Publications of Michaël Gillon
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See detailSix transiting planets and a chain of Laplace resonances in TOI-178
Leleu, A.; Alibert, Y.; Hara, N. C. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2021), 649

Determining the architecture of multi-planetary systems is one of the cornerstones of understanding planet formation and evolution. Resonant systems are especially important as the fragility of their ... [more ▼]

Determining the architecture of multi-planetary systems is one of the cornerstones of understanding planet formation and evolution. Resonant systems are especially important as the fragility of their orbital configuration ensures that no significant scattering or collisional event has taken place since the earliest formation phase when the parent protoplanetary disc was still present. In this context, TOI-178 has been the subject of particular attention since the first TESS observations hinted at the possible presence of a near 2:3:3 resonant chain. Here we report the results of observations from CHEOPS, ESPRESSO, NGTS, and SPECULOOS with the aim of deciphering the peculiar orbital architecture of the system. We show that TOI-178 harbours at least six planets in the super-Earth to mini-Neptune regimes, with radii ranging from 1.152‒0.070+0.073 to 2.87‒0.13+0.14 Earth radii and periods of 1.91, 3.24, 6.56, 9.96, 15.23, and 20.71 days. All planets but the innermost one form a 2:4:6:9:12 chain of Laplace resonances, and the planetary densities show important variations from planet to planet, jumping from 1.02‒0.23+0.28 to 0.177‒0.061+0.055 times the Earth's density between planets c and d. Using Bayesian interior structure retrieval models, we show that the amount of gas in the planets does not vary in a monotonous way, contrary to what one would expect from simple formation and evolution models and unlike other known systems in a chain of Laplace resonances. The brightness of TOI-178 (H = 8.76 mag, J = 9.37 mag, V = 11.95 mag) allows for a precise characterisation of its orbital architecture as well as of the physical nature of the six presently known transiting planets it harbours. The peculiar orbital configuration and the diversity in average density among the planets in the system will enable the study of interior planetary structures and atmospheric evolution, providing important clues on the formation of super-Earths and mini-Neptunes. [less ▲]

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See detailTrappist-1h transmission spectrum: knowing the star
Garcia, Lionel ULiege; Rackham, Benjamin; Moran, Sarah et al

Conference (2021, March 09)

TRAPPIST-1 is an ultracool dwarf star hosting seven rocky planets, all accessible for atmospheric characterization by transit spectroscopy with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. However, those ... [more ▼]

TRAPPIST-1 is an ultracool dwarf star hosting seven rocky planets, all accessible for atmospheric characterization by transit spectroscopy with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. However, those measurements can be impacted by heterogeneities in the host star photosphere, as any spectral difference between the transited chord and the rest of the stellar disk can result in signals of stellar origin able to mimic or hide those of planetary ones . Although it makes the study of the planets atmospheres more challenging, it represents a unique opportunity to learn about the photospheric structure of the star. We use new HST/WFC3 infrared observations to put constraints on the outermost planet atmosphere, TRAPPIST-1h, while modeling the stellar photosphere. We show that TRAPPIST-1h is not likely to host an H/He dominated atmosphere and find no evidence of stellar contamination within its transmission spectrum. Finally we explore new avenues to probe time-varying heterogeneities at the surface of TRAPPIST-1, pushing towards a detailed atmospheric characterization of rocky planets around cool stars. [less ▲]

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See detailMassive Search for Spot- and Facula-Crossing Events in 1598 Exoplanetary Transit Light Curves
Baluev, R. V.; Sokov, E. N.; Sokova, I. A. et al

in Acta Astronomica (2021), 71

We developed a dedicated statistical test for a massive detection of spot- and facula-crossing anomalies in multiple exoplanetary transit light curves, based on the frequentist p-value thresholding. This ... [more ▼]

We developed a dedicated statistical test for a massive detection of spot- and facula-crossing anomalies in multiple exoplanetary transit light curves, based on the frequentist p-value thresholding. This test was used to augment our algorithmic pipeline for transit light curves analysis. It was applied to 1598 amateur and professional transit observations of 26 targets being monitored in the EXPANSION project. We detected 109 statistically significant candidate events revealing a roughly 2:1 asymmetry in favor of spots-crossings over faculae-crossings. Although some candidate anomalies likely appear non-physical and originate from systematic errors, such asymmetry between negative and positive events should indicate a physical difference between the frequency of star spots and faculae. Detected spot-crossing events also reveal positive correlation between their amplitude and width, possibly due to spot size correlation. However, the frequency of all detectable crossing events appears just about a few per cent, so they cannot explain excessive transit timing noise observed for several targets. [less ▲]

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See detailCHEOPS observations of the HD 108236 planetary system: a fifth planet, improved ephemerides, and planetary radii
Bonfanti, A.; Delrez, Laetitia ULiege; Hooton, M. J. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2021), 646

Context. The detection of a super-Earth and three mini-Neptunes transiting the bright (V = 9.2 mag) star HD 108236 (also known as TOI-1233) was recently reported on the basis of TESS and ground-based ... [more ▼]

Context. The detection of a super-Earth and three mini-Neptunes transiting the bright (V = 9.2 mag) star HD 108236 (also known as TOI-1233) was recently reported on the basis of TESS and ground-based light curves. <BR /> Aims: We perform a first characterisation of the HD 108236 planetary system through high-precision CHEOPS photometry and improve the transit ephemerides and system parameters. <BR /> Methods: We characterise the host star through spectroscopic analysis and derive the radius with the infrared flux method. We constrain the stellar mass and age by combining the results obtained from two sets of stellar evolutionary tracks. We analyse the available TESS light curves and one CHEOPS transit light curve for each known planet in the system. <BR /> Results: We find that HD 108236 is a Sun-like star with R[SUB]⋆[/SUB] = 0.877 ± 0.008 R[SUB]⊙[/SUB], M[SUB]⋆[/SUB] = 0.869[SUB]-0.048[/SUB][SUP]+0.050[/SUP] M[SUB]⊙[/SUB], and an age of 6.7[SUB]-5.1[/SUB][SUP]+4.0[/SUP] Gyr. We report the serendipitous detection of an additional planet, HD 108236 f, in one of the CHEOPS light curves. For this planet, the combined analysis of the TESS and CHEOPS light curves leads to a tentative orbital period of about 29.5 days. From the light curve analysis, we obtain radii of 1.615 ± 0.051, 2.071 ± 0.052, 2.539[SUB]-0.065[/SUB][SUP]+0.062[/SUP], 3.083 ± 0.052, and 2.017[SUB]-0.057[/SUB][SUP]+0.052[/SUP] R[SUB]⊕[/SUB] for planets HD 108236 b to HD 108236 f, respectively. These values are in agreement with previous TESS-based estimates, but with an improved precision of about a factor of two. We perform a stability analysis of the system, concluding that the planetary orbits most likely have eccentricities smaller than 0.1. We also employ a planetary atmospheric evolution framework to constrain the masses of the five planets, concluding that HD 108236 b and HD 108236 c should have an Earth-like density, while the outer planets should host a low mean molecular weight envelope. <BR /> Conclusions: The detection of the fifth planet makes HD 108236 the third system brighter than V = 10 mag to host more than four transiting planets. The longer time span enables us to significantly improve the orbital ephemerides such that the uncertainty on the transit times will be of the order of minutes for the years to come. A comparison of the results obtained from the TESS and CHEOPS light curves indicates that for a V ~ 9 mag solar-like star and a transit signal of ~500 ppm, one CHEOPS transit light curve ensures the same level of photometric precision as eight TESS transits combined, although this conclusion depends on the length and position of the gaps in the light curve. <P />Light curves are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/646/A157">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/646/A157</A> [less ▲]

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See detailRefining the transit timing and photometric analysis of TRAPPIST-1: Masses, radii, densities, dynamics, and ephemerides
Agol, Eric; Dorn, Caroline; Grimm, Simon L. et al

in Planetary Science Journal (2021), 2

We have collected transit times for the TRAPPIST-1 system with the Spitzer Space Telescope over four years. We add to these ground-based, HST and K2 transit time measurements, and revisit an N-body ... [more ▼]

We have collected transit times for the TRAPPIST-1 system with the Spitzer Space Telescope over four years. We add to these ground-based, HST and K2 transit time measurements, and revisit an N-body dynamical analysis of the seven-planet system using our complete set of times from which we refine the mass ratios of the planets to the star. We next carry out a photodynamical analysis of the Spitzer light curves to derive the density of the host star and the planet densities. We find that all seven planets' densities may be described with a single rocky mass-radius relation which is depleted in iron relative to Earth, with Fe 21 wt% versus 32 wt% for Earth, and otherwise Earth-like in composition. Alternatively, the planets may have an Earth-like composition, but enhanced in light elements, such as a surface water layer or a core-free structure with oxidized iron in the mantle. We measure planet masses to a precision of 3-5%, equivalent to a radial-velocity (RV) precision of 2.5 cm/sec, or two orders of magnitude more precise than current RV capabilities. We find the eccentricities of the planets are very small; the orbits are extremely coplanar; and the system is stable on 10 Myr timescales. We find evidence of infrequent timing outliers which we cannot explain with an eighth planet; we instead account for the outliers using a robust likelihood function. We forecast JWST timing observations, and speculate on possible implications of the planet densities for the formation, migration and evolution of the planet system. [less ▲]

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See detailAbundance measurements of H[SUB]2[/SUB]O and carbon-bearing species in the atmosphere of WASP-127b confirm its supersolar metallicity
Spake, Jessica J.; Sing, David K.; Wakeford, Hannah R. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2021), 500

The chemical abundances of exoplanet atmospheres may provide valuable information about the bulk compositions, formation pathways, and evolutionary histories of planets. Exoplanets with large, relatively ... [more ▼]

The chemical abundances of exoplanet atmospheres may provide valuable information about the bulk compositions, formation pathways, and evolutionary histories of planets. Exoplanets with large, relatively cloud-free atmospheres, and which orbit bright stars provide the best opportunities for accurate abundance measurements. For this reason, we measured the transmission spectrum of the bright (V ∼ 10.2), large (1.37 R[SUB]J[/SUB]), sub-Saturn mass (0.19 M[SUB]J[/SUB]) exoplanet WASP-127b across the near-UV to near-infrared wavelength range (0.3-5 μm), using the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. Our results show a feature-rich transmission spectrum, with absorption from Na, H[SUB]2[/SUB]O, and CO[SUB]2[/SUB], and wavelength-dependent scattering from small-particle condensates. We ran two types of atmospheric retrieval models: one enforcing chemical equilibrium, and the other which fit the abundances freely. Our retrieved abundances at chemical equilibrium for Na, O, and C are all supersolar, with abundances relative to solar values of 9 $^{+15}_{-6}$ , 16 $^{+7}_{-5}$ , and 26 $^{+12}_{-9}$ , respectively. Despite giving conflicting C/O ratios, both retrievals gave supersolar CO[SUB]2[/SUB] volume mixing ratios, which adds to the likelihood that WASP-127b's bulk metallicity is supersolar, since CO[SUB]2[/SUB] abundance is highly sensitive to atmospheric metallicity. We detect water at a significance of 13.7σ. Our detection of Na is in agreement with previous ground-based detections, though we find a much lower abundance, and we also do not find evidence for Li or K despite increased sensitivity. In the future, spectroscopy with James Webb Space Telescope will be able to constrain WASP-127b's C/O ratio, and may reveal the formation history of this metal-enriched, highly observable exoplanet. [less ▲]

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See detailSPECULOOS: Ultracool dwarf transit survey. Target list and strategy
Sebastian, Daniel ULiege; Gillon, Michaël ULiege; Ducrot, Elsa ULiege et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2021), 645

Context. One of the most promising avenues for the detailed study of temperate Earth-sized exoplanets is the detection of such planets in transit in front of stars that are small and near enough to make ... [more ▼]

Context. One of the most promising avenues for the detailed study of temperate Earth-sized exoplanets is the detection of such planets in transit in front of stars that are small and near enough to make it possible to carry out a thorough atmospheric characterisation with next-generation telescopes, such as the James Webb Space telescope (JWST) or Extremely Large Telescope (ELT). In this context, the TRAPPIST-1 planets form a unique benchmark system that has garnered the interest of a large scientific community. <BR /> Aims: The SPECULOOS survey is an exoplanet transit survey targeting a volume-limited (40 pc) sample of ultracool dwarf stars (of spectral type M7 and later) that is based on a network of robotic 1 m telescopes especially designed for this survey. The strategy for brighter and earlier targets leverages on the synergy with the ongoing TESS space-based exoplanet transit survey. <BR /> Methods: We define the SPECULOOS target list as the sum of three non-overlapping sub-programmes incorporating the latest type objects (T[SUB]eff[/SUB] ≲ 3000 K). Programme 1 features 365 dwarfs that are small and near enough to make it possible to detail atmospheric characterisation of an `Earth-like' planet with the upcoming JWST. Programme 2 features 171 dwarfs of M5-type and later for which a significant detection of a planet similar to TRAPPIST-1b should be within reach of TESS. Programme 3 features 1121 dwarfs that are later than M6-type. These programmes form the basis of our statistical census of short-period planets around ultracool dwarf stars. <BR /> Results: Our compound target list includes 1657 photometrically classified late-type dwarfs, with 260 of these targets classified, for the first time, as possible nearby ultracool dwarf stars. Our general observational strategy was to monitor each target between 100 and 200 h with our telescope network, making efficient use of the synergy with TESS for our Programme 2 targets and a proportion of targets in our Programme 1. <BR /> Conclusions: Based on Monte Carlo simulations, we expect to detect up to a few dozen temperate, rocky planets. We also expect a number of them to prove amenable for atmospheric characterisation with JWST and other future giant telescopes, which will substantially improve our understanding of the planetary population of the latest-type stars. <P />Catalogue of the sources is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/645/A100">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/645/A100</A> [less ▲]

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See detailVetting of 384 TESS Objects of Interest with TRICERATOPS and Statistical Validation of 12 Planet Candidates
Giacalone, Steven; Dressing, Courtney D.; Jensen, Eric L. N. et al

in Astronomical Journal (2021), 161

We present TRICERATOPS, a new Bayesian tool that can be used to vet and validate TESS Objects of Interest (TOIs). We test the tool on 68 TOIs that have been previously confirmed as planets or rejected as ... [more ▼]

We present TRICERATOPS, a new Bayesian tool that can be used to vet and validate TESS Objects of Interest (TOIs). We test the tool on 68 TOIs that have been previously confirmed as planets or rejected as astrophysical false positives. By looking in the false-positive probability (FPP)-nearby false-positive probability (NFPP) plane, we define criteria that TOIs must meet to be classified as validated planets (FPP < 0.015 and NFPP < 10^-3), likely planets (FPP < 0.5 and NFPP < 10^-3), and likely nearby false positives (NFPP > 10^-1). We apply this procedure on 384 unclassified TOIs and statistically validate 12, classify 125 as likely planets, and classify 52 as likely nearby false positives. Of the 12 statistically validated planets, 9 are newly validated. TRICERATOPS is currently the only TESS vetting and validation tool that models transits from nearby contaminant stars in addition to the target star. We therefore encourage use of this tool to prioritize follow-up observations that confirm bona fide planets and identify false positives originating from nearby stars. [less ▲]

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See detailTOI 122b and TOI 237b: Two Small Warm Planets Orbiting Inactive M Dwarfs Found by TESS
Waalkes, William C.; Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.; Collins, Karen A. et al

in Astronomical Journal (2021), 161

We report the discovery and validation of TOI 122b and TOI 237b, two warm planets transiting inactive M dwarfs observed by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). Our analysis shows that TOI ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery and validation of TOI 122b and TOI 237b, two warm planets transiting inactive M dwarfs observed by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). Our analysis shows that TOI 122b has a radius of 2.72 ± 0.18 R[SUB]⊕[/SUB] and receives 8.8 ± 1.0 times Earth's bolometric insolation, and TOI 237b has a radius of 1.44±0.12 R⊕ and receives 3.7 ± 0.5 times Earth's insolation, straddling the 6.7 × Earth insolation that Mercury receives from the Sun. This makes these two of the cooler planets yet discovered by TESS, even on their 5.08 and 5.43 day orbits. Together, they span the small-planet radius valley, providing useful laboratories for exploring volatile evolution around M dwarfs. Their relatively nearby distances (62.23 ± 0.21 pc and 38.11 ± 0.23 pc, respectively) make them potentially feasible targets for future radial velocity follow-up and atmospheric characterization, although such observations may require substantial investments of time on large telescopes. [less ▲]

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See detailExploiting timing capabilities of the CHEOPS mission with warm-Jupiter planets
Borsato, L.; Piotto, G.; Gandolfi, D. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2021)

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See detailCHEOPS Precision Phase Curve of the Super-Earth 55 Cnc e
Morris, B. M.; Delrez, Laetitia ULiege; Brandeker, A. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2021)

55 Cnc e is a transiting super-Earth (radius $1.88\rm\,R_\oplus$ and mass $8\rm\, M_\oplus$) orbiting a G8V host star on a 17-hour orbit. Spitzer observations of the planet's phase curve at 4.5 $\mu$m ... [more ▼]

55 Cnc e is a transiting super-Earth (radius $1.88\rm\,R_\oplus$ and mass $8\rm\, M_\oplus$) orbiting a G8V host star on a 17-hour orbit. Spitzer observations of the planet's phase curve at 4.5 $\mu$m revealed a time-varying occultation depth, and MOST optical observations are consistent with a time-varying phase curve amplitude and phase offset of maximum light. Both broadband and high-resolution spectroscopic analyses are consistent with either a high mean molecular weight atmosphere or no atmosphere for planet e. A long term photometric monitoring campaign on an independent optical telescope is needed to probe the variability in this system. We seek to measure the phase variations of 55 Cnc e with a broadband optical filter with the 30 cm effective aperture space telescope CHEOPS and explore how the precision photometry narrows down the range of possible scenarios. We observed 55 Cnc for 1.6 orbital phases in March of 2020. We designed a phase curve detrending toolkit for CHEOPS photometry which allows us to study the underlying flux variations of the 55 Cnc system. We detected a phase variation with a full-amplitude of $72 \pm 7$ ppm but do not detect a significant secondary eclipse of the planet. The shape of the phase variation resembles that of a piecewise-Lambertian, however the non-detection of the planetary secondary eclipse, and the large amplitude of the variations exclude reflection from the planetary surface as a possible origin of the observed phase variations. They are also likely incompatible with magnetospheric interactions between the star and planet but may imply that circumplanetary or circumstellar material modulate the flux of the system. Further precision photometry of 55 Cnc from CHEOPS will measure variations in the phase curve amplitude and shape over time this year. [less ▲]

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See detailThe EBLM project -- VIII. First results for M-dwarf mass, radius and effective temperature measurements using CHEOPS light curves
Swayne, M. I.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Triaud, A. H. M. J. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2021)

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See detailSpi-OPS: Spitzer and CHEOPS confirm the near-polar orbit of MASCARA-1 b and reveal a hint of dayside reflection
Hooton, M. J.; Hoyer, S.; Kitzmann, D. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2021)

The light curves of tidally-locked hot Jupiters transiting fast-rotating, early type stars are a rich source of information about both planet and star, with full-phase coverage enabling a detailed ... [more ▼]

The light curves of tidally-locked hot Jupiters transiting fast-rotating, early type stars are a rich source of information about both planet and star, with full-phase coverage enabling a detailed atmospheric characterisation of the planet. Although it is possible to determine the true spin-orbit angle $\Psi$, a notoriously difficult parameter to measure, from any transit asymmetry resulting from gravity darkening induced by the stellar rotation, the correlations that exist between the transit parameters have led to large disagreements in published values of $\Psi$ for some systems. We aimed to study these phenomena in the light curves of the ultra-hot Jupiter MASCARA-1 b. We obtained optical CHEOPS transit and occultation light curves of MASCARA-1 b, and analysed them jointly with a Spitzer/IRAC 4.5 $\mu$m full-phase curve. When fitting the CHEOPS and Spitzer transits together, the degeneracies are greatly diminished and return results consistent with previously published Doppler tomography. Placing priors informed by the tomography achieves even better precision, allowing a determination of $\Psi=72.1^{+2.5}_{-2.4}$ deg. From the occultations and phase variations we derived dayside and nightside temperatures of $3062^{+66}_{-68}$ K and $1720\pm330$ K, respectively. In addition, we can separately derive geometric albedo $A_g=0.171^{+0.066}_{-0.068}$ and spherical albedo $A_s=0.266^{+0.097}_{-0.100}$ from the CHEOPS data, and Bond albedo $A_B=0.057^{+0.083}_{-0.101}$ from the Spitzer phase curve. Where possible, priors informed by Doppler tomography should be used when fitting transits of fast-rotating stars, though multi-colour photometry may also unlock an accurate measurement of $\Psi$. Our approach to modelling the phase variations at different wavelengths provides a template for how to separate thermal emission from reflected light in spectrally-resolved JWST phase curve data. [less ▲]

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See detailThe CHEOPS mission
Benz, Willy; Broeg, Christopher; Fortier, Andrea et al

in Experimental Astronomy (2021)

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See detailThe TRAPPIST-1 JWST Community Initiative
Gillon, Michaël ULiege; Meadows, Victoria; Agol, Eric et al

in Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society (2020), 52(2), 0208

The upcoming launch of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) combined with the unique features of the TRAPPIST-1 planetary system should enable the young field of exoplanetology to enter into the realm of ... [more ▼]

The upcoming launch of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) combined with the unique features of the TRAPPIST-1 planetary system should enable the young field of exoplanetology to enter into the realm of temperate Earth-sized worlds. Indeed, the proximity of the system (12pc) and the small size (0.12 R) and luminosity (0.05% L) of its host star should make the comparative atmospheric characterization of its seven transiting planets within reach of an ambitious JWST program. Given the limited lifetime of JWST, the ecliptic location of the star that limits its visibility to 100d per year, the large number of observational time required by this study, and the numerous observational and theoretical challenges awaiting it, its full success will critically depend on a large level of coordination between the involved teams and on the support of a large community. In this context, we present here a community initiative aiming to develop a well-defined sequential structure for the study of the system with JWST and to coordinate on every aspect of its preparation and implementation, both on the observational (e.g. study of the instrumental limitations, data analysis techniques, complementary space-based and ground-based observations) and theoretical levels (e.g. model developments and comparison, retrieval techniques, inferences). Depending on the outcome of the first phase of JWST observations of the planets, this initiative could become the seed of a major JWST Legacy Program devoted to the study of TRAPPIST-1. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of the SPECULOOS exoplanet search project
Sebastian, Daniel ULiege; Pedersen, P. P.; Murray, C. A. et al

in Proceedings of SPIE: The International Society for Optical Engineering (2020, December 01), 11445

SPECULOOS (Search for habitable Planets EClipsing ULtra-cOOl Stars) aims to perform a transit search on the nearest (< 40 pc) ultracool (< 3000K) dwarf stars. The project's main motivation is to discover ... [more ▼]

SPECULOOS (Search for habitable Planets EClipsing ULtra-cOOl Stars) aims to perform a transit search on the nearest (< 40 pc) ultracool (< 3000K) dwarf stars. The project's main motivation is to discover potentially habitable planets well-suited for detailed atmospheric characterisation with upcoming giant telescopes, like the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and European Large Telescope (ELT). The project is based on a network of 1m robotic telescopes, namely the four ones of the SPECULOOS-Southern Observatory (SSO) in Cerro Paranal, Chile, one telescope of the SPECULOOS-Northern Observatory (SNO) in Tenerife, and the SAINTEx telescope in San Pedro Martir, Mexico. The prototype survey of the SPECULOOS project on the 60 cm TRAPPIST telescope (Chile) discovered the TRAPPIST-1 system, composed of seven temperate Earth-sized planets orbiting a nearby (12 pc) Jupiter-sized star. In this paper, we review the current status of SPECULOOS, its first results, the plans for its development, and its connection to the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) and JWST. [less ▲]

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See detailThe CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. LP 714-47 b (TOI 442.01): populating the Neptune desert
Dreizler, S.; Crossfield, I. J. M.; Kossakowski, D. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2020), 644

We report the discovery of a Neptune-like planet (LP 714-47 b, P = 4.05204 d, m[SUB]b[/SUB] = 30.8 ± 1.5M⊕, Rb= 4.7 ± 0.3 R⊕) located in the "hot Neptune desert". Confirmation of the TESS Object of ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery of a Neptune-like planet (LP 714-47 b, P = 4.05204 d, m[SUB]b[/SUB] = 30.8 ± 1.5M⊕, Rb= 4.7 ± 0.3 R⊕) located in the "hot Neptune desert". Confirmation of the TESS Object of Interest (TOI 442.01) was achieved with radial-velocity follow-up using CARMENES, ESPRESSO, HIRES, iSHELL, and PFS, as well as from photometric data using TESS, Spitzer, and ground-based photometry from MuSCAT2, TRAPPIST-South, MONET-South, the George Mason University telescope, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope network, the El Sauce telescope, the TÜBİTAK National Observatory, the University of Louisville Manner Telescope, and WASP-South. We also present high-spatial resolution adaptive optics imaging with the Gemini Near-Infrared Imager. The low uncertainties in the mass and radius determination place LP 714-47 b among physically well-characterised planets, allowing for a meaningful comparison with planet structure models. The host star LP 714-47 is a slowly rotating early M dwarf (Teff = 3950 ± 51 K) with a mass of 0.59 ± 0.02M☉ and a radius of 0.58 ± 0.02R☉. From long-term photometric monitoring and spectroscopic activity indicators, we determine a stellar rotation period of about 33 d. The stellar activity is also manifested as correlated noise in the radial-velocity data. In the power spectrum of the radial-velocity data, we detect a second signal with a period of 16 days in addition to the four-day signal of the planet. This could be shown to be a harmonic of the stellar rotation period or the signal of a second planet. It may be possible to tell the difference once more TESS data and radial-velocity data are obtained. <P />RV data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/644/A127">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/cat/J/A+A/644/A127</A> <P />Based on observations carried out at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Junta de Andalucía and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), on observations carried out at the European Southern Observatory under ESO programme 0103.C-0152(A), and data collected with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. [less ▲]

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See detailThe hot dayside and asymmetric transit of WASP-189b seen by CHEOPS
Lendl, M.; Csizmadia, Sz; Deline, A. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2020), 643

The CHEOPS space mission dedicated to exoplanet follow-up was launched in December 2019, equipped with the capacity to perform photometric measurements at the 20 ppm level. As CHEOPS carries out its ... [more ▼]

The CHEOPS space mission dedicated to exoplanet follow-up was launched in December 2019, equipped with the capacity to perform photometric measurements at the 20 ppm level. As CHEOPS carries out its observations in a broad optical passband, it can provide insights into the reflected light from exoplanets and constrain the short-wavelength thermal emission for the hottest of planets by observing occultations and phase curves. Here, we report the first CHEOPS observation of an occultation, namely, that of the hot Jupiter WASP-189 b, a MP ≈ 2MJ planet orbiting an A-type star. We detected the occultation of WASP-189 b at high significance in individual measurements and derived an occultation depth of dF = 87.9 ± 4.3 ppm based on four occultations. We compared these measurements to model predictions and we find that they are consistent with an unreflective atmosphere heated to a temperature of 3435 ± 27 K, when assuming inefficient heat redistribution. Furthermore, we present two transits of WASP-189 b observed by CHEOPS. These transits have an asymmetric shape that we attribute to gravity darkening of the host star caused by its high rotation rate. We used these measurements to refine the planetary parameters, finding a ~25% deeper transit compared to the discovery paper and updating the radius of WASP-189 b to 1.619 ± 0.021RJ. We further measured the projected orbital obliquity to be λ = 86.4-4.4+2.9°, a value that is in good agreement with a previous measurement from spectroscopic observations, and derived a true obliquity of Ψ = 85.4 ± 4.3°. Finally, we provide reference values for the photometric precision attained by the CHEOPS satellite: for the V = 6.6 mag star, and using a 1-h binning, we obtain a residual RMS between 10 and 17 ppm on the individual light curves, and 5.7 ppm when combining the four visits. [less ▲]

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See detailπ Earth: A 3.14 day Earth-sized Planet from K2's Kitchen Served Warm by the SPECULOOS Team
Niraula, Prajwal; de Wit, Julien; Rackham, Benjamin V. et al

in Astronomical Journal (2020), 160

We report on the discovery of a transiting Earth-sized (0.95R[SUB]⊕[/SUB]) planet around an M3.5 dwarf star at 57 pc, EPIC 249631677. The planet has a period of ∼3.14 days, i.e., ∼π, with an installation ... [more ▼]

We report on the discovery of a transiting Earth-sized (0.95R[SUB]⊕[/SUB]) planet around an M3.5 dwarf star at 57 pc, EPIC 249631677. The planet has a period of ∼3.14 days, i.e., ∼π, with an installation of 7.45 S[SUB]⊕[/SUB]. The detection was made using publicly available data from K2's Campaign 15. We observed three additional transits with SPECULOOS Southern and Northern Observatories, and a stellar spectrum from Keck/HIRES, which allowed us to validate the planetary nature of the signal. The confirmed planet is well suited for comparative terrestrial exoplanetology. While exoplanets transiting ultracool dwarfs present the best opportunity for atmospheric studies of terrestrial exoplanets with the James Webb Space Telescope, those orbiting mid-M dwarfs within 100 pc such as EPIC 249631677b will become increasingly accessible with the next generation of observatories. [less ▲]

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See detailA super-Earth and a sub-Neptune orbiting the bright, quiet M3 dwarf TOI-1266
Demory, B.-O.; Pozuelos Romero, Francisco José ULiege; Gómez Maqueo Chew, Y. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2020), 642

We report the discovery and characterisation of a super-Earth and a sub-Neptune transiting the bright (K = 8.8), quiet, and nearby (37 pc) M3V dwarf TOI-1266. We validate the planetary nature of TOI-1266 ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery and characterisation of a super-Earth and a sub-Neptune transiting the bright (K = 8.8), quiet, and nearby (37 pc) M3V dwarf TOI-1266. We validate the planetary nature of TOI-1266 b and c using four sectors of TESS photometry and data from the newly-commissioned 1-m SAINT-EX telescope located in San Pedro Mártir (México). We also include additional ground-based follow-up photometry as well as high-resolution spectroscopy and high-angular imaging observations. The inner, larger planet has a radius of R = 2.37[SUB]-0.12[/SUB][SUP]+0.16[/SUP] R[SUB]⊕[/SUB] and an orbital period of 10.9 days. The outer, smaller planet has a radius of R = 1.56[SUB]-0.13[/SUB][SUP]+0.15[/SUP] R[SUB]⊕[/SUB] on an 18.8-day orbit. The data are found to be consistent with circular, co-planar and stable orbits that are weakly influenced by the 2:1 mean motion resonance. Our TTV analysis of the combined dataset enables model-independent constraints on the masses and eccentricities of the planets. We find planetary masses of M[SUB]p[/SUB] = 13.5[SUB]-9.0[/SUB][SUP]+11.0[/SUP] M[SUB]⊕[/SUB] (<36.8 M[SUB]⊕[/SUB] at 2-σ) for TOI-1266 b and 2.2[SUB]-1.5[/SUB][SUP]+2.0[/SUP] M[SUB]⊕[/SUB] (<5.7 M[SUB]⊕[/SUB] at 2-σ) for TOI-1266 c. We find small but non-zero orbital eccentricities of 0.09[SUB]-0.05[/SUB][SUP]+0.06[/SUP] (<0.21 at 2-σ) for TOI-1266 b and 0.04 ± 0.03 (< 0.10 at 2-σ) for TOI-1266 c. The equilibrium temperatures of both planets are of 413 ± 20 and 344 ± 16 K, respectively, assuming a null Bond albedo and uniform heat redistribution from the day-side to the night-side hemisphere. The host brightness and negligible activity combined with the planetary system architecture and favourable planet-to-star radii ratios makes TOI-1266 an exquisite system for a detailed characterisation. [less ▲]

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