Publications of Fany Brotcorne
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
See detailIntergroup variation in robbing and bartering by long-tailed macaques at Uluwatu Temple (Bali, Indonesia)
Brotcorne, Fany ULiege; Giraud, Gwennan ULiege; Gunst, Noelle et al

in Primates: Journal of Primatology (2017)

Robbing and bartering (RB) is a behavioral practice anecdotally reported in free-ranging commensal macaques. It usually occurs in two steps: after taking inedible objects (e.g., glasses) from humans, the ... [more ▼]

Robbing and bartering (RB) is a behavioral practice anecdotally reported in free-ranging commensal macaques. It usually occurs in two steps: after taking inedible objects (e.g., glasses) from humans, the macaques appear to use them as tokens, returning them to humans in exchange for food. While extensively studied in captivity, our research is the first to investigate the object/food exchange between humans and primates in a natural setting. During a 4-month study in 2010, we used both focal and event sampling to record 201 RB events in a population of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), including four neighboring groups ranging freely around Uluwatu Temple, Bali (Indonesia). In each group, we documented the RB frequency, prevalence and outcome, and tested the underpinning anthropogenic and demographic determinants. In line with the environmental opportunity hypothesis, we found a positive qualitative relation at the group level between time spent in tourist zones and RB frequency or prevalence. For two of the four groups, RB events were significantly more frequent when humans were more present in the environment. We also found qualitative partial support for the male-biased sex ratio hypothesis [i.e., RB was more frequent and prevalent in groups with higher ratios of (sub)adult males], whereas the group density hypothesis was not supported. This preliminary study showed that RB is a spontaneous, customary (in some groups), and enduring population-specific practice characterized by intergroup variation in Balinese macaques. As such, RB is a candidate for a new behavioral tradition in this species. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 131 (28 ULiège)
See detailReproduction control as management strategy for local overpopulation of primates in tropical human-dominated habitats: a review
Brotcorne, Fany ULiege; Wandia, Nengah; Poncin, Pascal ULiege et al

Conference (2017, February 08)

Today, anthropogenic pressures are posing major challenges to Asian primates, forced either to adapt ecologically and behaviourally to the human massive encroachment into natural habitats, or to disappear ... [more ▼]

Today, anthropogenic pressures are posing major challenges to Asian primates, forced either to adapt ecologically and behaviourally to the human massive encroachment into natural habitats, or to disappear. Species ability to survive in human-modified habitats greatly varies, with generalist species, such as Cercopithecines, being more likely to thrive. Several macaque species in particular proliferate in situations of commensal association with humans, which leads sometimes to local overpopulation. High density of primates, resulting from the combined effect of population spatial compression and positive demographics, systematically induces conflicts with humans over crop-raiding and nuisance issues. Different management strategies have been deployed these last decades, going from culling or trapping programmes to sterilization campaigns. Sterilization is an ethical and flourishing solution to mitigate the human-macaque conflict by limiting the population expansion, but very few empirical data are available about their efficiency and potential side effects. We propose here to review various macaque sterilization programmes conducted in Asia, highlighting the pros and cons as well as the short- and long-term effects. As a study case, we will present data on population dynamics and side behavioural effects, as the base for an ongoing sterilization programme in a population of long-tailed macaques (M. fascicularis) in Bali (Indonesia). This population has experienced a tenfold increase over the last 30 years. Vasectomy undergone by several males in a former approach was not efficient to limit births. With others, we argue that macaque’s reproductive profile requires female sterilization. The goal here is to stimulate discussion over management of forced coexistence scenarios between human and primates, since this phenomenon is an integrative part of conservation in this rapidly changing world. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 295 (8 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailChanges in Activity Patterns and Intergroup Relationships After a Significant Mortality Event in Commensal Long- Tailed Macaques (Macaca Fascicularis) in Bali, Indonesia
Brotcorne, Fany ULiege; Fuentes, Agustin; Wandia, I Nengah et al

in International Journal of Primatology (2015), 36(3), 548566

Little is known regarding behavioral and social responses of free-ranging primates to demographic changes emerging from significant mortality events. Here, we report on the activity patterns and ... [more ▼]

Little is known regarding behavioral and social responses of free-ranging primates to demographic changes emerging from significant mortality events. Here, we report on the activity patterns and intergroup sociospatial relationships in a commensal population of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Bali, Indonesia, that underwent a significant mortality event in summer 2012. During the period of interest, we noted heightened mortality in three of the five social groups present in this population, with adult females and juveniles experiencing higher mortality rates than adult and subadult males. Limited diagnostic data regarding pathogen identification and a lack of any conclusive etiology of the deaths prevent our ascertainment of the agent(s) responsible for the observed mortality, but given the characteristics of the event we assume it was caused by a transmissible disease outbreak. Comparing the pre- and postmortality event periods, we found significant differences in activity patterns, including a decreased proportion of affiliation in adult females. This result is likely indicative of enhanced social instability induced by the high mortality of adult females that constitute the stable core of macaque social structure. A higher social tension between groups after the mortality event was indicated by more frequent and intense agonistic intergroup encounters. Intergroup conflict success was inversely proportional to the rate of mortality a group suffered. Our results illustrate how changes in demographic structure caused by significant mortality events may have substantial consequences on behavior and social dynamics in primate groups and at the level of a population. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 83 (10 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailCharacterization of Nest Sites of Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Kibira National Park, Burundi
Hakizimana, Dismas; Hambuckers, Alain ULiege; Brotcorne, Fany ULiege et al

in African Primates (2015), 10

Abstract: Kibira National Park is the only site in Burundi that harbors a large number of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). While information on factors influencing the selection of nest sites ... [more ▼]

Abstract: Kibira National Park is the only site in Burundi that harbors a large number of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). While information on factors influencing the selection of nest sites by chimpanzees is available for other locations of the species’ range, this information is lacking for Kibira National Park. This is mainly due to the political troubles that prevailed in the country from 1993 until 2007, making study there difficult. To better protect this chimpanzee population, it is crucial to survey nest sites to identify the tree species, physical characteristics of the trees and habitat type that chimpanzees preferentially use for nesting. Therefore, in this study, we investigated: 1) the tree species used by chimpanzees for building their nests; 2) nest tree availability in the study area; 3) whether chimpanzee selection of a nest tree is based on physical characteristics such as diameter at breast height, lowest branch height, tree size and crown height; and 4) whether chimpanzees choose their nest sites according to topography and canopy types. We collected data monthly along 16 transects of 3 km each, from September 2011 to February 2013 (18 months). However, data related to the measurements of nests and nest trees were collected for only the last 12 months, from March 2012 to February 2013. We identified tree species used for nesting, and measured physical characteristics of trees used as opposed to surrounding trees unused. The results showed that chimpanzees select certain tree species to build their nests. Among the 32 species of trees bearing nests, chimpanzees used 12 species significantly more frequently than expected and 11 species significantly less frequently than expected. In addition, trees bearing nests were significantly larger and taller than the surrounding trees and had higher lowest branch and bigger canopies. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 143 (8 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailMonkey business: Inter-group differences in the object/food bartering practice in Balinese macaques (Macaca fascicularis) at the Uluwatu Temple, Indonesia
Brotcorne, Fany ULiege; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Noelle et al

in Folia Primatologica: International Journal of Primatology (2015), 86

While there is increasing evidence for the social transmission of behavioural innovations and intergroup behavioural variation in a wide range of nonhuman primate taxa, some behavioural domains (e.g ... [more ▼]

While there is increasing evidence for the social transmission of behavioural innovations and intergroup behavioural variation in a wide range of nonhuman primate taxa, some behavioural domains (e.g., tool use) are far more represented than others (e.g., arbitrary social conventions) in the literature. Our study explores the ‘object/food bartering’ activity in the free-ranging long-tailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis, living around the Uluwatu temple, southern Bali (Indonesia). This practice occurs in two steps: after robbing temple visitors of non-edible objects, the monkeys use these objects as tokens, by returning them in exchange for specific food rewards. This spontaneous population-level activity is customary and enduring at Uluwatu, whereas it is very rare or absent at other macaque-tourism sites across the island. During a fourmonth study in 2010 at Uluwatu, we used the all-occurrence sampling technique to record 186 successful events of object-robbing, where 95 (51%) were followed by object/food bartering attempts. In line with the ‘needing-to-learn’ hypothesis, we found that older individuals were significantly more efficient at robbing valuable objects and more successful at exchanging them for food than younger individuals. We also found substantial differences in the frequency and form of the bartering practice (n = 95 events) among the four social groups constituting the Uluwatu population, with two groups (‘Temple’: 60% of the bartering events, ‘Tear’: 34%) being responsible for more frequent bartering events than the two other groups (‘Scarface’: 4%, ‘Nez’: 2%). We investigated the role of group-specific environmental and anthropic influences (food provisioning and degree of human presence) in such intergroup differences. Taken together, these preliminary results suggest that the bartering practice could be a local behavioural tradition in Balinese macaques. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 188 (4 ULiège)
See detailAn ethnoprimatological approach of the human-macaque interactions at the Ubud Monkey Forest, Bali (Indonesia)
Brotcorne, Fany ULiege; Fuentes, Agustin; Wandia, I Nengah et al

Conference (2014, September 24)

Macaque tourism, i.e. a tourist activity focusing on wild macaques as main attraction, is an example of the bourgeoning and diversified human-macaque interactions in Southeast Asia. Although both people ... [more ▼]

Macaque tourism, i.e. a tourist activity focusing on wild macaques as main attraction, is an example of the bourgeoning and diversified human-macaque interactions in Southeast Asia. Although both people and macaques can benefit from their interactions at tourist sites, this activity also raises several conservation and management issues which are essential to understand in order to promote a sustainable coexistence. Using an ethnoprimatological approach, we provide here an assessment of the effect of a long-term management regime at the very popular tourist Ubud Monkey Forest in Bali, Indonesia. Over a four-month period in 2013, we characterized the visitor-macaque interactions with ethological methods and we compared our data with those collected 12 years earlier by Fuentes and colleagues. In parallel, we conducted a questionnaire survey, interviewing 99 Balinese people to assess their attitudes towards macaques and the Monkey Forest. Our results confirmed that the management efforts to reduce the aggressiveness of macaques towards visitors have been effective. Indeed, we observed a considerable reduction of the frequency and intensity of agonistic interspecies interactions. However, the interactions between macaques and visitors frequently involved close physical contact, such as during provisioning. Men on the human side, and adult or subadult males on the macaque side, were the groups the most frequently involved in these types of interaction. A reinforcement of the management practices limiting close interspecies contact interactions by targeting the most exposed groups, is therefore necessary in order to reduce the risk of pathogen cross-species transmission. Our questionnaire survey revealed globally a high level of tolerance of local people towards macaques in Ubud. These positive attitudes were determined by the economic and cultural benefits derived from the macaque presence and tourism activity, as far as they compensate for the nuisances caused by macaques. Crop raiding in cultivated fields surrounding the Monkey Forest was still a source of tension which would require further management efforts including the development of open buffer zones. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 549 (8 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailBehavioral ecology and commensal long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) populations in Bali, Indonesia: impact of anthropic factors
Brotcorne, Fany ULiege

Doctoral thesis (2014)

Coexistence between humans and wildlife is one of the major challenge to biodiversity conservation in the onset of this new millennium. In addition to the development of protected areas providing refuges ... [more ▼]

Coexistence between humans and wildlife is one of the major challenge to biodiversity conservation in the onset of this new millennium. In addition to the development of protected areas providing refuges for wildlife populations, another option relies on the sharing of space, i.e., tolerating wildlife living alongside human populations in non-protected interface zones. During the last century, massive human encroachment into wildlife natural habitat has led to an increasing number of worldwide interface zones and a consecutive intensification of the human-wildlife conflict which is likely to escalate further as human populations rapidly expand. However, conflict does not account for all the scenarios since diverse forms of interaction between humans and wildlife exist. The human-nonhuman primate commensalism is one of these possible interspecies associations. Commensal (or synanthropic) primates are free-ranging populations ecologically associated with humans in anthropogenic habitats and taking advantage of human food, waste or crops to supplement their diet. In Bali, Indonesia, humans and long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) already have a long history of coexistence. The forest-agricultural matrix landscape of the island and the numerous religious Hindu temples provide habitat patches for macaques sometimes living in very close proximity to humans. The opportunistic style of this species enables it to exploit numerous habitat types. However little is known about the ways anthropic factors impact its behavioral ecology. Our intention was to conduct a comparative study which would investigate whether anthropic factors were potential drivers of the behavioral ecology and population dynamics of Balinese macaques. During a two-year period in the field (between 2009 and 2013), using a protocol including three populations of Balinese macaques made of ten social groups, we documented variations in the activity, dietary, ranging and demographic patterns between populations. We systematically investigated the anthropogenic influences (i.e. human food provisioning degree and habitat anthropization level) on those variations, and we questioned the biological significance of the responses in terms of costs and benefits. While daily following each social group of macaques, we collected spatial, behavioral and botanical data, and we further conducted bi-annual demographic census in order to estimate the status and demographic trends of the study groups. Finally, our interest was to link our results with applied concerns regarding the management of these populations interacting with humans, while taking into account the implications of these interactions from the human point of view. We found a remarkable eco-behavioral diversity between our studied populations. Human food was a central component of their ecology, macaques preferentially exploiting this resource when available while retaining their abilities to forage on natural resources. The inclination for human food was optimal for macaques as it maximized their energy intake while minimizing the time expended for food acquisition. Therefore, they adjusted their activity budget according to the proportions of human food consumed. The free time available from relaxed foraging constraints was invested into resting and social activities. Macaques were flexible in their movements, making them successful in exploiting natural forest areas as well as highly anthropogenic habitats. However, increased social tension was a cost that stemmed from high-density situations induced by excessive anthropization of their habitat. We showed that, although predation risk partially influenced the selection of sleeping trees, proximity to human settlements appeared to be the most influential factor in the essential process of sleeping site choice by long-tailed macaques living at the edge of the forest and anthropogenic zones. Demographic data provide essential information to assess the status of a population and the long-term impacts of human pressures. Overall, our three studied populations displayed good reproductive performances and positive growth rates, probably due to the human food consumed. Indeed, we showed that the human food abundance in tourist sites may have diminished the density-dependence mechanism on macaques’ birth rates, to eventually inflate the size of populations. When combined with a high level of habitat anthropization, these effects have led to high local densities and even overcrowded situations with associated costs regarding within and between-group social tension and epidemic risks. In this framework, we documented the demographic and social impacts of a Streptococcus outbreak which occurred in the Ubud population in 2012. The pre- and post-epidemic study showed that macaques modified their social dynamics following a significant mortality in certain groups. This study emphasized the role of pathogens in regulating primate populations living in zones of interface with humans. Our research also contributed to identify solutions regarding management of these populations increasingly interacting with humans in Bali. We notably provided preliminary evidence that vasectomy, as sterilization technique to control for overpopulation, had no negative side-effects on social and sexual behaviors of male macaques. Finally, we assessed the effect of a ten-year management regime at the Ubud Monkey Forest, using an ethnoprimatological approach. We showed that the aggressiveness of macaques towards visitors had been effectively reduced and the high tolerance of local people towards macaques was determined by economic and cultural benefits deriving from the macaque presence. However, we also identified men and adult or subadult male macaques as the most exposed groups to a potential risk of cross-species pathogen transmission given the frequency of close physical contact interactions at this site. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 473 (43 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailThe Role of Anthropic, Ecological, and Social Factors in Sleeping Site Choice by Long‐Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)
Brotcorne, Fany ULiege; Maslarov, Cindy; Wandia, I. Nengah et al

in American Journal of Primatology (2014), 76

When choosing their sleeping sites, primates make adaptive trade‐offs between various biotic and abiotic constraints. In human‐modified environments, anthropic factors may play a role. We assessed the ... [more ▼]

When choosing their sleeping sites, primates make adaptive trade‐offs between various biotic and abiotic constraints. In human‐modified environments, anthropic factors may play a role. We assessed the influence of ecological (predation), social (intergroup competition), and anthropic (proximity to human settlements) factors in sleeping site choice by long‐tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) occupying a habitat at the interface of natural forests and human‐modified zones in Bali Barat National Park, Indonesia. Over the course of 56 nights, we collected data relating to physical features of sleeping trees, patterns of the use of sleeping sites within the home range, pre‐sleep behavior, diurnal ranging patterns and availability of natural and human food. Overall, the macaques used 17 sleeping sites with 37 sleeping trees. When the monkeys slept in forest zones, they selected sleeping trees that had larger trunks but were not significantly taller than surrounding trees. Though the macaques rarely re‐used sleeping sites on consecutive nights, they frequently re‐used four sites over the study period. The group favored sleeping within the core area of its home range, despite the occurrence of frequent agonistic intergroup encounters there. Macaques preferentially selected sleeping trees located within or near human‐modified zones, especially when human food was abundant and natural food was scarce. These results partially support the hypothesis that long‐tailed macaques choose their sleeping sites to avoid predation; proximity to human settlements appears to be the primary factor influencing sleeping site choice in this primate species. Our results reflect the strong influence that anthropic factors have on primates, which subsist in increasingly human‐dominated landscapes. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 77 (17 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailLocal perceptions and attitudes towards synanthrope long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) living in Padangtegal Monkey forest, Bali (Indonesia)
Brotcorne, Fany ULiege; Paquay, Leila; Wandia, I.Nengah et al

in Folia Primatologica: International Journal of Primatology (2013, October 03), 85(1), 48

The sympatric relationship between humans and other primates in interface zones is a contemporary widespread phenomenon. The expanding landscapes anthropization leads to an intensification of human-other ... [more ▼]

The sympatric relationship between humans and other primates in interface zones is a contemporary widespread phenomenon. The expanding landscapes anthropization leads to an intensification of human-other primate interactions ranging from conflict to co-operation scenarios. Our study investigated the commensal relationships between long-tailed macaques and humans at the tourist Padangtegal Monkey Forest. We present here results related to human-macaque interactions and local people’s perceptions and attitudes towards the latter. We used ethological methods to quantify the nature of the interactions and we conducted a questionnaire survey to identify the macaques’ status in local public opinion. 99 respondents (62 males and 37 females) were selected in a radius of 2km around the Monkey Forest. Perceptions and attitudes were explicitly measured on self-reports and were attributed to a 4 point score. Macaques interacted with humans for 1.1% of their activity budget and these interactions were mostly aggressive (0.6%), food-related (0.4%) or neutral (0.1%). 80% of the aggressive interactions were initiated by humans but the majority aimed at protecting crops and properties from macaques’ incursions. Overall, most of the respondents had positive perceptions and attitudes towards macaques, except neighbouring landowner farmers who suffered from crop damage. Despite nuisances caused by macaques, the majority of the interviewees reported to derive compensatory economic and cultural benefits from their relationships with macaques. The religious and economic contexts might explain the high tolerance level towards macaques that represents a source of hope for a sustainable coexistence, although some management strategies minimizing crop damage still need to be reinforced. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 158 (8 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailImpacts of a recent Streptococcus outbreak in a commensal population of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Bali, Indonesia
Brotcorne, Fany ULiege; Wandia, I. Nengah; Beudels-Jamar, Roseline et al

in Folia Primatologica: International Journal of Primatology (2013, August 10), 84(3-5),

The quest for coexistence between humans and primates requires an extensive analysis of the impacts of the growing commensalism phenomenon. In South-east Asia, the long-tailed macaque adapts successfully ... [more ▼]

The quest for coexistence between humans and primates requires an extensive analysis of the impacts of the growing commensalism phenomenon. In South-east Asia, the long-tailed macaque adapts successfully to anthropogenic habitats. The low predation pressure in zones of human-macaque interface and the inclusion of human food in macaques’ diet can lead to local overpopulation. On the other hand, the risk of epidemic disease simultaneously increases with high primate density and proximity with human vectors. Data presented here represent 25 years-population dynamics of a commensal-living population of macaques in Ubud Monkey Forest (Indonesia). Over this period, the population experienced a dramatic growth with an average 11% annual increase rate. In June 2012, we counted 615 individuals divided in 5 groups with a very high density of 61 macaques per hectare. However, two Streptococcus outbreaks have also been reported over the same period, temporarily limiting the steep positive demographic trend of this population. The first epidemic episode appeared in 1994 and the second in July 2012, the last one resulting in 14% mortality in 3 out of 5 groups of the population (563 macaques in October 2012). The comparison between the pre- and post-outbreak periods in 2011-2012 shows changes in macaques’ ranging and behaviour. After the outbreak, the affected groups used smaller and more peripheral home ranges, while the non-affected groups centred their home ranges on the human provisioning places. Besides anthropic factors promoting population growth, epidemic diseases play a significant role in shaping the dynamics and behaviour of this synanthropic population and could have important implications in the future both in terms of management and local conservation status. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 93 (14 ULiège)
See detailDemographic trends and Streptococcus outbreaks in a synanthropic population of macaques (Macaca fascicularis), Bali (Indonesia)
Brotcorne, Fany ULiege; Wandia, I. Nengah; Beudels-Jamar, Roseline et al

Poster (2013, July 22)

The sympatric relationship between humans and primates is a contemporary widespread phenomenon. Several primate species are capable for exploiting human-modified habitats in association with people, but ... [more ▼]

The sympatric relationship between humans and primates is a contemporary widespread phenomenon. Several primate species are capable for exploiting human-modified habitats in association with people, but the most successful species in South-east Asia is probably the long-tailed macaque (M. fascicularis). The low predation pressures in zones of interface and the inclusion of human food in macaques’ diet can lead to local overpopulations. On the other hand, the risk of epidemic disease is simultaneously increased by the high primate density and the proximity with human vectors. Data presented here represent 25 years-population dynamics of a long term commensal-living population of macaques in Ubud Monkey Forest (Indonesia). This population experienced a dramatic growth with an 11% annual increase rate. In June 2012, we counted 615 individuals divided in 5 groups with a very high density of 61 macaques per hectare. However, two Streptococcus outbreaks have also been reported over the same 25 years period, temporarily limiting the steep positive demographic trend of this population. The last epidemic event in July 2012 resulted in a 14% mortality affecting 3 out of 5 groups of the population. Besides the anthropic factors promoting population growth, epidemic diseases play a significant role in shaping the dynamics of this synanthropic population and could have important implications in the future both in terms of local management and local conservation status. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 75 (9 ULiège)
See detailRanging behaviour and sleeping sites of Macaca fascicularis in Bali Barat National Park, Indonesia
Brotcorne, Fany ULiege; Maslarov, Cindy; Dosogne, Thibaut et al

Conference (2012, August 15)

Ranging behaviour and sleeping site selection are important primate behavioural traits likely to vary under environmental changes. We tested the role of ecological (predation avoidance) and anthropic ... [more ▼]

Ranging behaviour and sleeping site selection are important primate behavioural traits likely to vary under environmental changes. We tested the role of ecological (predation avoidance) and anthropic (human proximity) factors in Macaca fascicularis range use, an edge species known to prefer living along forests borders and in the vicinity of human settlements. Data result from 56 day follows of one group of Macaca fascicularis exploiting a human-modified landscape within Bali Barat National Park (Indonesia). Observations allowed identifying and describing 17 sleeping sites and the characteristics of 37 sleeping trees. Despite a large forest area available, the group’s home range centred around human settlements. The home range size, average daily range and daily travel decreased over the study period, while the human presence inside the park increased over the corresponding months. The proximity with humans also influenced the pattern of sleeping sites use; macaques slept more than expected close to human settlements and this tendency increased over the study period. In contradiction with the predation avoidance assumption, macaques did not choose sleeping trees significantly taller and larger than other trees available. We conclude that the observed sleeping site strategy (sleeping near humans) could be advantageous in terms of predator avoidance and proximity with human food, but additional influences should not be neglected. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 44 (2 ULiège)
See detailPopulation dynamics and ranging behaviour of a highly provisioned population of Macaca fascicularis in Bali: implications for management
Brotcorne, Fany ULiege; Beudels-Jamar, Roseline; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULiege

Conference (2012, May 22)

In response to the global landscape anthropization caused by the extensive urbanization and the recruitment of forestlands for cropping, the primate-human commensalism is growing as well as the related ... [more ▼]

In response to the global landscape anthropization caused by the extensive urbanization and the recruitment of forestlands for cropping, the primate-human commensalism is growing as well as the related interspecific conflict. In zones of interface, humans and primates are sympatric and compete for food and spatial resources. Today, we still poorly know the proportion of synanthrope primates and the impact of anthropic pressures. We present here data on 25 years-population dynamics and ranging behaviour of a long-term commensal-living population of long-tail macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Ubud Monkey Forest, Bali (Indonesia). This population has experienced a dramatic growth over 25 years with an annual increase rate of 11%. In 2011, we counted 614 macaques split in 5 social groups and using an overall home range of 10ha with a 2.41ha core area centred on human provisioning places. We derived a very high population density of 61 macaques per hectare and concluded that this site is overpopulated. Moreover, the conflict between humans and macaques is increasing and requires specific management. As the natural food supply is low in Ubud Monkey Forest, we assume that the high carrying capacity of the site mainly depends on the artificial food supply. The abundance and the quality of artificial food may be the major factor determining such a high population density. The low predation pressure and the habitat compression by destruction of adjacent forests could also influence the positive demographic trend. As a tentative program of population control, we suggest both to lower the caloric content of the food provisioned to macaques and to conduct a sterilization programme. This strategy aims at reducing the conflict with humans and at promoting a sustainable coexistence by reducing birth rates and limiting the macaques’ population growth. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 70 (9 ULiège)
See detailRanging behaviour and sleeping sites in Macaca fascicularis at Bali Barat National Park, Indonesia
Brotcorne, Fany ULiege; Maslarov, Cindy; Dosogne, Thibaut et al

Conference (2011, October 26)

Ranging behaviour and sleeping site selection are important aspects of primate ecology in their adaptation to the environment. Several non-exclusive factors have been suggested to explain sleeping site ... [more ▼]

Ranging behaviour and sleeping site selection are important aspects of primate ecology in their adaptation to the environment. Several non-exclusive factors have been suggested to explain sleeping site selection in primates: predation avoidance, food resources proximity, interactions with conspecifics, physical comfort, and parasite avoidance. We tested the role of some factors in a group of Macaca fascicularis living in a human-modified landscape in Bali Barat National Park, during 3 months from April-June 2011. Despite the large area of available forest, the group’s home range was centred around human-settlements (park headquarters). The home range size, as well as the average daily range and daily travel, decreased over the study months. These results correlated with the increase of human presence inside the park over the corresponding months. Regarding sleeping sites, the use pattern also seemed to be influenced by the attraction to human settlements. Indeed, macaques slept more than expected close to human-settlements and this tendency increased over the months. 75% of the 56 observed nights were spent inside the core area, an argument for the role of intergroup competition avoidance. In contradiction with the predation avoidance assumption, the DBH and the height of sleeping trees were not significantly greater than those of control trees. On the other hand, most of sleeping trees had no liana on the trunk and a high arboreal connectivity with surrounding trees. Also, the rate of consecutive sleeping site reuse was very low (12%), minimizing the detection by predators. We conclude that the main strategy of this M. fascicularis group could be sleeping not too far from humans because it is advantageous for predator avoidance and proximity to human food, but that additional influences should not be neglected. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 67 (1 ULiège)
See detailResponses of the long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) to variations in anthropic factors in a rural environment, Bali (Indonesia)
Huynen, Marie-Claude ULiege; Brotcorne, Fany ULiege; Wandia, I Nengah

Conference (2011, March)

The human-macaque interface in Asia is increasingly the focus of numerous studies raising the issue of conflict over space and resources and searching for efficient management strategies. Documenting ... [more ▼]

The human-macaque interface in Asia is increasingly the focus of numerous studies raising the issue of conflict over space and resources and searching for efficient management strategies. Documenting impacts of interactions with humans and the variations in macaques’ responses to anthropogenic habitats is essential for undertanding adaptation strategies and possibilities of a sustainable coexistence. The long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) is a very successful commensal species that adapts remarkably well to rural and urban landscapes. In some locations of Bali (Indonesia), this species, which has coexisted with humans for centuries, is used today to promote wildlife-based tourism, often characterized by an intense food provisioning. Here, we present data of a commensal M. fascicularis population in Bali (Uluwatu Temple), particularly well-habituated to human presence and provisioned daily. We analyze the impacts of the daily variations of three anthropogenic factors (microhabitat – human presence degree – food provisioning quantity) on the daily activity, ranging and dietary patterns. We used a focal and scan sampling methodology during a four-month study period between June and October 2010. Four groups constituted this population and their home ranges were particularly small, ranging from 2.4 to 5.6 ha. The eco-behavioural patterns were strongly and consistently influenced by variations in the anthropic factors. Typically, with a high anthropic level (defined as increasing degrees of each anthropogenic factor), macaques spent less time foraging and moving and more time feeding, resting and socializing. Contrary to previous studies on other primate species, we did not find any impact of provisioning on agonistic interactions. 55% of this population’s diet consisted of human foods, while the remainder (45%) of natural foods. Natural food items were preferentially consumed when anthropic level was low, emphasizing the opportunistic style of the diet. In summary, the eco-behavioural modifications induced by variations in anthropic levels did not increase the daily costs of living, confirming the flexibility and the efficiency of the macaques’ responses. However, we also illustrate in another study site (Ubud – Bali) the risk of overpopulation caused by the provisioning, which may potentially increase the human-macaque conflict. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 80 (1 ULiège)
Full Text
See detailFood provisioning and agonistic behaviours in commensal long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) at Uluwatu Temple, Bali (Indonesia)
Brotcorne, Fany ULiege; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULiege; Wandia, I. Nengah

in American Journal of Primatology (2011), 73(S1),

Most previous research on nonhuman primates reported increased levels of agonistic behaviors associated with food provisioning by humans. To further investigate the permanence of this effect of increased ... [more ▼]

Most previous research on nonhuman primates reported increased levels of agonistic behaviors associated with food provisioning by humans. To further investigate the permanence of this effect of increased social competition in long-term commensal-living primates, we examined the immediate impact of food provisioning on agonistic behavior rates in a commensal population of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) at Uluwatu Temple, Bali (Indonesia). We compared proportions of agonistic behaviors between various food provisioning levels defined by the absence/presence and the quantity of food provisioned. We collected data using focal and scan sampling methods during a four-month study period (June to October 2010). We performed non-parametric statistical tests (Wilcoxon Test & Friedman Test; p < .05) on a population sample of 66 individuals. Results did not show obvious impact of provisioning on agonism rates, nor increase of potential appeasement strategies such as sexual behaviours, grooming or self-directed behaviours, often associated with the presence of provisioned food. These data suggest that the long-tailed macaques at Uluwatu Temple are responding effectively to high provisioning level, that is, without increasing social competition. We hypothesize that the high spatiotemporal abundance of human food, associated with the species’ eco-behavioural flexibility and the long term story of human-macaque commensal relationships in Uluwatu may explain the absence of provisioning impact on agonistic rates. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 195 (9 ULiège)