volatile profiles differed among decomposition stages. We also found that insects do not affect the volatilome of decomposing rats, and no indicator compound could be associated to the presence of specific insect groups [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of host plants reared under elevated CO2 concentrations on the foraging behavior of different stages of corn leaf aphids rhopalosiphum maidis
Chen, Yu ULiege; Martin, Clément ULiege; Fingu Mabola, Junior Corneille ULiege et al

in Insects (2019)

Climate change is a major environmental concern and is directly related to the increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases. The increase in concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), not only a ... [more ▼]

Climate change is a major environmental concern and is directly related to the increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases. The increase in concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), not only a ects plant growth and development, but also a ects the emission of plant organic volatile compounds (VOCs). Changes in the plant odor profile may a ect the plant-insect interactions, especially the behavior of herbivorous insects. In this study, we compared the foraging behavior of corn leaf aphid (Rhopalosiphum maidis) on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings grown under contrasted CO2 concentrations. During the dual choice bioassays, the winged and wingless aphids were more attracted by the VOCs of barley seedlings cultivated under ambient CO2 concentrations (aCO2; 450 ppm) than barley seedlings cultivated under elevated CO2 concentrations (eCO2; 800 ppm), nymphs were not attracted by the VOCs of eCO2 barley seedlings. Then, volatile compositions from 14-d-old aCO2 and eCO2 barley seedlings were investigated by GC-MS. While 16 VOCs were identified from aCO2 barley seedlings, only 9 VOCs were found from eCO2 barley seedlings. At last, we discussed the potential role of these chemicals observed during choice bioassays. Our findings lay foundation for functional response of corn leaf aphid under climate change through host plant modifications. [less ▲]

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See detailAlternatives to neonicotinoids
Jactel, Hervé; Verheggen, François ULiege; Thiery, Denis et al

in Environment International (2019), 129

The European Food Safety Authority concluded in February 2018 that “most uses of neonicotinoid insecticides represent a risk to wild bees and honeybees”. In 2016, the French government passed a law ... [more ▼]

The European Food Safety Authority concluded in February 2018 that “most uses of neonicotinoid insecticides represent a risk to wild bees and honeybees”. In 2016, the French government passed a law banning the use of the five neonicotinoids previously authorized: clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, acetamiprid and thiacloprid. In the framework of an expert assessment conducted by the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety to identify possible derogations, we performed a thorough assessment of the available alternatives to the five banned neonicotinoids. For each pest targeted by neonicotinoids use, we identified the main alternative pest management methods, which we then ranked for (i) efficacy for controlling the target pest, (ii) applicability (whether directly useable by farmers or in need of further research and development), (iii) durability (risk of resistance in targeted pests), and (iv) practicability (ease of implementation by farmers). We identified 152 authorized uses of neonicotinoids in France, encompassing 120 crops and 279 pest insect species (or genera). An effective alternative to neonicotinoids use was available in 96% of the 2968 case studies analyzed from the literature (single combinations of one alternative pest control method or product×one target crop plant×one target pest insect). The most common alternative to neonicotinoids (89% of cases) was the use of another chemical insecticide (mostly pyrethroids). However, in 78% of cases, at least one non-chemical alternative method could replace neonicotinoids (e.g. microorganisms, semiochemicals or surface coating). The relevance of non-chemical alternatives to neonicotinoids depends on pest feeding habits. Leaf and flower feeders are easier to control with non-chemical methods, whereas wood and root feeders are more difficult to manage by such methods. We also found that further field studies were required for many promising non-chemical methods before their introduction into routine use by farmers. Our findings, transmitted to policymakers, indicate that non-chemical alternatives to neonicotinoids do exist. Furthermore, they highlight the need to promote these methods through regulation and funding, with a view to reducing pesticide use in agricultur [less ▲]

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See detailCuticular hydrocarbon composition does not allow Harmonia axyridis males to identify the mating status of sexual partners
Legrand, Pauline ULiege; Vanderplanck, Maryse ULiege; Lorge, Stéphanie ULiege et al

in Entomologia Generalis (2019), 38(3), 211-224

Males of polyandrous species have to overcome sperm competition. They should select their mate based on the reproductive status of the female to increase their own fitness. Because the sexual behavior of ... [more ▼]

Males of polyandrous species have to overcome sperm competition. They should select their mate based on the reproductive status of the female to increase their own fitness. Because the sexual behavior of lady beetles relies on semiochemicals, with cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) being used for mate recognition, we developed and tested two hypotheses. First, we hypothesized that the cuticular hydrocarbon profile qualitatively and quantitatively differs between virgin and mated Harmonia axyridis females, regardless of the color morph. Second, we hypothesized that males discriminate virgin and mated females, preferring copulating with virgin females, rather than previously mated ones, to avoid sperm competition and subsequently increase their fitness. CHCs were solvent-extracted before being quantified and identified by gas chromatography. We found no qualitative differences between mated and unmated females irrespective of the morph; however, quantitative differences were detected. Specifically, the CHC profiles of mated females presented higher concentrations of alkenes, including 9-pentacosene, 9-heptacosene, and 9-hentriacontene. During dual-choice behavioral assays, males equally copulated with virgin and mated females. Our results suggest that there is no CHC-based discrimination strategy in virgin males of H. axyridis between virgin and once-mated females. We discuss alternative strategies that might be used in this lady beetle species. [less ▲]

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See detailThe taste of origin in a lady beetle: do males discriminate between females based on cuticular hydrocarbons?
Legrand, Pauline; Vanderplanck, Maryse ULiege; Marko, Istvan et al

in Physiological Entomology (2019)

The Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis originates from Asia and has established invasive populations at a worldwide scale. Recent population genetic studies have traced their invasion routes and ... [more ▼]

The Asian lady beetle Harmonia axyridis originates from Asia and has established invasive populations at a worldwide scale. Recent population genetic studies have traced their invasion routes and demonstrated that bottlenecks in population size have reduced their genetic diversity. As a consequence, phenotypical differences were highlighted between native and invasive populations. Among phenotypical traits, cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) might reflect geographical origin of a lady beetle, especially because of their genetic basis. Here, we investigated whether (i) the CHC profiles qualitatively and quantitatively differ between females of H. axyridis from native and invasive populations; and (ii) males discriminate females from native and invasive populations using CHC profiles. CHCs were solvent-extracted before being quantified and identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. We detected a total of 17 CHCs from female elytra including six alkanes, three polyunsaturated and eight monounsaturated alkenes. The total quantity of CHCs differed among the populations with lady beetles from Tai’an (China) displaying a higher CHCs concentration than lady beetles from Gembloux (Belgium) and from Beijing (China) populations. Multivariate analyses detected differences in CHCs qualitative profiles, with females from Tai’an being different from the two other populations. Finally, our behavioural assays showed that females originating from the native Tai’an population were less preferred by males, while females from the invasive population were mounted more often. Our behavioural assays suggest that CHCs are not involved in discrimination of mating partners based on their origin. [less ▲]

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