Publications of Pierre-Louis Bombeck
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See detailDiversifier l'industrie papetière vers la nanocellulose : l'approche enzymo-mécanique
Bombeck, Pierre-Louis ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2019)

As a major player of the forest-based industry, the pulp and paper industry is seeking to diversify its production and become part of a development focused on the bioeconomy. Pulp mills have become ... [more ▼]

As a major player of the forest-based industry, the pulp and paper industry is seeking to diversify its production and become part of a development focused on the bioeconomy. Pulp mills have become experts in the deconstruction of this unique natural material that is wood, which is the result of an assembly of different components where each element can be used. In this context, the concept of Integrated Forest Biorefinery (IFBR), for which the principles of refining apply to forest biomass, has been developed within integrated facilities in existing pulp mills. Among the new products that can come from the wood-industry, nanocellulose has a high potential of valorization in a variety of uses. It can be produced from conventional cellulosic wood pulp, and this way of diversification is easily implantable within existing paper mills. This research tackles the different forms of nanocellulose and focuses on one of these forms, cellulose nanofibers (CNF), and on the production methods from wood pulp, especially unbleached wood pulp. We demonstrate the advantages of a CNF production process that combines enzymatic pretreatment of the pulp, followed by a mechanical treatment. This pretreatment by enzymatic hydrolysis is the main interest of the production process. The selected enzymes selectively attack the components of the fiber, leading to modifications which facilitate subsequent treatments. The development of a simple and rapid method for evaluating the impact of hydrolysis on fibers makes it possible to select the most appropriate wood pulp / enzyme cocktail combinations according to the targeted end products (nanocellulose, modified paper fibers, bioethanol, etc.). Pretreatment by enzymatic hydrolysis can also be controlled in order to optimize certain cellulosic and hemicellulosic carbohydrates releases. The use of hydrolysis in successive stages allows the evacuation of the hydrolysis products. This attenuates the inhibitory effect of these products, but also allows a better yield and a better selectivity of the products obtained by the enzymatic pretreatment. This optimized pretreatment is compatible with the production of CNF. This research demonstrates the use potential of the main types of unbleached virgin wood pulp produced by the paper industry, through a nanocellulose production process that also generates value-added co-products. This process can be controlled according to the targeted products and / or the desired degree of modification of the surface of the fiber. [less ▲]

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See detailPredicting the most appropriate wood biomass for selected industrial applications: comparison of wood, pulping, and enzymatic treatments using fluorescent-tagged carbohydrate-binding modules
Bombeck, Pierre-Louis ULiege; Khatri, Vinay; Meddeb‐Mouelhi, Fatma et al

in Biotechnology for Biofuels (2017), 10

Background: Lignocellulosic biomass will progressively become the main source of carbon for a number of prod‐ ucts as the Earth’s oil reservoirs disappear. Technology for conversion of wood fiber into ... [more ▼]

Background: Lignocellulosic biomass will progressively become the main source of carbon for a number of prod‐ ucts as the Earth’s oil reservoirs disappear. Technology for conversion of wood fiber into bioproducts (wood biorefin‐ ing) continues to flourish, and access to reliable methods for monitoring modification of such fibers is becoming an important issue. Recently, we developed a simple, rapid approach for detecting four different types of polymer on the surface of wood fibers. Named fluorescent‐tagged carbohydrate‐binding module (FTCM), this method is based on the fluorescence signal from carbohydrate‐binding modules‐based probes designed to recognize specific polymers such as crystalline cellulose, amorphous cellulose, xylan, and mannan. Results: Here we used FTCM to characterize pulps made from softwood and hardwood that were prepared using Kraft or chemical‐thermo‐mechanical pulping. Comparison of chemical analysis (NREL protocol) and FTCM revealed that FTCM results were consistent with chemical analysis of the hemicellulose composition of both hardwood and softwood samples. Kraft pulping increased the difference between softwood and hardwood surface mannans, and increased xylan exposure. This suggests that Kraft pulping leads to exposure of xylan after removal of both lignin and mannan. Impact of enzyme cocktails from Trichoderma reesei (Celluclast 1.5L) and from Aspergillus sp. (Carezyme 1000L) was investigated by analysis of hydrolyzed sugars and by FTCM. Both enzymes preparations released cel‐ lobiose and glucose from pulps, with the cocktail from Trichoderma being the most efficient. Enzymatic treatments were not as effective at converting chemical‐thermomechanical pulps to simple sugars, regardless of wood type. FTCM revealed that amorphous cellulose was the primary target of either enzyme preparation, which resulted in a higher proportion of crystalline cellulose on the surface after enzymatic treatment. FTCM confirmed that enzymes from Aspergillus had little impact on exposed hemicelluloses, but that enzymes from the more aggressive Trichoderma cocktail reduced hemicelluloses at the surface. Conclusions: Overall, this study indicates that treatment with enzymes from Trichoderma is appropriate for gen‐ erating crystalline cellulose at fiber surface. Applications such as nanocellulose or composites requiring chemical resistance would benefit from this enzymatic treatment. The milder enzyme mixture from Aspergillus allowed for removal of amorphous cellulose while preserving hemicelluloses at fiber surface, which makes this treatment appro‐ priate for new paper products where surface chemical responsiveness is required. [less ▲]

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See detailProduction de nanocellulose à partir de pâte à papier: Hydrolyse enzymatique et valorisation des coproduits dans une stratégie de bioraffinage forestier intégré
Bombeck, Pierre-Louis ULiege; Richel, Aurore ULiege; Jacquet, Nicolas ULiege et al

Conference (2016, January 19)

Présentation succincte de la thématique de recherche doctorale et de son contexte

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See detailL’utilisation de l’hydrolyse enzymatique pour la production de nanocellulose dans une stratégie de bioraffinage forestier intégré (Synthèse Bibliographique)
Bombeck, Pierre-Louis ULiege; Hebert, Jacques ULiege; Richel, Aurore ULiege

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement (2016), 20(1), 94-103

Introduction. In a world that seeks to break free from petrochemicals, the concept of forest biomass biorefinery is increasingly being studied as a way to maximize the value of the components of this ... [more ▼]

Introduction. In a world that seeks to break free from petrochemicals, the concept of forest biomass biorefinery is increasingly being studied as a way to maximize the value of the components of this biomass. Due to the high added value expected when transforming cellulose fibers into nanocellulose, this technology is highly attractive to the pulp and paper industrial world. <br />Literature. The concept of integrated forest biorefinery is to adapt existing pulp mills so as to maximize the value of the co-products. Through the use of various methods, two types of nanocellulose may be obtained from the cellulose in the pulp. Due to its production of valuable byproducts, enzymatic hydrolysis is an interesting method to use for this purpose, but it must be combined with mechanical post-treatments. The production of nanocellulose from chemical pulp takes place in the final step of pulp production, and could be implemented without modifying the existing mills. The economic viability of this mode of production and the potential market size are the subject of recent studies that appear encouraging. <br />Conclusions. Nanocellulose is a promising biomaterial whose field of application continues to grow. Cellulose in wood pulp can be used as a raw material for the production of nanocellulose using enzymatic pre-treatments that generate valuable co-products. This process can be integrated into a conventional chemical pulp mill and constitutes a broadening of the products available to the pulp and paper industry. [less ▲]

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See detailOak barks as raw materials for the extraction of polyphenols for the chemical and pharmaceutical sectors: a regional case study
Dedrie, Maxime; Jacquet, Nicolas ULiege; Bombeck, Pierre-Louis ULiege et al

in Industrial Crops and Products (2015), 70

Despite their potential for chemical recycling, residues from forest harvesting and wood processing are mostly used for industrial applications with low added value (energy, paper pulp, panels). Bark of ... [more ▼]

Despite their potential for chemical recycling, residues from forest harvesting and wood processing are mostly used for industrial applications with low added value (energy, paper pulp, panels). Bark of both oak species, Quercus robur L. 1753, Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. 1784 is a by-product from sawmill and pulp mill activities. Bark is mainly used as a fuel for the same wood plants. The aim of this study is to look at the feasibility of enhancing the value of this material through the extraction of bioactive molecules such as polyphenols (i.e. catechin, gallic and ellagic acids). First, the effect of industrial storage of logs and bark on their polyphenol content was explored. Then, referring to the selection of tan oaks in the past, the question of an optimum harvesting age is addressed in order to maximize the polyphenol content of the barks. In the end, molecular diversity of bark is examined through the identification of molecules of interest, using different chromatographic analyses. The results show an effect of the industrial context and an effect of the raw material age on the chemical properties of the bark. First investigations also highlight molecules of interest and the molecular diversity, which needs to be further explored. [less ▲]

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See detailLes initiatives commerciales de bioraffinage en Région Wallonne: production de biocarburants et voies de valorisation connexes
Jacquet, Nicolas ULiege; Desquay, Lucas ULiege; Jadot, Bastien et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement (2015), 19(2), 197-203

Introduction Biorefining is progressively gaining interest in Wallonia as a complement to the conventional petrochemical industry. Biorefineries are categorized according to the nature of the raw ... [more ▼]

Introduction Biorefining is progressively gaining interest in Wallonia as a complement to the conventional petrochemical industry. Biorefineries are categorized according to the nature of the raw materials they treat (food or non-food) and the nature of their productions (energy and biofuels or biobased compounds). Literature Production of first-generation and second-generation biofuels (bioethanol and biodiesel) is described, as well as their parallel valorisation pathways. A description of the Belgian biobased industry is also provided. Conclusion Diversification of supply chains, as well as the need to promote a circular economy, becomes a priority for the development of biorefining in Wallonia. [less ▲]

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